Valence electrons - Ramsey School District

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The Periodic Table
Periods
•Each row is called a “period”
•The elements in each period have
the same number of shells
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Groups
Group 1 = 1 electron
Group 2 = 2 electrons
Group 8 = 8 electrons
Except for He, it has 2
electrons
•Each column is
called a “group”
•Each element in a
group has the same
number of electrons
in their outer orbital,
also known as
“shells”.
•The electrons in the outer
shell are called “valence
electrons”
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Transition Metals
•Transition Metals
have slightly
different rules for
shells and
valence
electrons.
•This is
something you
will learn about in
High School
Chemistry.
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Determine the number of shells and the
number of valence electrons for:
2nd Period = 2 shells
4th Group =
4 valence
electrons
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Determine the number of shells and the
number of valence electrons for:
3rd Period = 3 shells
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1st Group =
1 valence
electron
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Neon
2nd Period = 2 shells
8th Group = 8 valence
electrons
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Hydrogen
1st Period = 1 shell
1st Group = 1 valence
electron
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Beryllium
2nd Period = 2 shells
2nd Group = 2 valence
electrons
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Sulfur
3rd Period = 3 shells
6th Group = 6 valence
electrons
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Potassium
4th Period = 4 shells
1st Group = 1 valence
electron
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Write your answers on your handout.
Name the element.
Number of shells ?
Valence electrons ?
Helium
1st Period = 1 shell
8th Group = 2 valence
electrons
• Helium is the exception in Group 8.
• Since it has just one shell, that shell
can only fit 2 electrons instead of 8.
• It is in this group because all the
elements have a full outer shell.
End of Study Guide
Be sure to have all your answers
on the worksheet.
The Atom and Periodic Table
How to Draw Lewis
Structures
www.middleschoolscience.com 2008
Lewis Structures
1) Find your element on the periodic table.
2) Determine the number of valence electrons.
3) This is how many electrons you will draw.
Lewis Structures
• Find out which group
(column) your element is
in.
• This will tell you the
number of valence
electrons your element
has.
• You will only draw the
valence electrons.
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Groups - Review
Group 1 = 1 electron
Group 2 = 2 electrons
Group 8 = 8 electrons
Except for He, it has 2
electrons
•Each column is
called a “group”
•Each element in a
group has the same
number of electrons
in their outer orbital,
also known as
“shells”.
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•The electrons in the
outer shell are called
“valence electrons”
Lewis Structures
1) Write the element
symbol.
2) Carbon is in the 4th
group, so it has 4
valence electrons.
3) Starting at the right,
draw 4 electrons, or
dots, counterclockwise around the
element symbol.
Lewis Structures
1) Check your work.
2) Using your periodic
table, check that
Carbon is in the 4th
group.
3) You should have 4
total electrons, or
dots, drawn in for
Carbon.
Lewis Structures
On your worksheet, try
these elements on your own:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
H
P
Ca
Ar
Cl
Al
Lewis Structures
On your worksheet, try
these elements on your own:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
H
P
Ca
Ar
Cl
Al
Lewis Structures
On your worksheet, try
these elements on your own:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
H
P
Ca
Ar
Cl
Al
Lewis Structures
On your worksheet, try
these elements on your own:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
H
P
Ca
Ar
Cl
Al
Lewis Structures
On your worksheet, try
these elements on your own:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
H
P
Ca
Ar
Cl
Al
Lewis Structures
On your worksheet, try
these elements on your own:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
H
P
Ca
Ar
Cl
Al
Lewis Structures
On your worksheet, try
these elements on your own:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
H
P
Ca
Ar
Cl
Al
End of Study Guide.
Complete the Lewis Structure
Worksheet
You should know how to draw
Lewis Structures for the first
20 elements.
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