Biochemistry
Organic Compounds
What are organic compounds?
Organic Compounds - have carbon
bonded to other atoms and determine
structure/function of living things
Inorganic Compounds - do not contain
carbon and hydrogen together (salt)
ALL LIVING THINGS CONTAIN CARBON.
Organic Compounds
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen,
Phosphorus and Sulfur are found in all
living things
“CHONPS”
Monomers and Polymers
Monomers= building blocks (units)
Polymers= a larger molecule made of
monomers
Analogy ExampleIf a brick house is the
“polymer”, what is the
“monomer”?
_________________
Monomers link together to form polymers.
MONO means “one”. POLY means “many”.
Four types of Organic Compounds
Organic Compounds fall into four categories:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Protein
Nucleic Acids
Organic Compounds are also known as
MACROMOLECULES (macro means BIG)
1. Carbohydrates
monosaccharides – monomers of simple
ring sugars, glucose and fructose
disaccharides - two monosaccharides
combined, sucrose and lactose
polysaccharides - polymers (long chains of
repeating units) of monosaccharides,
starch (plant energy storage) and
glycogen (animal energy storage)
Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides as Structural Molecules:
Cellulose - glucose bonded to form "fibers",
composes cell walls in plants (cotton is
almost pure cellulose); not easily digested
Chitin - polymer of glucose, makes up
exoskeletons of insects and arthropods such
as scorpions and crabs.
Carbohydrates
Find the monosaccharide, disaccharide, and
polysaccharide:
Carbohydrates
CARBO-(carbon)-HYDR-(hydrogen)-ATE (oxygen)
Carbohydrates are composed of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
Example- glucose
C6H12O6
2. Lipids
Hydrophobic (insoluble in water) (Oil and
water don’t mix)
• Used for insulation and long term energy storage
(Fat)
• Waxes – mainly used for covering and protection
• Phospholipids - Important structural component of
the cell membrane
• Steroids - cholesterol & sex hormones
(estrogen & testosterone)
Lipids
Fats & Oils are made of subunits – glycerol
and fatty acids
Lipids
Lipids REPEL water.
Plants have a waxy layer made
of lipids on their leaves
(helps keep water in).
Many aquatic birds have a waxy lipid layer on their
feathers (repel water to keep feathers dry).
Fat is a lipid- we use it to store excess energy.
Lipids
Phospholipids found in cell membrane.
They make sure
the cell can’t
disintegrate in
water (maintain
the cell’s integrity).
Lipids
Fats can be saturated or unsaturated.
Saturated fats contain no double bonds,
unsaturated have double bonds that
“kink” the molecule
Saturated fats solidify at room temperature;
unsaturated fats are liquid at room
temperature
Lipids- Saturated vs. Unsaturated
Fats
Saturated fats have
single bonds and
are solid at room
temperature (the
“S” rule!)
Unsaturated fats
have double bonds,
which create kinks
(makes them loose
and bendy). They
are liquid at room
temperature.
Saturated or Unsaturated?
________________________
(contains single bonds)
_________________________
(contains double bonds)
3. Proteins
Polymers made of amino acids, which are joined
by peptide bonds - proteins are also called
polypeptides
Amino acids form a wide variety of structures,
mainly building blocks for living tissue
Support | Enzymes | Transport | Defense | Hormones | Motion
Amino Acids are the building blocks (monomers)
of proteins!
Proteins
There are thousands of proteins- but only 20
different amino acids.
Think of it as if you had to make one thousand
different sweaters with only 20 different colors of
yarn. How would you do that?
Proteins
The function of the protein has everything to do with the SHAPE of
the protein. There are many different ways that proteins can fold in
order to make different shapes- protein folding is very complex!
4. Nucleic Acids
• Polymers made of individual nucleotides
• Contain genetic Information
• DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) & RNA
(ribonucleic acid)
(Nucleotides are the monomers).
Nucleic Acids
Each nucleotide consists of:
1. A sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)
2. A phosphate
3. A nitrogen base
- adenine
- thymine
- guanine
- cytosine
- uracil (in RNA)
Nucleic Acids
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) - high energy molecule that
contains three phosphate bonds that are easily broken to
release energy (this energy drives the reactions in our
bodies)
ATP is an RNA nucleotide with two extra phosphates- does not
contain genetic information. ATP STORES ENERGY.
1. Polymers are large molecules made up of smaller
units called _____________.
2. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, __________
and _____________ are the six elements found in
all living things.
3. Material that is organic contains ___________.
4. The four organic compounds are carbohydrates,
____________, proteins, and ________________.
5. Carbohydrates are divided into three classes:
monosaccharides, ______________, and
_______-_______________.
6. If a molecule known to be a carbohydrate has 6
carbon atoms and 12 hydrogen atoms, how many
oxygen atoms must it have? ________
7. Fats, steroids, and waxes are which type of organic
compound? _____________
8. _____________ fats are fats that contain double
bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms (C=H)
9. _____________ fats contain single bonds (C-H) and
are solid at room temperature.
10. Another word for protein is ________________.
11. Proteins are polymers made up of monomers called
__________ ________.
12. Nucleic acids are made up of 3 main parts: sugar,
phosphate, and ________________.
13. ATP is a type of nucleic acid that stores _________.
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