# 3_conductivity_sensor_intro

```living with the lab
conductivity sensor implementation
living with the lab
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2
living with the lab
conductivity measurement circuit
β’
we use the same voltage divider circuit used earlier for the photoresistor circuit
βππππππ’ππ‘ππ£ππ‘π¦ π πππ ππ + βπ10πΞ© πππ ππ π‘ππ = 5 π£πππ‘π
β’
what happens to the electrical resistance of the
water as it becomes more salty?
it decreases
β’
if the resistance of the salt water decreases, then
what happens to the voltage drop across the
conductivity sensor?
it decreases
β’
if the voltage drop across the conductivity sensor
decreases, then how does this influence the
voltage drop across the 10kΞ© resistor?
it increases
digital output = 5V when HIGH
(set high periodically to measure conductivity)
β’
(measures voltage across 10kβ¦ resistor)
10 kβ¦
so, increasing the salinity of the water causes the
decrease)?
0 to 1023
3
living with the lab
what happens when salt is added to water????
β’
The ionically bonded NaCl molecules dissociate into Na+ and Cl- ions and become mobile
β’
they are surrounded by polar water molecules (they are hydrated)
electrodes
(no voltage applied)
Cl-
H
O
H
Cl-
Na+
Na+
ClCl-
Na+
Na+
Na+
Cl-
Cl-
Cl-
Cl-
Cl-
Na+
Cl-
Na+
Na+
Cl-
Cl-
ClNa+
Na+
ClNa+
ClNa+
Na+
Cl-
Na+
water
Cl-
Na+
Na+
Cl-
Na+
Na+
Na+
4
living with the lab
applying voltage to induce electron flow
electrons are really not directly conducting through the water from one electrode to
the other (like when electrons move through a copper wire)
5V
e-
e-
10 kβ¦
anode β oxidation
cathode β reduction
(loss of electrons)
e-
(gain of electrons)
eCl-
ClCl2
Cl-
Na+
Cl-
Cl
Cl-
ClCl-
Cl-
OHNa+
Na+
Cl
reduction occurs at the
negatively charged cathode:
Na+
Na+
Na+
Na+
Cl-
Na+
ion migration
ee-
2 π»2 π(π) + 2π β β π»2 π + 2ππ»β (ππ)
H
H2O
H
H2O
OH-
ClNa+
Cl-
Cl-
Na+
Na+
Na+
Na+
is a spectator ion
oxidation occurs at the
positively charged anode:
2 πΆπ β ππ β πΆπ2 π + 2π β
It seems like an Na+ would accept an electron and be reduced . . . why not???
5
living with the lab
why is H2O reduced and not Na+ ???
reactions further
down in the table are
less likely to occur
β’
reactions with positive voltages will
occur spontaneously
β’
you must apply external voltage across
the electrodes to make a reaction with a
negative potential occur
6
living with the lab
the net reaction of conductivity system
the net reaction occurring in the system is . . .
β’
we must apply at least 2.19 V to the conductivity circuit to drive the reaction
β’
applying 5 V is sufficient, and higher voltages will increase the rate of oxidation &
reduction reactions
7
living with the lab
system wiring
digital output = 5V when HIGH
(set high periodically to measure conductivity)
(measures voltage across 10kβ¦ resistor)
10 kβ¦
8
```
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