File - Pearson`s Place

advertisement
Biology Unit One
Mrs. Pearson’s First Semester Biology
*For those watching by recording, watch for questions on the slides throughout
the presentation. Email me the answers to the questions within two days of the
lesson being presented in order to receive credit for watching the recording.
What did we do before we had technology?
• When people found something they didn’t understand in
nature, what did they do before the technology was
developed to study it? For example, how did people
explain volcanoes before we had the technology to study
them? How about illness?
• Do we still do that today?
Context Clues
• Technology has led to the rise of a new branch of
science called genomics. Genomics can be used to
study the genetic relationships among species.
• Using the information above, how can you come to an
educated guess about what “genomics” means?
Unit One
Objectives
• Discuss the unifying themes of Biology
• Hammer out the journal entry
Unit One
Break it down
• What does it mean to “unify”?
• Give an example of bringing things together under one
idea.
• What is a “theme”?
• Give an example of a theme.
Unit One
Unifying Themes of Biology
• Ideas that you see running through all of Biology and
helping us to make connections about all living things
and how they interact with each other and the
environment.
• Your text has too many and they really don’t show a
unifying theme – they are more like details instead of
overall concepts.
• You’ll need to know them for your quizzes so let’s run
over them quickly…
Unit One
Unifying Themes of Biology
• Cellular Structure and Function – organisms are made of
cells.
• Reproduction – all living things reproduce
• Metabolism – all living things require energy
• Homeostasis – all living things must maintain a stable
internal environment
• Heredity – all living things pass traits on from one
generation to the next
• Evolution – all living things adapt to their environments
over time
• Interdependence – all living things are dependent upon
one another and the environment
Unit One
Unifying Themes of Biology – THINK BIGGER!
• Cellular Structure and Function – organisms are made of cells.
– How would you look at this on a bigger scale? (Hint:
Instead of looking just at cells…)
• Reproduction – characteristic, not a theme
• Metabolism – characteristic, not a theme although energy
usage and how it cycles is important to understand
• Homeostasis – finally one we can agree on! Look at it bigger
though – because organisms must maintain stable internal
environments… what does this affect?
• Heredity – this is part of evolution and not its own theme
• Evolution – again, look at it bigger – not just individuals or
groups but entire systems interacting and affecting changes
• Interdependence – whew, one more we can agree on and this
one even looks at it from a nice big view!
Unit One
Unifying Themes of Biology – THINK BIGGER!
• All living things have systems of related parts.
• Structure is related to Function – how something is structured
is related to the job it needs to do.
• Homeostasis – maintaining balance is key to survival.
• Evolution – changes in the environmental conditions and
competition lead to regular changes over time
• Interdependence – living things affect and are affected by
each other and the environment in which they live.
**Those watching by recording, include in your email the five themes of biology we will
focus on as listed above.
Unit One
All levels of life have systems of related parts.
• A system is an organized group of interacting parts.
– A cell is a system of chemicals and processes.
– A body system includes organs that interact.
– An ecosystem includes living and nonliving things that
interact.
Unit One
Can we build it?!
• Start with the cell and build upward – what comes next?
– Cell
– Tissue
– Organ
– Organ system
– Organism
– Population
– Community
– Ecosystem
Unit One
Structure and function are related in biology.
• Structure determines function.
– Proteins with different structures perform different
functions.
– Heart muscle cells have a different structure and
function than stomach muscle cells.
– Different species have different anatomical structures
with different functions.
Unit One
Organisms must maintain homeostasis to survive in
diverse environments. Why?
• Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal
conditions.
**Those watching by recording, include in your email the definition of homeostasis.
Unit One
What are some examples of conditions your body has to
maintain in a constant fashion?
What are some examples of conditions in your life you
wish were maintained in a constant fashion?
Unit One
• Homeostasis is the maintenance of constant internal
conditions.
– Homeostasis is usually maintained through negative
feedback.
– Negative feedback systems return a condition to its
normal (set) point.
– Like your home’s thermostat…
Unit One
• Behaviors and adaptations can help maintain
homeostasis.
Unit One
Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life.
• Evolution is the change in living things over time.
– The genetic makeup of a population of a species
changes.
– Evolution can occur through natural selection of
adaptations.
– Adaptations are beneficial inherited traits that are
passed to future generations.
Unit One
• Evolution accounts for both the diversity and the unity of
life.
Unit One
Interdependence
• Living things affect and are affected by each other and
the environment.
– Ice
- Temporary and permanent
- Less of both and the temporary is lasting a shorter time
Unit One
Interdependence
• Living things affect and are affected by each other and
the environment.
•
Seals
• Depend on the sea ice to reproduce and molt
Unit One
Interdependence
• Living things affect and are affected by each other and
the environment.
•
Polar bears
• Gorge on naïve newborn and recently weaned seal pups,
depositing a thick fat layer that allows them to survive long
periods without food.
• Depend on the annual sea ice for:
•
•
•
•
A platform for hunting
A habitat for mating
Travel, migration, and connecting habitats
Making a den and producing young
Unit One
Interdependence
• Changing sea ice consequences for the polar bear:
– Increased energy needs for movement
– Altered home range size and configuration
– Reduced access to den areas
– Increased periods without access to prey
– Altered prey species / food chains (walrus)
– Increased time spent swimming (chills small cubs and
reduces their survival)
Unit One
Interdependence
• Evidence in western Hudson Bay subpopulation of polar
bears:
– Declines in body condition, reproduction and overall
survival
– 22% reduction in subpopulation size between 1987
and 2004
– More drowning bears
– More thin bears
– More problem bears
• 20-25,000 bears left in the wild
Unit One
Assignments
• Don’t panic!! They have several of them due at the end
of the section but we’ll go over them in class so you won’t
be buried in work.
• Today we’ll get the journal entry out of the way – here are
the instructions:
– Here are six living things: a person, an oak tree, a mushroom, an
amoeba, seaweed, and a bacterium. What features do they all
have in common? How do they differ? Use the Internet to aid
your research.
– Please submit your journal entry to the Characteristics of Life
assignment link. For information on how this assignment will be
graded, please visit the Course Information section.
Unit One
Journal Entry
– Step one!! What do they all have in common? What did you
read about in the text that you can use to cover this?
– Step two!! How are they different?
– Step three!! Run grammar and spell check and make sure you
are using complete sentences!
Unit One
Review
• Unifying themes of Biology show the bigger ideas that
unite living things into one study
– Living things have systems of related parts
– Structure is related to function
– Homeostasis
– Evolution
– Interdependence
• Journal Entries are due!
Unit One
Questions?
•
•
Many of the slides in this presentation have been adapted from McDougal Littell’s 2008 version of Biology.
Information on the polar bears is from the San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research
Download
Related flashcards

Population genetics

22 cards

RNA

17 cards

Population genetics

25 cards

Mitochondrial diseases

16 cards

Create Flashcards