Study guide 2.3, 2.4

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Biology 1
Study Guide 2.3, 2.4
What are the four biomolecules?
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Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic acids
What is the structure and function of a
carbohydrate?
• Function- source of energy
• Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a
ratio of 1:2:1
What is the monomer of a
polysaccharide?
• Monosaccharide- glucose
(Simple sugar)
What is the structure and function of a
lipid?
• Glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids
• Lipids provide long term energy
• Lipids are parts of biological membranes and
waterproof coverings
Do lipids form a polymer?
• No, lipids do not form polymers like the other
3 biomolecules.
• Lipids do not for a long chain made from
smaller subunits
What is the structure and function of a
protein?
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•
•
•
Proteins control the rate of chemical reactions
Proteins regulate cell processes
Proteins are structural
Proteins transport substances in and out of
the cell
• Proteins help fight disease
• Copy illustration of protein on pg. 48
What is the monomer of a protein?
• The monomer or subunit of a protein is an
amino acid.
Simple sugars (monosaccharides) are monomers
of polysaccharides
Nucleotides are the subunits of nucleic acids
Lipids do not form polymers
What is the structure and function of a
nucleic acid?
• Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen,
and phosphorous.
• Nucleic acids transmit heredity information
What is the monomer of a nucleic
acid?
• A nucleotide
• Copy the illustration of a nucleotide on pg. 48
How many valence electrons does a
carbon atom have and how many
bonds can it form?
• Carbon has 4 valence electrons and can form 4
bonds- these can be single, double, or triple.
What happens to atoms in a chemical
reaction?
• Atoms are simply rearranged in a chemical
reaction
Identify the reactants and products in
a chemical reaction
• 2 H2 + O2  2 H2O
reactants
products
What is activation energy?
• This is the energy needed to get a reaction
started
What do enzymes do to the activation
energy?
• Enzymes speed up a reaction by lowering the
activation energy
What is a catalyst?
• A catalyst speeds up a chemical reaction by
lowering the activation energy
What things can affect the functioning
of an enzyme?
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•
•
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Temperature
pH
Heavy metals
Ionic compounds
Organic compounds
What do enzymes change in a
chemical reaction?
• Enzymes change the speed of the reaction
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