Electrons in Atoms Electron Configurations The Nuclear Atom & Unanswered Questions • Rutherford Model Did Not Explain 2 Thoughts: 1. 2. Light •Certain elements emit visible light when ______________ into a flame. •This chemical behavior is related to the arrangement of the _______________ in its atom. Wave-like Properties of Light •Examples include ultraviolet, infrared light, microwaves, & radio waves. •These are known as ____________________ Radiation •Form of energy that exhibits ___________________________ as it travels through space. •Moves through a vacuum at a constant speed of ________________ m/s (speed of light) •Measurable wave properties: ________________ (λ) and ________________ (v) Quantum Model •Theory that states that electrons have ___________________ properties. •Electrons are thought of _____________ confined to the space around the atomic nucleus. The frequency of the electrons is based on the___________ of element. Wave Label the amplitude and wavelength on each diagram. How has the frequency & wavelength changed? The lower the frequency, the _________________ the wavelength. The higher the frequency, the _________________ the wavelength Equations: c= λv E = hv E = h c/λ h = Planck’s Constant= 6.626 x 10-34 J*s C = speed of light (2.998 x 108 m/s) λ = wavelength V = frequency Particle Nature of Light- The Quantum Model •Quantum = Quantum Leap= abrupt change of electrons going from present energy level to the next higher one. •(Think about photosynthesis - what happens when the light hits the chlorophyll ???) •Quantum Mechanical Model (year: ______) • Based on math with ______________ • Fuzzy cloud of electrons •Principle Quantum Number (n) •n = 1 Lowest Energy Level (1s) •n = 2 Next Higher Energy Level (2s2p) Sublevels s p d f Orbitals 1 3 5 7 Shape spherical dumb bell clover leaf too hard to visualize Rules for Electron Configurations •___________________ when you have a sublevel with more than 1 orbital, must have ____ electron in each orbital before you can ___________________. •__________________Principle= electrons enter orbitals of ________________energy first •___________________________= ____electrons in _____ orbital must have ___________ spins (directions) Photoelectric Effect •Solar powered items (convert ___________ into _________________ energy) • Electrons are called ______________________ •Wave model does NOT explain this! •1905- Einstein stated that electromagnetic radiation has both wavelike and particle like natures. (Stream of bundles of E are called __________________) Atomic Emission Spectra 8 x 8 grid - We will fill this out together.