Insect Evolution and Paleontology

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Insect Evolution
500
400
Silurian
Devonian
300
Carboniferous
200
Permian
Triassic
Jurassic
100
0
Cretaceous
Entognatha
Archaeognatha
Hexapoda
Insecta
Pterygota
(Paleoptera)
?
Neoptera
Holometabola
Apterygotes
Paleoptera
Hemimetabolous
Holometabolous
Zygentoma
Ephemeroptera
Odonata
Plecoptera
Embiodea
Zoraptera
Dermaptera
Grylloblattodea
Mantophasmatodea
Orthoptera
Phasmatodea
Blattaria
Isoptera
Mantodea
Psocoptera
Phthiraptera
Thysanoptera
Hemiptera
Coleoptera
Rhaphidioptera
Megaloptera
Neuroptera
Hymenoptera
Mecoptera
Siphonaptera
Diptera
Strepsiptera
Trichoptera
Lepidoptera
Relationships among Hexapoda
Collembola
Entognatha
Protura
Diplura
Hexapoda
Archaeognatha
Insecta
Thysanura
Pterygota
Evolution of the Insects
(Carpenter - 1953)
Four stages in insect evolution
4. Development of metamorphosis
3. Development of wing flexion
mechanisms
2. Development of wings
1. Appearance of primitive wingless insects
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
1. Apterygotes
First insect fossils
First terrestrial arthropod fossils
First terrestrial arthropod trace fossils
Trace Fossils
Hexapoda Characteristics
1) Fusion of second maxillae
1st maxilla
2) Fixation of abdominal segments at 11
3) Loss of jointed abdominal appendages
2nd maxilla
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
1. Apterygotes on Land
Devonohexapodus
- marine hexapod
from the Devonian
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
2. Development of wings
a. From what structural elements are wings composed?
b. For what purpose were wing-like structures first used?
2. Development of wings
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
2. Development of wings
1. Paranotal Theory
paranotal lobes
Paleodictyoptera
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
2. Development of wings
1. Paranotal Theory
venation
lobes
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
2. Development of wings
2. Gill Theory
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
2. Development of wings
2. Gill Theory
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
2. Development of wings
2. Gill Theory
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
2. Development of wings
2. Gill Theory
Pros
–genes in crustaceans for basal legs are homologous with genes for
wing development
Cons
– skimming (Marsden) – rare in primitive pterygotes
- most insect ancestors are terrestrial
- aquatic insects appear 100 my after wings
- genetic evidence – may be weak since wings are polygenic
- Carboniferous insects – big wings but no fossilized aquatic nymphs
500
400
Silurian
Devonian
300
Carboniferous
200
Permian
Triassic
Jurassic
100
0
Cretaceous
Entognatha
Archaeognatha
Hexapoda
Insecta
Pterygota
?
Neoptera
Holometabola
Zygentoma
Ephemeroptera
Odonata
Plecoptera
Embiodea
Zoraptera
Dermaptera
Grylloblattodea
Mantophasmatodea
Orthoptera
Phasmatodea
Blattaria
Isoptera
Mantodea
Psocoptera
Phthiraptera
Thysanoptera
Hemiptera
Coleoptera
Rhaphidioptera
Megaloptera
Neuroptera
Hymenoptera
Mecoptera
Siphonaptera
Diptera
Strepsiptera
Trichoptera
Lepidoptera
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
3. Wing Flexion
Ephemeroptera
3. Development
of wing flexion
mechanisms
Odonata
Ephemeroptera + Odonata = Paleoptera
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
3. Wing Flexion
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
3. Wing Flexion
Development of wing flexion mechanism
1. Neopterous condition
2. Allowed for better running locomotion, etc.
3. Became dominant and today represents 90% of orders and 97% of species
4. Includes all other modern insects
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
4. Development of Metamorphosis
Hemimetabolous (Incomplete metamorphosis)
Holometabolous (Complete metamorphosis)
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
4. Development of Metamorphosis
Imaginal Discs
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
4. Development of Metamorphosis
Hemimetabolous
Holometabolous
Stages of Insect Evolution (Carpenter, 1953)
4. Development of Metamorphosis
Evidence for pronymph as holometabolous larva
- First instar cuticle in both secreted at same time
- Lack wing buds
- Similar reduced nervous systems
- Both have high levels of JH
500
400
Silurian
Devonian
300
Carboniferous
200
Permian
Triassic
Jurassic
100
0
Cretaceous
Entognatha
Archaeognatha
Hexapoda
Insecta
Pterygota
?
Neoptera
Holometabola
Apterygotes
Paleoptera
Hemimetabolous
Holometabolous
Zygentoma
Ephemeroptera
Odonata
Plecoptera
Embiodea
Zoraptera
Dermaptera
Grylloblattodea
Mantophasmatodea
Orthoptera
Phasmatodea
Blattaria
Isoptera
Mantodea
Psocoptera
Phthiraptera
Thysanoptera
Hemiptera
Coleoptera
Rhaphidioptera
Megaloptera
Neuroptera
Hymenoptera
Mecoptera
Siphonaptera
Diptera
Strepsiptera
Trichoptera
Lepidoptera
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