Vitamins and Minerals

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Vitamins and Minerals
PowerPoint originally prepared by
Shanta Adeeb
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The Nature of Vitamins
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Vitamins are organic (carbon) compounds
needed for normal function, growth and
maintenance.
Vitamins are cofactors, they don’t do
anything by themselves.
They are not a source of calories.
The Nature of Vitamins
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Organic cofactors – what is a cofactor?
–
Physiological role – specific metabolic
function
 Prevents disease – unlike “supplements”
which may promote “some thing” or have
general metabolic effect
(ex. Omega 3s, fibers)
 Natural = Synthetic (except Vitamin E)
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Water analogy, scissor analogy
The Nature of Vitamins
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Nutritional Value lost by:
– Light
– Heat
– Oxidation
– Bacteria
– Enzymes
– Insects
– (Nutritional value of baby
food must be assured.)
Effect of packaging on
nutrient loss in milk.
The Nature of Vitamins
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Food processing can
preserve nutrients.
Vitamin Requirements
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Daily Values (DV): standard nutrient intake values
developed by FDA
– Includes DRIs (Daily Recommended Intakes for
Individuals) and (DRVs) Daily Recommended
Values (Proteins, etc.)
– Disease prevention
– Best met through a consumption of a wide
variety of foods
Vitamin Requirements
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Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI):
recommendation for individuals (more
accurate, but would be impossible to label)
– Age
– Gender
– Pregnancy
– Lactation
Vitamin Requirements
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Daily Reference Values (DRV): standards
established for protein and other dietary
components lacking a RDA or nutrient
standard
Constitute part of the Daily Values (DV)
used on food labels
Dietary Supplements
$6 Billion Market
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They are classified as “Nutritional Supplements” They are not foods,
and not drugs.*
Supplements are “Product intended to supplement the diet and
contains vitamins, minerals, botanicals, amino acids, and their
extracts.”
NOT consumed as a food replacement
Loosely regulated, “not evaluated by FDA”
By definition a
“drug” is used to
“prevent, treat or cure” disease.
These terms cannot be used
with supplements.
Use of some supplements is backed by
scientific data.
Dr. Montville’s Favorite Supplements
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Glucosamine
Omega 3
Folic acid
Ginko baloba
Ground rhino’s horn.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
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
A – orange, carotenoids, vision, antioxidant- used as
color and antioxidant
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D – we make it with sunlight, deficiency causes
rickets, in milk, regulates Ca:P ratios
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E – tocopherols, antioxidants, role in preventing
stroke, cancer, heart disease- used as antioxidant
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K – contributes to blood clotting factor
Vitamin A
Lots of double bonds, good anti-oxidant
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Vitamin A
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Carrotinoids Used in food industry as a
colorant (orange) (label friendly)
Antioxidant (label friendly)
Stored in liver
Important for sight
– Deficiency causes ~500,000 cases
of “night blindness” worldwide
Genetically engineered rice with high
Vitamin A can prevent night blindness
Carrotenosis
Vitamin D
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Also known as calciferol due to its role in calcium
absorption
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Main role is to maintain calcium and potassium
levels
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It is the only fat soluble vitamin that we can makein the presence of sunlight
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Can be made from cholesterol
Vitamin D
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Can be stored in fat tissues (as can all fat soluble
vitamins)
Elderly and shut ins are at risk- not enough
sunlight
We get vitamin D form fortified milk and cereal
Toxicity is very dangerous
– Occurs only from excess supplementation
– Can lead to calcium deposits in kidneys, heart
and blood vessels
Vitamin D
Rickets can be caused by lack of
sunlight, but also from insufficient
calcium. Vitamin D linked to
calcium absorption.
(Rickets reported in NYC.)
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Vitamin E
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A family of eight naturally occurring compounds
Used as an anti-oxidant in foods
Since aging is considered an “oxidation” reaction,
many “anti-oxidants” are used as dietary
supplements
Deficiencies are not well understood
Role is stroke, cancer, heart, and immune
response
Americans spend $300 million per year on vitamin
E supplements
Vitamin K
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
Contributes to synthesis of seven blood
clotting factors
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Can be reactivated to continue biological action
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Works as a cofactor for an enzyme that makes two
bone proteins
Water Soluble Vitamins
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Relatively cheap to
add to food
Only Vitamin C is
used for its
functionality
Water Soluble Vitamins
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B1, thiamine
B2, riboflavin
B6, pyridoxamine
B12
Biotin
Panothenic acid
Niacin
Folacin
Vitamin C
Water Soluble Vitamins
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Vitamin B1
– Thiamine
– Involved in carbohydrate metabolism
– Helps body metabolize glucose, affects central
nervous system
– Deficiency causes Beri beri
(Singlese, “I can’t, I can’t”)
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B2- riboflavin
– Energy metabolism
Water Soluble Vitamins
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B6 - Pyridoxamine
–
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B12 –
–
–
–
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Neurotransmitter, co-enzyme in over 100
reactions
Development of red blood cells
Lack of it makes one anemic
Hard for vegans to get
Water Soluble Vitamins
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Biotin –
–
–
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Panthothenic acid
–
–
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Involved in fatty acid synthesis
Deficiency causes skin disease and hair loss
Found in many foods
Essential for metabolism of carbohydrates,
protein, alcohol and fat
Water Soluble Vitamins
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Choline
–
–
–
–
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A major component of cell
membranes
Folacin = Folate = Folic
acid
Deficiency causes neural
tube defects – in utero
Took Rutgers Professor 20
years to for FDA approval
as enrichment Why?
Vitamin C
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Ascorbic acid
Very inexpensive to add to food, marketing
tool. Antioxidant
Deficiency leads to bleeding gums,
hemorrhages
High in citrus fruits, limes, (Limeys)
Vitamin C - Scurvy
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Niacin (B3)
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Energy metabolism
Disease – pellagra – The Four D’s
–
–
–
–
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Dermatitis
Diarrhea
Dementia
Death
Minerals
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Issues
– Absorption
– Bioavailability
Minerals
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Percent of Body weight
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
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Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sulfur
Sodium
Chloride
Magnesium
Iron
2%
1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.05%
0.04%
Minerals
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Calcium
– 99% is structural
– ~25% absorption
– Vitamin D aids
absorption
– 75% is obtained from
dairy products
– Many products are
fortified with it
– Built in youth, lost in
maturity
Very hard for vegans to get
enough calcium
Calcium
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Osteoporosis – a pediatric
disease with geriatric
consequences
– 1.5 million fractures each
year- major cause of
subsequent mortality (25%
within one year)
– 14 billion in direct health cost
– 25 million women at risk
– DRI women 600 – 800
mg/day
National Osteoporosis
Foundation www.nof.org
Calcium
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Risk Factors- By Mayo Clinic staff
Your gender.
Age.
Race.
Frame size.
Eating disorders.
Low calcium intake.
Excess soda consumption (Ca:P ratio).
The link between osteoporosis and caffeinated sodas isn't clear, but
caffeine may interfere with calcium absorption and its diuretic effect
may increase mineral loss. In addition, the phosphoric acid in soda
may contribute to bone loss.
Bone density can be improved at any time.
Soda is the devil’s drink
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Extra calories
Poor nutrient
density
Interferes with
calcification
Replaces more
nutritious drinks
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Minerals
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Phosphorus
– Easily absorbed by the body
– Enhanced by Vitamin D
– Deficiency are rare
– Soda, phosphoric acid
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Potassium
– A primary electrolyte in blood
– Associated with lower blood pressure
– Athletes
Minerals
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Sodium and Chloride
– Added during processing
– Enhances flavor
– We consume 2X of what we need (DV = 2.4
grams, 1/10 ounce) (show)
– Excess Sodium can lead to hypertension
 High blood pressure
 Salt sensitivity – genetics and race
Salt – Uses in Food
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Enhances other flavors, cuts cost
Salty taste, per se
Increases consumer acceptance
Raises boiling point of liquids (pasta)
Masks bitter tastes
Food safety
Water binding
Minerals
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Sulfur
– Necessary for collagen formation
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Magnesium
– Abundant in plants
Minerals
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Iron
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–
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Most common and easily preventable
deficiency
Needed for oxygen absorption, immune
function, developmental performance
Poor absorption from plant sources
Low iron causes anemia, especially in
menstruating women
Toxicity
 6 – 12 vitamins with 100% iron content will
kill a small child
(The dose makes the poison.)
Fortification vs Enrichment
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Fortification - restores lost
nutrients due to processing
Enrichment – adds nutritional value to
meet a specific standard
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Old London
Restaurant Style Croutons. Seasoned
Sourdough.
Enriched Bread,
[Enriched Flour
(Flour,
Niacin,
Ferrous Sulfate,
Thiamin Mononitrate,
Riboflavin,
Folic Acid),
Water,
Yeast,
Sugar,
Salt,
Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil ,
Vinegar,
Ascorbic Acid]
Bean Oil with BHT added as a Dextrin
Enriched Uranium
“Enriched Uranium
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