J_Stradins_InnovaBalt

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History of chemistry in Latvia and
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis
Professor Jānis Stradiņš
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis
Latvian Academy of Sciences
David Hieronimus Grindel
David Hieronimus GRINDEL
(1776-1836)
• Latvian pharmaceutist, chemist, medical doctor, naturalist
• Professor and rector of Tartu (Dorpat) University (1804-1814)
• Pharmaceutist and physician in Riga (1798-1804, 1814-1836)
• Founder of the first pharmaceutical and chemical journal in Russian
Empire: Russisches Jahrbuch für die Chemie und Pharmacie (18031810)
• Founder of the first Pharmaceutical – Chemical Society in Russian
Empire (Riga, 1803)
• Antifever medications (“china-surrogat”)
• Textbook: “Die organischen Körper chemisch betrachtet” (Riga,
1811)
• Pharmaceutic chemical company in Riga
• Founded in 1991 on the basis of Experimental
Plant of Institute of Organic Synthesis (since
1941-1946)
• Name from GRINDel and EXperimental
Theodor von GROTTHUSS
(1785-1822)
• Courland nobleman and amateur chemist and
physicist
• First theory of electrolysis (Rome, 1805; Mitau
(Jelgava), 1806)
• Basic laws of photochemistry (Mitau, 1818)
• Worked in his estate Gedučiai (Northern
Lithuania) and in Mitau
Theodor von GROTTHUSS
Wilhelm OSTWALD
(1853-1932)
• Born in Riga
• Professor in Riga Polytechnicum (1881-1887), later
in Leipzig
• Founder of physical chemistry (1887) main laws of
homogenous catalysis (1884)
• One of originators of free ion theory (together with
Sv.ARRHENIUS, Riga, 1885-1887)
• Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1909)
Monument devoted to Nobel laureate Wilhelm Ostwald
Stereochemistry group of Riga
Paul WALDEN
(1863-1957)
• Chemist of Latvian origin, student of W.Ostwald
• Work:
– Riga Polytechnicum (1887-1919)
– Walden inversion (1895)
– Founder of dynamic stereochemistry, electrochemistry of
nonaqueous solutions (1899-1915)
– Concept of “ion solvatation” (1905)
– Ionic liquids
• 7 times advanced for Nobel prize (1913-1934, 1914)
Paul WALDEN
• Award for Scientific Citation of Chemical
Breakthrough – ACS, 2010
• 2013 – UNESCO proclaimed year of Paul Walden
(150th anniversary, 26th July, 2013)
• P. Walden medal (since 1987)
• P. Walden monument (2003)
• P. Walden streets in Riga and Valmiera (2013)
Envelope and stamp devoted to Paul Walden
Monument devoted to Paul Walden
Cradle of chemistry education in Latvia and IOS
Gustavs Vanags
Gustavs Vanags
(1891-1965)
• Latvian organic chemist
• Professor at University of Latvia (1934-1965)
• One of the founders of Institute of Organic Synthesis
• Cyclic β-diketones, analytical reagents, blood
anticoagulants etc.
• Latvian school of organic chemistry (G.Duburs)
• G.Vanags award in chemistry (LAS, since 1970)
Solomon HILLERS
(1915-1975)
• Latvian organic and medicinal chemist
• Founder of the Institute of Organic Synthesis (1957), its first director
(1957-1975)
• Heterocyclic chemistry (furanes, aziridines, pyrimidines, purines etc.)
• Outstanding organizer and manager of science
• Originator of new medicinals
• Organizer of the international journal “Chemistry of Heterocyclic
Compounds” (English, Russian, since 1965), its first Editor-in-chief
(1965-1975)
• Solomon Hillers medal (since 1990, IOS)
• S.Hillers award in Biomedicine (since 2004, LAS, IOS, Grindex,
BSRC)
Solomon Hillers
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (I)
• Founded 1957; till 1993 part of Latvian Academy of
Sciences
• Directors: S.Hillers, G.Čipēns, E.Lukevics, I.Kalviņš
(since 2003)
• Staff: 579 people 1991, 310 in 1997, 300 in 2012
• A complex institute: chemists, microbiologists,
experts in biomedicine, engineers, computer
scientists, molecular biologists, gene engineers (till
1991)
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis (II)
• Investigation of new medicinals (generic preparations and
original pharmaceutics)
• 65 medical preparations, pesticides, herbicides in the former
USSR
• 37 preparations allowed for use in medicine, among them 16
original pharmaceutics
• 25% of all original preparations invented in the former USSR
(1985)
• Cooperation with companies Grindex, Olainfarm, Biolar in
Riga and Olaine (iniciated by S.Hiller in 1960-ies)
Early pharmaceuticals produced by IOS
• Nitrofuran preparations (Furagine, Furasol (Solafur), Furamag.
S.Hillers, since 1957 – antibacterials, uroseptics)
• Dihydropyridines (cardiovascular diseases, G.Duburs)
• Remantadine – antiviral adamantane preparation (J.Polis,
1972)
• Tegafur (Ftorafur) – anticancer preparation (S.Hillers, R.Zhuk,
M.Lidaka, since 1972; exported to Japan)
• Mildronate – cardioprotector and immunoprotector (I.Kalviņš,
since 1975)
• Peptide preparations (G.Čipēns e.a.)
Nitrofuran preparations
O
O2N
N N
O2N
O
N
O
N
N
O
O
O
Furazolidone
O
Furazoline
O
O
N N
O2N
O
O
Furadonine
NH
N N
O2N
O
NH
O
Furagine
(Furasol, Furamag)
O
F
HN
N
O
O
Ftorafur
NH2 . HCl
Remantadine
Carnitine and mildronate
• Carnitine discovered by Roberts
Krimbergs and Vladimir
Gulevich from muscle exctracts
in 1905 (Moscow)
O
+
N
OH
O
+
N
• Acetylcarnitine discovered by
R.Krimbergs in 1932 (Riga)
Carnitine
O
ɣ-butyrobetaine
O
O
+
• Mildronate synthesized in 1975
(Ivars Kalviņš, Riga)
N
Acetylcarnitine
OAc O
+
H
N
O
N
Mildronate
O
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