Solids Liquids Gases

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Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Table of Contents
States of Matter
Changes of State
Gas Behavior
Graphing Gas Behavior
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Learning Objectives
Describe the characteristics* of…
1. Solids
2. Liquids
3. Gases
*Note that these characteristics include definite shape,
definite volume, kinetic energy of the particles that
make up each state of matter, and the distance between
the particles for each state of matter.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Solids, Liquids, & Gases
Goal: Compare and contrast characteristics of solids, liquids, and gases
while reviewing the signs of a chemical change & energy changes.
1. Examine the citric acid with the magnifying glass and the green
substance in the film canister.
2. Place no more than HALF a spoonful of citric acid and baking soda in
the bag, the place the film canister in the bag too (but make sure it
doesn’t spill). Then seal the bag and shake it. Be sure to make
several different observations including feeling the bag. When the
change is about finished, then open the bag up. Note that the gas
shouldn’t be in your table until you perform the experiment.
3. Create a table like the one on the next slide and complete it in your
lab notebook. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE ONLY 1 SOLID, 1 LIQUID,
AND 1 GAS IN THE TABLE! Then answer the questions below the
table.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Solids, Liquids, & Gases Data & Analysis
Substance (Name
or Description
such its color or
“clear” if it’s
colorless)
Definite Shape
(Yes, No, or
No- Takes the
shape of the
container)
Definite Volume
(Yes or No)
Solid, Liquid, or
Gas
Review (Changes in Matter): Was there a chemical change? If so, then
list the signs you used to tell that a chemical reaction took place?
Review (Changes in Energy): Was there a change in energy? Was the
change an endothermic or exothermic change? Explain how you
know.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Learning Objectives
Describe the characteristics* of…
1. Solids
2. Liquids
3. Gases
*Note that these characteristics include definite shape,
definite volume, kinetic energy of the particles that
make up each state of matter, and the distance between
the particles for each state of matter.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - States of Matter
Solids
A fixed, closely packed arrangement of particles causes a
solid to have a definite shape and volume. KE = low
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - States of Matter
Solids
Solids that are made up of
crystals are called
crystalline solids. ExampleTable Salt
In amorphous solids, the particles
are not arranged in a regular
pattern. Particles are arranged
randomly, so these solids are
more brittle and break unevenly.
Example- Glass
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - States of Matter
Liquids
Because its particles are free to move, a liquid has NO definite
shape. However, it does have a definite volume. KE = middle
Liquids also have several other properties including surface
tension (particles pulling inward making the surface particles
closer together to form a sort of skin) and viscosity (resistance to
flow).
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - States of Matter
Gases
As they move, gas particles spread apart, filling all the
space available. Thus, a gas has neither definite shape
nor definite volume. KE = high
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Which of the following could be classified as an
amorphous solid?
Butter
Glass
Salt
Choices A & B are correct.
Choices A, B & C are correct.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Why are some substances that are more dense than
water able to float on its surface?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Due to water’s mass
Due to water’s “skin-like” surface
Due to water’s viscosity
Due to water’s density
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
If a substance has a high viscosity, then what would
you observe if you saw someone pouring the
substance into a container?
A. The substance will pour quickly at first and then slowly.
B. The substance has a high surface tension.
C. The substance will pour quickly because it cannot resist
the force of gravity.
D. The substance will pour slowly because it can resist the
force of gravity.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Which of the following substances has the highest
viscosity?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Honey
Glass
Water
Motor Oil
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Which of the following have a definite shape?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Solids
Liquids
Gases
All of the above
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Which of the following have a definite volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Solids
Liquids
Gases
Choices A & B
Choices A, B, & C
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Which of the following takes the shape of the
container?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Solids
Liquids
Gases
All of the above
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Which of the following have neither definite shape
nor a definite volume?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Solids
Liquids
Gases
All of the above
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Rank solids, liquids, and gases in terms of the
kinetic energy of their particles.
1 = Least kinetic energy, 3 = Most kinetic energy
A.
B.
C.
D.
1= Gases, 2= Solids, 3= Liquids
1= Liquids, 2= Solids, 3= Gases
1= Solids, 2= Liquids, 3= Gases
1= Gases, 2= Liquids, 3= Solids
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Rank the states of matter in terms of the distance
between their particles. 1= Closest together, 3=
Furthest apart
A.
B.
C.
D.
1= Solids, 2= Liquids, 3= Gases
1= Gases, 2= Liquids, 3= Solids
1= Liquids, 2= Gases, 3= Solids
1= Solids, 2= Gases, 3= Liquids
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - States of Matter
Building Vocabulary
A definition states the meaning of a word or phrase by telling
about its most important feature or function. After you read
the section, reread the paragraphs that contain definitions of
Key Terms. Use all the information you have learned to write
a definition of each Key Term.
Key Terms:
solid
surface
tension
crystalline solid
Examples:
Surface
A
solid has
tension
a definite
is theshape
resultand
of an
a definite
inward pull
volume.
among
the
molecules
a liquid
that
bringsare
thecalled
molecules on
Solids
that are of
made
up of
crystals
the
surface closer
crystalline
solids.together.
viscosity
amorphous solid
Another
property
of liquids
viscosity—a
In amorphous
solids,
the is
particles
are notliquid’s
arranged
resistance
flowing.
in a regulartopattern.
gas
liquid
Like
a liquid,
gas is avolume
fluid. Unlike
a shape
liquid, however,
A liquid
has a definite
but no
of its own.
a gas can change volume very easily.
A liquid is also called a fluid, meaning “a substance
that flows.”
fluid
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - States of Matter
Viscosity
Click the Video button to watch a movie about viscosity.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
End of Section:
States of Matter
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Noggin Knocker Quiz (7 points-1 pt. per problem)
1a- Solids
1b- Gases
2- Liquids
3- Vibrate back and forth
4- Gases
5- Due to surface tension
6- Maple Syrup
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Effect of Temperature on Particle Movement
(No lab write-up)
Goal- Determine how temperature affects the movement
(and KE) of the particles that make up matter.
Hypothesis (in your head)- Which type of water will cause
the particles of water to move faster– hot or cold? Why?
Procedure- Place hot water on one side of the divider of the
plexiglass container and cold water on the other side.
Immediately drop 2-3 drops of food coloring on each side
and observe what happens.
Conclusion- How did temperature affect the movement of
the particles of water (as indicated by the food dye)? Explain
how you know.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Learning Objectives
Explain what happens to a substance during the changes
between…
1. Solid and Liquid
2. Liquid and Gas
3. Solid and Gas
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Changes of State
Changes Between Solid and Liquid
The change in state from a solid to a liquid is called melting.
What is needed for silver or any other solid to melt?
Energy!
As the molecules receive more energy, what do they start to do (more of)?
They move more freely.
This causes the substance itself to expand, but the particles do NOT
expand. They spread farther apart!!!
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Changes of State
Changes Between Solid and Liquid
The change of state from liquid to solid is called freezing.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Changes Between Liquid and Gas
The change of state from liquid to gas is called
vaporization.
Vaporization can occur by boiling (vaporization below the
liquid surface and on the liquid surface) or by evaporation
(vaporization ONLY on the liquid surface). See Figure 11 on
page 51 of your textbook.
The change of state from gas to liquid is called
condensation. Example- Water condensing on a mirror from
a hot shower.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Learning Objectives
Explain what happens to a substance during the changes
between…
1. Solid and Liquid
2. Liquid and Gas
3. Solid and Gas
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Changes Between Solid and Gas
The change of state from solid to gas is called
sublimation. Examples- Dry ice & Iodine.
Solid
Gas
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
What happens to a solid metal when heated (but not
so much that the solid metal would melt)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The metal would not change at all.
The metal would expand.
The metal would shrink.
The metal would break.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
What caused the solid metal to expand from the
previous question?
A. The cold caused the particles to come closer together.
B. The heat caused the particles to come closer together.
C. The cold caused the particles to spread slightly further
apart.
D. The heat caused the particles to spread slightly further
apart.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Why does the liquid inside a thermometer move up
when the temperature increases?
A. The liquid doesn’t move up the thermometer.
B. The liquid expands and can only go up the tube because
the particles are starting to move faster and spread
further apart.
C. The liquid would shrink an can only go down the tube
because the particles are slowing down and getting closer
together.
D. The liquid wouldn’t rise up the tube, it would just get
warmer.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
A change where a solid becomes a liquid is called
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
freezing
melting
sublimation
vaporization
constipation
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
The change from a liquid to a gas is called
______________, while a change from a gas to a
liquid is called ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Vaporization; condensation
Vaporization; freezing
Condensation; vaporization
Condensation; sublimation
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
If a substance melts at 20oC and boils at 180oC, then
at what temperature would the substance be a gas?
A.
B.
C.
D.
200oC
150oC
20oC
10oC
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Some Glade air freshener plug-ins contain a solid
substance that gives off sweet smelling vapors.
This is an example of
A.
B.
C.
D.
freezing
melting
vaporization
sublimation
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Phase Change Diagram for Water Experiment
Goal: Observe and explain temperature changes as ice water is heated to past
boiling.
Hypothesis: Sketch what you believe a temperature-time graph would look like for
heating ice water to boiling.
Procedure
*Observe the graph when the ice is melting, when the water is boiling, and
the water temperature between melting and boiling.*
Results
1. Sketch the graph in your lab notebook with the x-axis and y-axis properly labeled.
– There should be 3 parts to the graph: one flat line, one slanted line, and
another flat line.
– Label the parts of the graph as boiling, melting, or liquid.
2.
Add another slanted line where the solid phase would show up on the graph and
label it “solid”, then do the same thing for where the “gas” phase would be on the
graph. Think about where these lines should be based upon the pattern you
observed during the experiment!
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Analysis
Discussion/Conclusions (in complete sentences)
1. What happened to the water particles as the experiment progressed
(moved forward)?
2. Using evidence from your experiment, why didn’t the temperature go
up when the ice was melting and the water was boiling even though
heat was being added? Hint- Determine if melting and boiling are
endo- or exothermic changes first, and then use the definition to arrive
at your answer.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Changes of State
Temperature and Changes of State
Interpreting Data:
What does the temperature
value for segment B
represent? For segment D?
Segment B: melting point of
ice; segment D: boiling point
of water
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Changes of State
Temperature and Changes of State
Inferring:
In which segment, A or E, do
the water molecules have
more thermal energy? Explain
your reasoning.
Water molecules in segment
E have more thermal energy
because they are at a higher
temperature.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Phase Change Review: By examining the data table
below, determine at which temperature a solid
melted.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75oC
210oC
98oC
134oC
160 oC
Time (min.)
Temp. (oC)
0
46
5
75
10
75
15
75
20
98
25
134
30
160
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
A state of matter with a definite shape and volume is
a
A.
B.
C.
D.
liquid
solid
gas
All of the above
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Solids can be either _________ or ________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Amorphous or powders.
Crystalline or amorphous.
Crystalline or small.
Chunks or powders.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
In which state of matter are the particles packed
tightly together in “fixed” positions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
gas
liquid
solid
All of the above
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
In which state of matter do the particles have the
lowest amount of kinetic energy?
A.
B.
C.
D.
solid
liquid
gas
All of the above
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
What state of matter is made up of the particles that
are the furthest apart?
A.
B.
C.
D.
solids
liquids
gases
All of the above
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Particles of a liquid
A. are free to move in a container but remain in close
contact with one another.
B. have no viscosity.
C. decrease in volume with increasing temperature.
D. All of the above are true.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
The resistance of a liquid to flowing is its
A.
B.
C.
D.
Pressure
Surface tension
Viscosity
gravity
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Some insects can “walk” on top of a sample of
water. This is likely due to water’s
A.
B.
C.
D.
Pressure.
Surface tension.
Volume.
Viscosity.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
The freezing point of water is the same as its
A.
B.
C.
D.
Boiling point.
Melting point.
Flash point.
Sharp point.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Suppose a substance has a melting point of -20oC
and a boiling point of 200oC. At what temperature
would the substance be a liquid?
A.
B.
C.
D.
-30oC
80oC
-100oC
212oC
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
What process occurs when water is heated on a
stove?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Sublimation
Melting
Condensation
Vaporization
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
An uncovered pot of soup is simmering on a stove,
and there are water droplets on the wall above the
back of the stove. What sequence can you infer has
occurred?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Condensation then vaporization
Melting then boiling
Freezing then thawing
Vaporization then condensation
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Since iodine can go directly from a solid to gas, it
undergoes ____________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
vaporization
freezing
sublimation
condensation
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
In cold climates, the amount of snow on the ground
may decrease even if the temperature stays below
freezing (zero degrees Celsius). The process that
best explains this event is
A.
B.
C.
D.
Melting.
Vaporization.
Sublimation.
Freezing.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
End of Section:
Changes of State
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Noggin Knockers- 10 points (Hwk. Grade)
1. The particles move faster and spread apart. (2 points)
2. Melt the snow so you do NOT lose body heat. (2
points)
3. Heat from your body causes the sweat to evaporate, so
you feel cooler. (2 points)
4. Sublimation (1 point)
5. Water vapor condenses to form liquid water. (2 points)
6. Any temperature from -9.9oC to 89.9oC would be correct.
(1 point)
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Learning Objectives
1. List the types of measurements used when working with
gases.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Gas Behavior
A Change in Pressure
A punctured basketball deflates as gas particles begin to escape.
What are two other factors that would be useful when
discussing the pressure of a gas?
Temperature and Volume
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Learning Objective
2. Explain how the temperature, volume, and pressure of a
gas are related (when the number of gas particles is kept
constant).
•
Pressure and Volume (constant temperature)
•
Pressure and Temperature (constant volume)
•
Volume and Temperature (constant pressure)
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Gas Law Activities/Demos: Boyle’s Law
Goal: Determine the relationship between the pressure and
volume of a sample of gas in a closed container at constant
temperature.
Predictions/Hypothesis: What will happen to the VOLUME
of jet-puffed marshmallows when pressure is increased?
VOLUME when the pressure is decreased?
Results: List volume observations of the marshmallows
under different pressures (pulling up vs. pushing down on the
plunger of the syringe).
Conclusion: State your claim/conclusion (see goal) and
provide evidence from the experiment.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Gas Behavior
Pressure and Volume
As weights are added, the gas particles occupy a smaller
volume. The pressure increases. This is Boyle’s Law.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
If you reduce the volume of a gas in a cylinder by
pushing the piston down, then the pressure inside
would
A. Decrease.
B. Increase.
C. Stay the same.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Before the breath in, your chest cavity and lungs
expand (get bigger). This allows the air outside to
flow in because the pressure inside your lungs
A. Decreased.
B. increased
C. Stay the same.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Deep sea divers can sometimes risk severe pains or
death if they come to the surface too quickly. As
they ascend to the surface, the gases dissolved in
their blood will __________.
A.
B.
C.
D.
Expand until they are big enough to cause pain.
Contract until they are small enough to cause pain.
Stay the same volume or size.
React with the iron in your blood.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Gas Law Activities/Demos: Pressure & Temperature
Goal: Determine the relationship between the pressure and
temperature of a sample of gas in a closed container at constant
volume.
Predictions/Hypothesis: Write your hypothesis for the
experiment. Be sure that it corresponds to the goal above.
Results: List pressure observations of the apparatus under
different temperatures (Hot vs. Cold Water).
Conclusion: State your claim/conclusion (see goal) and provide
evidence from the demonstration. Explain what happens to the
particles of a gas when heated or cooled.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Gas Behavior
Pressure and Temperature
When a gas is heated, the particles move faster and collide
more often with each other and with the walls of their
container. The pressure of the gas increases.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Why are truck and car tires more likely to pop in the
summer?
A. Because it’s warmer, so the pressure inside will decrease
and the tire deflates.
B. Because it’s colder, so the pressure inside will increase
and build up.
C. Because it’s warmer, so the pressure inside will increase
and build up.
D. Because it’s colder, so the pressure inside will increase
and build up.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Why do mechanics recommend putting more air
(greater pressure) in your tires in the winter?
A. Because the warmer temperatures don’t affect the
pressure inside the tire.
B. Because the colder temperatures cause the tires to
explode due to more pressure inside them.
C. Because the warmer temperatures cause the tire to
deflate slightly due to the lower pressure inside the tire.
D. Because the colder temperatures cause the tire to deflate
slightly due to the lower pressure inside the tire.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Gas Law Activities/Demos: Charles’ Law
Goal: Determine the relationship between the volume and
temperature of a sample of gas in a closed system at
constant pressure.
Predictions/Hypothesis: Write your hypothesis for the
experiment.
Results: List volume observations of the ivory soap when
heated and the balloon when cooled with liquid nitrogen.
Conclusion: State your claim/conclusion (see goal) and
provide evidence from the demonstrations. Explain what
happens to the distance between the particles as a gas is
heated.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Gas Behavior
Volume and Temperature
Changing the temperature of a gas at constant pressure
changes the volume similarly. This is Charles’ Law.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
As the temperature of a gas in a closed container
increases, the volume of the gas will
A. Decrease.
B. Increase.
C. Stay the same.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
What tends to happen to the volume of a car tire in
the winter months?
A.
B.
C.
D.
It decreases.
It increases.
It stays the same.
Nothing happens.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Gas Law Activities/Demos: Charles’ Law
Goal: Determine the relationship between the volume and
temperature of a sample of gas in a closed system at
constant pressure.
Predictions/Hypothesis: Write your hypothesis for the
experiment.
Results: List volume observations of the ivory soap when
heated and the balloon when cooled with liquid nitrogen.
Conclusion: State your claim/conclusion (see goal) and
provide evidence from the demonstrations. Explain what
happens to the distance between the particles as a gas is
heated.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Pressure and Volume
Graph the data from the experiment below in your lab notebook
table. Note that you may want to start with the bottom data
point.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Pressure and Volume
The graph of Boyle’s law shows that the pressure of a gas
varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Temperature and Volume
The data from the experiment are
recorded in the notebook table.
In your lab notebook, sketch what you
think the volume vs. temperature
graph will look like. This is your
hypothesis.
Then plot the VOLUME data to the
right for EVERY 20oC and create a
best-fit line on your graph.
Temperature and volume are…
Directly proportional
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Temperature and Volume
The graph of Charles’s law shows that the volume of a gas is
directly proportional to its kelvin (and Celsius) temperature
under constant pressure.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Noggin Knockers (Quiz grade- 9 pts.)
1 (2 pts.)- Higher temperature = faster moving gas particles = greater
pressure.
2 (2 pts.)- Don’t inflate the balloons as much because as the temp.
of a gas increases, so does volume since the balloons would expand
(for constant pressure).
3 (3 pts.)- Pressure inside your body/chest cavity increases and the
volume of your lungs decreases as air flows out of your mouth.
4 (1 pt.)- Inversely (pressure increases, volume decreases and viceversa)
5 (1 pt.)- Directly (Volume and temperature increase and decrease
together)
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Gas Behavior
Asking Questions
Before you read, preview the red headings. In a graphic
organizer like the one below, ask a what or how question for
each heading. As you read, write answers to your questions.
Questions
Answers
What measurements are
useful in studying gases?
Volume, temperature, and pressure
How are the pressure and
volume of gases related?
When the pressure of a gas
increases at constant temperature,
its volume decreases.
How are the pressure and
temperature of gases related?
When the temperature of a gas
increases at constant volume,
its pressure increases.
How are the volume and
temperature of gases related?
When the temperature of a gas
increases at constant pressure,
its volume increases.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
End of Section:
Gas Behavior
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Homework: p. 61- 1 & 2 (all parts)- 2 pts. per ?
1a- The outward force of the gas particles divided by the area of
the walls of the container.
1b- Gas particles exert pressure by colliding with the inside of the
container. Faster moving particles = more pressure.
1c- More gas particles = more collisions with the inside of the ball =
more pressure
2a- Volume decreases, pressure increases and vice-versa
2b- Higher temperature = faster moving gas particles = greater
pressure
2c- Don’t inflate the balloons as much because as the temp. of a
gas increases, so does volume (for constant pressure)
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Learning Objectives
1. Identify the type of relationship shown by the graph for
Boyle’s Law.
2. Identify the type of relationship shown by the graph for
Charles’ Law.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Pressure and Volume
Graph the data from the experiment below in your lab notebook
table. Note that you may want to start with the bottom data
point.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Pressure and Volume
The graph of Boyle’s law shows that the pressure of a gas
varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Temperature and Volume
The data from the experiment are
recorded in the notebook table.
In your lab notebook, sketch what you
think the volume vs. temperature
graph will look like. This is your
hypothesis.
Then plot the VOLUME data to the
right for EVERY 20oC and create a
best-fit line on your graph.
Temperature and volume are…
Directly proportional
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Temperature and Volume
The graph of Charles’s law shows that the volume of a gas is
directly proportional to its kelvin (and Celsius) temperature
under constant pressure.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Making a Graph
The x-axis (horizontal) and the y-axis (vertical) form the
“backbone” of a graph.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Graphing Boyle’s Law
Goal: Graph pressure and volume data for a closed sample of gas at
constant temperature & determine the relationship between pressure and
volume shown by the graph.
Hypothesis: (1) Sketch what you think the volume vs. pressure graph
will look like based upon your prior knowledge. (2) Predict what will
happen to the volume of the gas when more books (greater pressure) are
added to a sealed syringe. These 2 predictions should match up!
Results/Conclusion: Record your data & construct a graph based upon
the steps on pages 66 & 67, but use 2 books for each 1 book you’re
supposed to use.
Also, you may need to estimate the volume with 0 books since it may be
above the graduations on the syringe.
Exclude Procedure steps 9 & 10 and Analyze & Conclude steps 2, 3, & 4.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Pressure and Volume
Pushing on the top of the piston decreases the volume of
the gas. The pressure of the gas increases.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Pressure and Volume
The graph of Boyle’s law shows that the pressure of a gas
varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
What would the graph look like for a volume vs.
pressure graph of a gas at constant temperature in
a sealed container?
A.
B.
C.
D.
A straight line going up and to the right.
A curved line going downward and to the right.
A curved line going upward and to the right.
A straight line going down and to the right.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
By examining a pressure-volume graph of a gas in a
sealed container at a constant temperature, the
relationship between pressure and volume is
A.
B.
C.
D.
Not related.
The same.
Inversely proportional.
Directly proportional.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Phase Change Review: By examining the data table
below, determine at which temperature a liquid
turned into a gas (or boiled). Hint- Think back to
your “phase change diagram for water lab” and
assume the substance started out as a liquid.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
75oC
210oC
-10oC
120oC
160 oC
Time (min.)
Temp. (oC)
0
23
5
46
10
75
15
120
20
120
25
120
30
160
35
210
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Temperature and Volume
As the temperature of the water bath decreases, the gas
inside the cylinder is cooled by the water. The volume is
then decreased.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Temperature and Volume
The data from the experiment are
recorded in the notebook table.
In your lab notebook, sketch what you
think the volume vs. temperature
graph will look like. This is your
hypothesis.
Then plot the VOLUME data to the
right for EVERY 20oC and create a
best-fit line on your graph.
Temperature and volume are…
Directly proportional
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Temperature and Volume
The graph of Charles’s law shows that the volume of a gas is
directly proportional to its kelvin (and Celsius) temperature
under constant pressure.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
How does the graph for Charles’ Law appear? It’s a
volume vs. temperature graph.
A.
B.
C.
D.
A curved line going up and to the right.
A straight line going up and top the right.
A curved line going down and to the right.
A straight line going down and to the right.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
The Charles’ Law graph clearly shows that as
temperature increases, volume
A.
B.
C.
D.
Increases then decreases.
Stays the same.
Decreases.
Increases.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Practice Problems
p. 65- 1b: Volume increases when temp. goes up.
1c: 73-78 mL (See Figure 23)
2a: Pressure goes up, volume goes down
2b: 45-56 kPa (kilopascals- units of pressure)
2c: Line going up and to the right = directly proportional
Line going down and to the right = inversely proportional
p. 69- 1: b (liquid); 2: c (expand to fill all available space); 3: d
(condensation)
p. 70- 21: Sublimation occurs (solid directly to a gas)
p. 71- 1: C (Evaporation)
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Previewing Visuals
Before you read, preview Figure 23. In a graphic organizer
like the one below, write questions that you have about the
diagram. As you read, answer your questions.
Graphing Charles’s Law
Q. What is the relationship between temperature and
volume?
A. The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its
temperature under constant pressure.
Q. What does the dotted line show?
A. The dotted line predicts how the graph would look if the
gas could be cooled further.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases - Graphing Gas Behavior
Links on Gases
Click the SciLinks button for links on gases.
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
End of Section:
Graphing Gas
Behavior
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
Graphic Organizer
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
State of Matter
Shape
Volume
Example (at
room
temperature)
Solid
Definite
Definite
Diamond
Liquid
Not definite
Definite
Water
Gas
Not definite
Not definite
Oxygen
Solids, Liquids, and Gases
NO
TOUCHY!
IT’S MINEEE
End of Section:
Graphic Organizer
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