Biochemistry Organic Compounds What are organic compounds? Organic Compounds - have carbon bonded to other atoms and determine structure/function of living things Inorganic Compounds - do not contain carbon and hydrogen together (salt) ALL LIVING THINGS CONTAIN CARBON. Organic Compounds Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur are found in all living things “CHONPS” Monomers and Polymers Monomers= building blocks (units) Polymers= a larger molecule made of monomers Analogy ExampleIf a brick house is the “polymer”, what is the “monomer”? _________________ Monomers link together to form polymers. MONO means “one”. POLY means “many”. Four types of Organic Compounds Organic Compounds fall into four categories: 1. 2. 3. 4. Carbohydrates Lipids Protein Nucleic Acids Organic Compounds are also known as MACROMOLECULES (macro means BIG) 1. Carbohydrates monosaccharides – monomers of simple ring sugars, glucose and fructose disaccharides - two monosaccharides combined, sucrose and lactose polysaccharides - polymers (long chains of repeating units) of monosaccharides, starch (plant energy storage) and glycogen (animal energy storage) Carbohydrates Polysaccharides as Structural Molecules: Cellulose - glucose bonded to form "fibers", composes cell walls in plants (cotton is almost pure cellulose); not easily digested Chitin - polymer of glucose, makes up exoskeletons of insects and arthropods such as scorpions and crabs. Carbohydrates Find the monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide: Carbohydrates CARBO-(carbon)-HYDR-(hydrogen)-ATE (oxygen) Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. Example- glucose C6H12O6 2. Lipids Hydrophobic (insoluble in water) (Oil and water don’t mix) • Used for insulation and long term energy storage (Fat) • Waxes – mainly used for covering and protection • Phospholipids - Important structural component of the cell membrane • Steroids - cholesterol & sex hormones (estrogen & testosterone) Lipids Fats & Oils are made of subunits – glycerol and fatty acids Lipids Lipids REPEL water. Plants have a waxy layer made of lipids on their leaves (helps keep water in). Many aquatic birds have a waxy lipid layer on their feathers (repel water to keep feathers dry). Fat is a lipid- we use it to store excess energy. Lipids Phospholipids found in cell membrane. They make sure the cell can’t disintegrate in water (maintain the cell’s integrity). Lipids Fats can be saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats contain no double bonds, unsaturated have double bonds that “kink” the molecule Saturated fats solidify at room temperature; unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature Lipids- Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats Saturated fats have single bonds and are solid at room temperature (the “S” rule!) Unsaturated fats have double bonds, which create kinks (makes them loose and bendy). They are liquid at room temperature. Saturated or Unsaturated? ________________________ (contains single bonds) _________________________ (contains double bonds) 3. Proteins Polymers made of amino acids, which are joined by peptide bonds - proteins are also called polypeptides Amino acids form a wide variety of structures, mainly building blocks for living tissue Support | Enzymes | Transport | Defense | Hormones | Motion Amino Acids are the building blocks (monomers) of proteins! Proteins There are thousands of proteins- but only 20 different amino acids. Think of it as if you had to make one thousand different sweaters with only 20 different colors of yarn. How would you do that? Proteins The function of the protein has everything to do with the SHAPE of the protein. There are many different ways that proteins can fold in order to make different shapes- protein folding is very complex! 4. Nucleic Acids • Polymers made of individual nucleotides • Contain genetic Information • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) & RNA (ribonucleic acid) (Nucleotides are the monomers). Nucleic Acids Each nucleotide consists of: 1. A sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) 2. A phosphate 3. A nitrogen base - adenine - thymine - guanine - cytosine - uracil (in RNA) Nucleic Acids ATP (adenosine triphosphate) - high energy molecule that contains three phosphate bonds that are easily broken to release energy (this energy drives the reactions in our bodies) ATP is an RNA nucleotide with two extra phosphates- does not contain genetic information. ATP STORES ENERGY. 1. Polymers are large molecules made up of smaller units called _____________. 2. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, __________ and _____________ are the six elements found in all living things. 3. Material that is organic contains ___________. 4. The four organic compounds are carbohydrates, ____________, proteins, and ________________. 5. Carbohydrates are divided into three classes: monosaccharides, ______________, and _______-_______________. 6. If a molecule known to be a carbohydrate has 6 carbon atoms and 12 hydrogen atoms, how many oxygen atoms must it have? ________ 7. Fats, steroids, and waxes are which type of organic compound? _____________ 8. _____________ fats are fats that contain double bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms (C=H) 9. _____________ fats contain single bonds (C-H) and are solid at room temperature. 10. Another word for protein is ________________. 11. Proteins are polymers made up of monomers called __________ ________. 12. Nucleic acids are made up of 3 main parts: sugar, phosphate, and ________________. 13. ATP is a type of nucleic acid that stores _________.