CreationApologetics - Open Systems Technology Associates

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Creation Apologetics
Dr. Heinz Lycklama
[email protected]
www.osta.com/apologetics
Frog + time (instantaneous) -> Prince = Fairy Tale
Frog + time (300 million yrs.) -> Prince = Science
Dr. Gish, ICR
“What I see convinces me God exists.
What I cannot see, confirms it.”
Albert Einstein
Stumbling Blocks in
Coming to Faith in Christ
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Lack of intellectual knowledge of God
Other Christians – their perceived hypocrisy
Sin: accepting Christ would require turning away
from sin
If God is all-loving and all-powerful, why is there
so much pain, suffering, and evil?
Perceived conflict between Science and the Bible,
e.g. Creation v. Evolution
No answers from the Church to the hard questions
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
2
The Statistics!

According to pollster George Barna (in the US):
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Only 9% of “born again” teenagers believe
that absolute truth even exists
At least 60% of the children from evangelical
homes are estimated to leave the church once
they leave home
Reasons:

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No answers from the Church for the
hard questions asked by our youth
Indoctrination of our youth in
secularism and evolutionism
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
3
The Solution:
Creation Apologetics


Teach The Truth in the Bible
from the very first verse!
Be ready to answer the hard
questions
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
4
Creation Apologetics
1.
2.
3.
What Does the Bible Say About Creation?
What Do Jesus And The Apostles Say
About Creation?
What Does Science Say About Creation?
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4.
5.
The Creation and Evolution Models of Origins
Which Model Best Fits The Scientific Evidence?
[Challenges to Evolutionism]
Does It Matter What We Believe
About Creation?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
5
1. What Does
The Bible Say
About Creation?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
6
Creation According to the Bible

Three major worldwide events have
produced the world as we know it today:
1.
2.
3.
Six days of special creation and formation of all things,
the completion and permanence of which are now
manifest in the Law of Conservation of Energy (the First
Law of Thermodynamics): Gen. 2:1, “… were finished.”
The rebellion of man and resultant curse of God on all
man’s dominion, formalized in the Law of Increasing
Entropy [disorder] (the Second Law of Thermodynamics)
Worldwide flood in the days of Noah, leaving the world
largely under the domain of natural uniformity
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
7
Creation of Distinct Kinds

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Gen. 1: 11(1), 12(2), 21(2), 24(2), 25(3)
Ten major categories of organic life created
“after its kind”
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Plant kingdom - grass, herbs, fruit trees
Animal kingdom - sea monsters, other marine
animals, birds, beasts, cattle, crawling animals
Man “kind”
One kind cannot transform itself into another
kind
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Definite and distinct categories
There is variation within a kind
These “kinds” are still recognized today
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
8
Created in Six Days
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Gen. 2:1, “Thus the heavens and the earth, and all
the host of them, were finished. And on the
seventh day God ended His work which He had
done, and He rested on the seventh day from all
His work which He had done.”
Ex. 20:11, “For in six days the Lord made the
heavens and the earth, the sea, all that is in them,
and rested the seventh day.”
Ex. 31:17, “… for in six days the Lord made the
heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day …”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
9
“Fall and Curse” and …

The Laws of Thermodynamics

Universal scientific laws
Formally recognized ~ 100 years ago
 Scientists are unable to explain why they work

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First Law of Thermodynamics
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Second Law of Thermodynamics

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Conservation of mass and energy
Increasing entropy (disorder)
These two laws are implicitly
explained/revealed in the Bible
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
10
OT References to Creation
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Ex. 31:17 (Moses) “It is a sign between Me and the children
of Israel forever, for in six days the Lord made the heavens
and the earth …” - six-day literal creation
Josh. 24:2-4 (Joshua) “ … your fathers, including Terah, the
father of Abraham and the father of Nahor, …” - accepts
Gen. 11 account of Abraham’s ancestors
II Kings 19:15 (Hezekiah) “You have made heaven and
earth.” - speaks of creation
1 Chron. 1:1-28 “Adam, Seth, Enoch, …” - repeats
genealogies of Gen. 5, 10, 11
Neh. 9:6 (Nehemiah) “You have made heaven, … the earth
and everything on it, the seas and all that is in them, …” refers to creation
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
11
2. What Do Jesus
and the Apostles Say
About Creation?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
12
Christ Refers to Gen. 1-11

Matt. 19:4-5 “Have you not read that He who
made them at the beginning made them male
and female, and said ‘for this reason a man
shall leave his father and mother and be joined
to his wife and the two shall become one
flesh.”

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Doctrine of marriage refers to first two chapters of
Genesis, Gen. 1:27 and Gen. 2:24
Mark 10:6 – “But from the beginning of the
creation, God made them male and female …”
Mark 13:19 - beginning of creation which God
created
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
13
Jesus Is The Creator
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John 1:3 – “All things were made through Him,
and without Him nothing was made that was
made.”
Col. 1:16,17 – “… All things were created through
Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and
in Him all things consist.”
Eph. 3:9 – “… hidden in God who created all
things through Jesus Christ.”
Heb. 1:1-3 – “… through whom also He made the
worlds.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
14
NT References to Gen. 1-11
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Every NT writer refers to the early
chapters of Genesis
Jesus Christ referred to each of the first
seven chapters of Genesis
Almost all NT books have references to
Genesis 1-11
Every chapter of Genesis 1-11 except
chapter 8 is referred to somewhere in NT
Every NT writer accepted these early
chapters as historically accurate
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
15
Removing Genesis 1-11

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Removes true history
Removes the foundation from all
future history
Rejects the teachings of Peter,
Paul, other Biblical writers, Christ
Himself
Eventually leads to apostasy
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
16
Conclusion
Creation is an essential truth spoken of
in the Bible
Col. 2:8 “See to it that no one
takes you captive through
philosophy and empty deception,
according to the tradition of men,
according to the elementary
principles of the world, rather
than according to Christ.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
17
3. What Does Science
Say About Creation?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
18
Overview
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Origins Models – Creation and Evolution
Looking at the Evidence
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Origin of matter, energy and natural law
Classification of biological organisms
Mutations and natural selection
Origin of man
Origin of life (probability)
The fossil record
Founders of Scientific Disciplines
Conclusions
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
19
Some Common Misconceptions

Skeptics and unbelievers think:
Evolution is Science
“The Bible is an antiquated religious book,
filled with scientific fallacies and
mistakes reflecting the naïve cosmology
of the primitive tribes of the Near East.”

Even some professing Christians think:
“The Bible is a book of true religion
dealing solely with spiritual subjects and
that, where it seems to touch on matters
of science and history, it must be
interpreted spiritually or allegorically,
rather than literally.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
Creation is Religion
20
Should We Change The Bible
To Agree With Science?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
21
Science

“Operational” Science
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Postulate theory -> make observations ->
prove/falsify theory
Using the Scientific Method
“Origins” Science
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Were you there at the
beginning?
Model of Creation
Model of Evolution
Which model fits the
observed facts best?
“Forensic” science
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
22
Scientific Methodology
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Make observations
Develop a hypothesis
or theory that explains
the observations
Conduct experiments to test accuracy and
predictions made by the theory
Draw conclusions
Repeat experiments to verify results and eliminate
sources of inaccuracy
Report results so others can repeat the experiment(s)
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
23
Origins - Evolution or Creation?

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“Science is the search for truth”
Hypothesis, theory, model, law, or fact?

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Fact – proven to be true
Law – no known exception
Theory – testable, falsifiable, based on empirical
findings
Hypothesis – provisionally explains some fact
Model – simplified representation of reality
Which is Evolution? Creation?

A model – let’s see why …
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
24
Models of Origins
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We can neither observe nor repeat “origins”
Origins “theories” cannot be tested or proven
We have two models (not theories) of origins
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Creation and Evolution
Models can be compared as to their respective
capacities for correlating observable data
Evolutionists regard evolution as “a proven fact.”

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They believe that Evolutionism is science and that
creationism is religion
Evolutionists are unable to prove Evolution
Thousands of scientists believe in Creation
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
25
Creation Model

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Involves a process of special creation in
the beginning
All the basic laws and categories of nature
brought into existence by special creative
processes which are no longer in operation
today
Distinct kinds exist today as they have
existed in the past
Processes of creation replaced by
processes of conservation
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
26
Evolution Model

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Explains origin, development and meaning of
all things in terms of natural laws and processes
which operate today as they have in the past
No extraneous processes requiring an external
agent (i.e. a Creator) are permitted
The universe in all respects evolves itself into
higher levels of order (particles to people),
elements -> complex chemicals -> simple living
systems -> complex life -> man
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
27
More on Origins Models
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Creation cannot be proved:
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Not happening now, so far as can be observed
The scientific method cannot repeat Creation
Cannot ascertain whether Creation took place (except
through divine revelation)
Evolution cannot be proved:
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Operates too slowly to be measurable, if it is taking place
The scientific method cannot be used to measure it
Small variations in organisms, observed today, are not
relevant (can’t be used to distinguish between creation
and evolution)
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
28
Which Model Best Fits The Facts?
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Creation and Evolution are the only two
models of origins
Both models should be considered as equal
alternatives and evaluated objectively in terms
of their relative abilities to correlate and
explain scientific data
The model that incorporates the most data
and has the smallest number of unresolved
issues is the most likely to be true
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
29
Looking At The Scientific Evidence
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Origin of matter, energy and natural law
Classification of biological organisms
Mutations and Natural Selection
Origin of man
Origin of life – probability
The fossil record
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
30
1. Origin of Matter, Energy
& Natural Law

Evolution model predicts:
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Matter, energy and laws may still be evolving
May have evolved in the past since there is no
external agent to bring evolution to a stop
Systems can evolve to higher levels of complexity
Creation model predicts:
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Basic laws would not now be changing
Fundamental nature of matter and energy would
not now be changing
Finished in the past, conserved in the present
Matter should go from order to disorder
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
31
The Laws of Nature

Everything in the universe is bound by laws
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Physics, chemistry, mathematics, life, logic
Universal constants, planetary motion
Laws of nature are uniform throughout the universe
Explain the logical orderly state of the universe
Consequences of laws of nature
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Laws require a law-giver
Laws of nature are consistent with creation
Laws of nature make science possible!
“ordinances of heaven and earth” Jer. 33:25
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
35
Laws of Logic
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Transcendent truths
Depended on by the laws of nature
Law of non-contradiction
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Make reasoning possible
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Cannot have both “A” and “not A” at the same
time and in the same relationship
God cannot contradict Himself, Num. 23:19
God is logical
Reflect God’s nature
Man, created in God’s image, instinctively knows
the laws of logic
Secularist cannot account for these laws
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
36
More On The Natural Laws

The first two laws of thermodynamics are
constant:
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Other constant laws include:
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The total energy of any system remains the same
The entropy of a system increases over time
Law of gravity
Conservation of momentum
Conservation of electric charge
Did natural laws evolve?
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There is no evidence of this
Laws of nature are uniform throughout the cosmos
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
37
2. Classification of
Biological Organisms
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The evolution model predicts:
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A continuum of all forms of life
No classification system would work
The creation model predicts:
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An array of clear, but distinct organisms
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similar structures for similar functions, e.g. eyes
different structures for different functions, e.g. gills for fish,
lungs for man
Science of taxonomy
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distinct kinds/species
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
38
The Science of Taxonomy
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The science of taxonomy is a problem for
evolution
The classification system introduced by Carolus
Linnaeus applies to plants/animals in today’s
world as well as to extinct plants and animals
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A continuum of life forms does not exist
Credible Intermediates have not been observed
and/or identified in the fossils
The classification system introduced by Linnaeus
still works today
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
39
Quoting an Evolutionist

The anti-creationist, Niles Eldredge, wrote
in 1985:

“And though a few of these eighteenth-century
systematists had vaguely evolutionary notions,
nearly all were devoutly and orthodoxly
religious. They saw the order in their material,
the grand pattern of similarity running through
the entire organic realm, as evidence of God’s
plan of creation.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
40
Historical Classification
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
41
Classification Observations
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What we do see is:
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Variations within species, e.g. varieties of cats,
dogs, cows, horses, mankind
No new kinds produced
Some species become extinct
Like begets like
Cambrian fossils largely reflect today’s
classification system
Chalk up another one for the Creation Model!
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
42
3. Mutations &
Natural Selection
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Evolution model predicts:
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Small variations between members of a species
would confer differing degrees of advantage or
disadvantage in the struggle for existence
Those with significant advantages would be favored
New and higher types of organisms would emerge
A mutation (structural change in a gene) is the
source of genetic variation
Mutations are primarily beneficial
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
43
Mutations & Natural Selection - 2
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Creation model predicts:
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Variation and natural selection work to
assure genetic integrity and to enable the
organism to survive in nature
Characteristics can be adjusted, within
limits, to changes in the environment
Mutations are primarily harmful
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
44
Change and Variation
What is the more
logical inference
from our observations?
1.
2.
Unlimited change
from one kind to
another? (Evolution)
Limited variation
within kinds?
(Creation)
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
45
Changes Over the Years?
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Darwin predicted that fossils
would show changes in fossil
record over the years
25-million-year-old termite
fossils in amber
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Identical to termites living today
“It has become abundantly clear
that the fossil record will not
confirm this part of Darwin’s
predictions.”

Niles Eldredge, Paleontoligist
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
46
What We See Happening Today
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Variations within a kind, e.g. peppered moth
“evolving” to darker color as tree trunks grew
darker with pollutants during industrial revolution
Adaptation to the environment for survival
Mutations are harmful to the organism
Mutations are random and not directed
Mutations are rare in occurrence
Mutations almost always generate misfits which
soon die out
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
47
“Origin of Species” Never Observed
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All of Darwin’s evidences turn out to be descriptions
of creative adaptation, not origin
According to Niles Eldridge (1986):
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“Darwin, it is now become commonplace to
acknowledge, never really addressed the ‘origin of
species’ in his book of that title.”
Darwin never really cited the origin of a new species by
natural selection
The British evolutionist Colin Patterson noted:

“No one has ever produced a species by mechanisms of
natural selection. No one has ever gotten near it and most
of the current argument in neo-Darwinism is about this
question.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
48
On Mutations & Natural Selection

The philosopher Janus Koestler noted that:
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“The public continues to believe that Darwin
provided all the relevant answers by the magic
formula of random mutations plus natural
selection - quite unaware of the fact that random
mutations turned out to be irrelevant and natural
selections a tautology.”
Mutations turn out to be rare events, and most
of those are bad

They do not lead to improvements in the species,
as evolution predicts
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
49
4. The Origin of Man

Evolution model predicts:
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Molecules -> man
Man evolved from an
ape-like ancestor
Creation model predicts:
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Man’s appearance has
remained largely the same
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
50
Famous “Hominid” Fossils
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Neanderthal Man – 1856
Java Man – 1891
Piltdown Man – 1908
Nebraska Man – 1922
Ramapithecus – 1930
Lucy - 1974
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
51
Neanderthal Man
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Fossil fragments first found in
France – 1856
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Neanderthal Man’s Site in Krapina, 1899-1999
Another almost complete skeleton found in 1908
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Skull cap and some limb bones
Diagnosed as human with deformed vertebrae
Reconstructed by Marcelle Boule to look ape-like
Based on pre-conceived evolutionary notions
Faulty reconstruction recognized in 1957
Neanderthal is now known to be fully human with a
bone deformity

School textbooks still portray as man’s ancestor
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
52
Lucy
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Discovered in 1974 by Donald Johanson
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Evidence:
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40% complete skeleton
Dated at 3.5 million years old
Arm/leg ratio of 83.9 %
Hip/pelvis – walked upright
Knee joint – walked upright
Observations:
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Fingers long and curved (for climbing)
Shoulder blade like gorilla
Brain size of chimpanzee
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
53
Lucy - Reconstructed
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Digging deeper, we find that:
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Leg bone broken in two places
and one end was crushed ->
this invalidates the ratio
Hip/pelvis was incomplete,
and thus reshaped to make it
look as if it walked upright
Knee joint was found over one
mile away and 200 feet deeper
in strata from rest of bones
Fossil remains of two different creatures
fitted to form a make-believe creature
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
54
Summary of “Hominid” Fossils
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Neanderthal Man – accepted as homo sapiens
Java Man – artificial construct
Piltdown Man – proven to be a hoax
Nebraska Man – an extinct pig
Ramapithecus – an orangutan
Lucy – make-believe creature
NO credible “ape-like -> human” fossil found!
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
55
5. Origin of Life - Probability
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What is the probability that an explosion in a
junk yard would “create” a car?
What is the probability of creating a Boeing
airplane from such an explosion?
What is the probability that 200 monkeys
pawing away at a typewriter could
“write” a Shakespearean play?
What is the probability of a protein
coming into being by chance?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
56
Proteins and Amino Acids
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Amino acids
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Proteins - the building blocks of life
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A few thousand types
Right- and left-handed
Large organic molecule
Contain 100’s to a few 1000 amino acids
Specified long sequences of amino acids
Contain 20 different left-handed amino acids
Crucial protein fact
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Absence, addition, or replacement of a single amino acid
in the structure of a protein causes protein to be useless
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
57
Probability of Forming one Protein
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Take 200 parts and line them up in a specific order
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200! ways of aligning these parts = 10**375
Try a new alignment 1 billion times a second
Assuming 20 billion years of time, we have
20 * 10**18 seconds
The probability of finding the right alignment is
practically zero, i.e. 1 in 10**356
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Anything less than 1 in 10**50 is regarded as zero probability
Living organisms contain many more than 200 parts
Human being contains 60+ trillion cells
Only 10**80 “infinitesimal” particles in the whole
universe
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
58
How Simple Can Life Be?
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Cell structure unknown by Darwin
Smallest bacteria
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482 genes
600 types of proteins
600,000 DNA
base pairs
Probability of chance
formation is zero!
Human genome

3,000,000,000
base pairs
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
59
Spontaneous Formation of Life?
“The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life
from inanimate matter is one to a number with
40,000 noughts after it. It is big enough to bury
Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There
was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor
on any other, and if the beginnings of life were
not random, they must therefore have been the
product of purposeful intelligence.”
Wickramasinghe, professor of applied mathematics and astronomy, UK
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
60
6. The Fossil Record

The theory of evolution is based on two major
suppositions:

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Mutations and natural selection supposedly
provided the mechanism
The fossil record allegedly proved the “fact” of evolution
Fossils should “prove” evolution since the fossil
record has long been considered as the main
evidence for evolution
The creation model predicts that organisms
preserved as fossils will correspond to the same
classification system as applicable to present-day
plants and animals
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
61
Fossil Predictions

Evolution model predicts:

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Many preliminary forms
Many transitional forms
Randomly distributed gaps between present kinds and
transitional forms
Basic taxonomic categories should have been evolving
Creation model predicts:
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No preliminary forms
No transitional forms
Clear gaps between types
Same taxonomic categories as at present
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
62
Fossil Record Quotes

Darwin admitted in 1859:


“Why then is not every geological formation and
every stratum full of such intermediate links?
Geology assuredly does not reveal any such finely
graduated organic chain.”
Paul Moody wrote in a standard textbook:

“So far as we can judge from the geologic record,
large changes seem usually to have arisen suddenly.
... fossil forms, intermediate between large
subdivisions of classification, such as orders and
classes, are seldom [read never] found.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
63
Expected Transitional Forms

Evolutionists say we should find
transitional forms:
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Single cell to multi-cell creatures
Invertebrate to vertebrate
Fish to reptile
Reptile to bird
Ape-like to man
To date no true transitional fossil forms
have been discovered
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
64
Fully Formed
“It is considered likely that all the animal
phyla became distinct before or during the
Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed,
without intermediates connecting one
phylum to another.”
Futuyma, Douglas J. 1986. Evolutionary biology.
2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 325.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
65
The Fossil Record Summarized







Missing links are still missing
Different types of “living fossils” found
Sudden appearance of fully formed
fossils in the “Cambrian Explosion”
The same “kinds” still appear today
Some species are now extinct
No new kinds evolved
Supports the Creation Model!
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
66
Conclusions









Laws of science consistent with Creationism
Signs of intelligence in the universe
The probability of life from non-life is zero
Abrupt appearance of fully-formed animals
The missing links are still missing
Man did not evolve from ape-like creatures
Catastrophism explains the “geologic column”
There is NO credible evidence for evolution!
Science supports Creationism
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
67
Scientific Disciplines Established
by Bible-Believing Scientists
Discipline
Scientist
Astronomy
Johann Kepler (1571-1630)
Bacteriology
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)
Chemistry
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
Computer
Science
Dynamics
Charles Babbage (17921871)
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Electrodynamics Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879)
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
68
Scientific Disciplines Established
by Bible-Believing Scientists - 2
Discipline
Scientist
Electromagnetics Michael Faraday (1791-1867)
Natural History
John Ray (1627-1705)
Oceanography
Matthew Maury (1806-1873)
Taxonomy
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Thermodynamics Lord Kelvin (1824-1907)
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
69
4. Challenges To
Evolutionism
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
70
Debunking The Myths in the
Creation/Evolution Debate
1. The myth that the Neo-Darwinian
Macroevolution belief system—as heavily
popularized by today’s self-appointed “science
experts,” the popular media, academia, and
certain government agencies—finds
“overwhelming” or even merely unequivocal
support in the data of empirical science
2. The myth that the alternative—biblical
creation—somehow fails to find any compelling,
corroborative support in the same data
Source: www.trueorigin.org
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
71
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
72
Challenges to Evolutionism
1. Evolution has never been observed
2. Evolution violates the 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics
3. There are NO credible transitional fossils
4. Life did not originate from non-life by
random chance
5. Evolution is only a theory – it has not
been proved
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
73
1. Macro-Evolution NOT Observed

What is macro-evolution?






Molecules-to-man
Common descent
Emergence of new “advanced” features via
mutations and natural selection
Simple to complex living organism with increase
of genetic information
Macro-Evolution has not been, and is not
being, observed
“Goo-to-you” (macro) evolution requires an
increase in information
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
74
Micro-Evolution IS Observed

What is micro-evolution?



Examples of micro-evolution:




Genetic variation, e.g (dis)appearance of
existing/potential genetic traits through
recombination of existing genetic code
Adaptive variations arising from existing genetic
potential already in population’s existing pool
Darwin’s finches
Industrial melanism in peppered moths
Insects developing resistance to pesticides
All observed change involves sorting and loss
of genetic information
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
75
Dobzhansky’s Fruit Flies

Fruit flies experiment in the lab



Results






Radiation-induced mutation of fruit flies
Involves deliberate action, not natural
Fruit flies with extra wings, no wings,
huge wings, tiny wings
Changes detrimental to survival
No advantages over other fruit flies
Still fruit flies!
No progressive beneficial changes
from simple to complex
No increase in quantity/quality of genetic info
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
76
Quote by Lewin (Evolutionist)
“The central question of the Chicago conference
was whether the mechanisms underlying
microevolution can be extrapolated to explain the
phenomena of macroevolution. At the risk of
doing violence to the positions of some of the
people at the meeting, the answer can be given as
a clear No.”
Reported by Roger Lewin, “Evolutionary theory under fire,”
Science, vol. 210 (4472), 21 November 1980, p. 883]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
77
2. Evolution & 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics



Evolution requires



Increasing entropy (unavailable energy)
Order -> disorder (systems left to themselves)
Disorder -> order
Simple -> complex
What do we observe in nature?



Order -> disorder (deterioration)
Less available energy over time
Increased randomness over time
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
78
Quote by Isaac Asimov
“Another way of stating the second law then is: ‘The
universe is constantly getting more disorderly!’ Viewed
that way, we can see the second law all about us. We
have to work hard to straighten a room, but left to itself
it becomes a mess again very quickly and very
easily. Even if we never enter it, it becomes dusty and
musty. How difficult to maintain houses, and
machinery, and our bodies in perfect working
order: how easy to let them deteriorate. In fact, all we
have to do is nothing, and everything deteriorates,
collapses, breaks down, wears out, all by itself—and
that is what the second law is all about.”
[Isaac Asimov, Smithsonian Institute Journal, June 1970, p. 6]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
79
Open vs. Closed Systems

Evolutionists argue




2nd Law only applies to a closed system
Living systems are exceptions because they
represent open systems
Solar energy is added to the earth
But 2nd Law applies to the whole universe



Entropy is increasing
Things become less organized, less complex,
more random in the universe
Raw solar energy increases entropy, e.g. heat
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
80
Quote by Dr. John Ross
“...there are no known violations of the second
law of thermodynamics. Ordinarily the second
law is stated for isolated systems, but the second
law applies equally well to open systems ... there
is somehow associated with the field of far-from
equilibrium phenomena the notion that the
second law of thermodynamics fails for such
systems. It is important to make sure that this
error does not perpetuate itself.”
[Dr. John Ross, Harvard scientist (evolutionist), Chemical
and Engineering News, vol. 58, July 7, 1980, p. 40]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
81
Add “Open” + “Energy”

Apparent increase in organized complexity in
living matter requires more than just an open
system and an available energy supply:



A “program” (information) to direct growth in
organized complexity
A mechanism for storing and converting the
incoming energy
Examples:



Plant photosynthesis, sun’s energy -> proteins
Seed -> plant
Animal metabolism, energy -> compose diet
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
82
Living Systems &

Law
Living systems have a “program”



nd
2
Living organism’s DNA contains the code (DNA,
information) to direct process of building organism
Process continues throughout life of organism faster
than natural processes (via 2nd Law) can break it down
Living systems have “storage/conversion”



Built-in mechanism to convert and store incoming
energy
Photosynthesis converts sun’s energy into
usable/storable forms, e. g. proteins
Animals use metabolism to convert and use stored,
usable, energy from organisms in their diets
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
83
3. NO Transitional Fossils


No credible “ape-like to human” fossil identified
Lack of empirical evidence for transitions







The archaeopteryx was a bird, not a transitional
fossil between reptile and bird
Whale “evolution” debunked
Horse “evolution debunked
“Inverted” fossil orders
“Living fossils”, e.g. coelacanth fish
Polystrate fossils
The “Cambrian Explosion”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
84
“Hominid” Fossils






Neanderthal Man – accepted as homo sapiens
Java Man – artificial construct
Piltdown Man – proven to be a hoax
Nebraska Man – an extinct pig
Ramapithecus – an orangutan
Lucy – make-believe creature
NO credible
“ape-like ->human”
fossil found!
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
85
Lord Zuckerman Chimes In

“For example, no scientist could logically
dispute the proposition that man, without
having been involved in any act of divine
creation, evolved from some ape-like creature
in a very short space of time – speaking in
geological terms – without leaving any fossil
traces of the steps of the transformation.”
Zuckerman, Solly. 1971. Beyond the ivory tower: The frontiers of public and private science. New York: Taplinger
Publishing Company. p. 64.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
86
Ape-like To Man?

In a Science Digest article written by Lyall
Watson, he states that:


“The fossils that decorate our family tree are so scarce
that there are still more scientists than specimens. The
remarkable fact is that all the physical evidence we
have for human evolution can still be placed, with
room to spare, inside a single coffin.”
David Pilbeam and Steven Gould (two
evolutionists) report that:

“Unfortunately, the fossil record of pongids (apes) is
nonexistent, making a glaring deficiency in the whole
story.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
87
Quote From Raup [Evolutionist]
“The record of evolution is still surprisingly jerky and,
ironically, we have even fewer examples of
evolutionary transition than we had in Darwin’s
time. By this I mean that some of the classic cases of
darwinian change in the fossil record, such as the
evolution of the horse in North America, have had to
be discarded or modified as a result of more detailed
information—what appeared to be a nice simple
progression when relatively few data were available
now appears to be much more complex...”
[Raup, David M. (evolutionist), “Conflicts Between
Darwin and Paleontology,” Bulletin, Field Museum
of Natural History, vol. 50 (January 1979), p.25.]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
88
Quote from Simpson [Evolutionist]
"...Every paleontologist knows that most new
species, genera, and families, and that nearly
all categories above the level of family
appear in the record suddenly and are not led
up to by known, gradual, completely
continuous transitional sequences.”
[George Gaylord Simpson (evolutionist), The Major Features of
Evolution, New York, Columbia University Press, 1953 p. 360.]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
89
Quote From West [Evolutionist]
“Contrary to what most scientists write, the fossil
record does not support the Darwinian theory of
evolution because it is this theory (there are
several) which we use to interpret the fossil
record. By doing so, we are guilty of circular
reasoning if we then say the fossil record
supports this theory.”
[Ronald R. West (evolutionist), “Paleontology and
Uniformitariansim.” Compass, Vol. 45 (May 1968), p. 216.]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
90
Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!
“In the preceding chapters, we have cited example
after example of failure to find transitional forms
where evolutionary theory predicts such forms
should have been found. … The examples cited
in this book are in no way exceptions, but serve
to illustrate what is characteristic of the fossil
record.”
[Duane T. Gish (Creationist), Evolution:
The Fossils Still Say NO!, page 333.]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
91
Fully Formed
“It is considered likely that all the animal
phyla became distinct before or during the
Cambrian, for they all appear fully formed,
without intermediates connecting one
phylum to another.”
Futuyma, Douglas J. 1986. Evolutionary biology.
2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. p. 325.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
92
4. Life Did Not Originate From
Non-Life by Random Chance

Spontaneous generation (chemical evolution) has
never been observed or shown to be possible




Redi in 1688, Spallanzani in 1780
Pasteur in 1860, Virchow in 1858
Law of biogenesis has never been falsified
Non-complex life form is impossible



Mycoplasma, simplest self-reproducing organism,
has 482 genes with 580,000 ‘letters’ (base pairs)
Requires parasitizing a more complex organism
Parasitism resulted from loss of genetic information
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
93
The Origin of Life
“Research on the origin of life seems to be unique in that
the conclusion has already been authoritatively accepted
…. What remains to be done is to find the scenarios
which describe the detailed mechanisms and processes
by which this happened. One must conclude that,
contrary to the established and current wisdom, a
scenario describing the genesis of life on earth by
chance and natural causes which can be accepted on the
basis of fact and not faith has not yet been written.”
Yockey, H. P., A calculation of the probability of spontaneous
biogenesis by information theory, Journal of Theoretical Biology
67:377-398, 1977.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
94
Mutations & Information
“Not By Chance”, Dr. Lee Spetner

“But in all the reading I’ve done in
the life-sciences literature, I’ve
never found a mutation that added
information … All point mutations
that have been studied on the
molecular level turn out to reduce
the genetic information and not to
increase it.”
Random (chance) mutation and
natural selection are opposites!
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
95
A Self-Replicating Organism?
“Prebiotic soup is easy to obtain. We must next
explain how a prebiotic soup of organic
molecules, including amino acids and the organic
constituents of nucleotides evolved into a selfreplicating organism. While some suggestive
evidence has been obtained, I must admit that
attempts to reconstruct this evolutionary process
are extremely tentative.”
[Dr. Leslie Orgel (evolutionist biochemist at the Salk
Institute, California), “Darwinism at the very beginning
of life,” New Scientist, 15 April 1982, p. 150]
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
96
Spontaneous Formation of Life?
“The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life
from inanimate matter is one to a number with
40,000 noughts after it. It is big enough to bury
Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There
was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor
on any other, and if the beginnings of life were
not random, they must therefore have been the
product of purposeful intelligence.”
Wickramasinghe, professor of applied mathematics and astronomy, UK
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
97
5. Evolution is Only a Theory;
It Has Not Been Proved

Working general biological meaning of
“evolution” to most evolutionists is:
“a continuous naturalistic, mechanistic process by
which all living things have arisen from a single
living source which itself arose by a similar
process from a non-living, inanimate world.”

A theory implies:



Self-consistency
Agreement with observations
Usefulness
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
98
Evolutionism is Not
Self-consistent


By requiring multiple “definitions”,
depending on the need of the moment
In the varied, and contradictory camps
connected with thermodynamics,
phylogeny, proposed mechanisms, and
various sub-theories, etc.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
99
Evolutionism Does Not Agree
With Observations







The fossil record
Geology
Genetics
Molecular biology
Thermodynamics
Various dating methods – radiometric and
geological/geophysical
Probability mathematics
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
100
Evolutionism Has Not
Proved Useful



No new advancements in scientific knowledge
or technology, i.e. science does not require
belief in Evolution
No advancements in medicine (hindered in
some cases because of false claims [now
discarded] re: “vestigal” organs)
No positive contribution to society through
evolution-based social “sciences”, e.g.
justification for racism, nazism, communism,
other societal/ideological ills
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
101
Evolutionism Found Wanting





Evolution has never been observed
Evolution violates 2nd Law of
Thermodynamics
There are NO credible transitional fossils
Life can/did not originate from non-life by
chance
Evolution is only a (unproven) theory
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
102
Evolution Cannot Be Proved!



It operates too slowly to be measurable
(if it is taking place)
The scientific method cannot be used to measure it
Small variations in organisms, observed today, are
not relevant (can’t be used to distinguish between
creation and evolution)
Dr. Heribert-Nilsson, Director of the Botanical Institute at Lund
University, Sweden, said “My attempt to demonstrate evolution by an
experiment carried on for more than 40 years has completely failed. … The
idea of an evolution rests on pure belief.” (Synthetische Artbildung, 1953).
British Evolutionist Colin Patterson noted: “No one has ever produced a
species by mechanisms of natural selection. No one has ever gotten near it
and most of the current argument in neo-Darwinism is about this question.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
103
5. Does It Matter What
We Believe About
Creation?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
104
Setting The Stage




Atheists/Evolutionists say “evolution is a fact,
not a theory.”
Atheists say man is the result of a purposeless
and natural process (without him in mind).
Atheists say science is the basic source of
knowledge.
The evils of evolution result from the rejection
of God as Creator.
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
105
Quote from Dawkins
(British evolutionist)

Richard Dawkins: “It is absolutely safe to
say that if you meet someone who claims
not to believe in evolution, that person is
ignorant, stupid or insane (or wicked, but I’d
rather not consider that).”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
106
The Influence of Evolution



“A person’s philosophy of origins will inevitably
determine … what he believes concerning his
destiny, and even what he believes about the meaning
and purpose of his life and actions right now …”
Henry Morris
“Evolution has an impact on every aspect of man’s
thinking: his philosophy, his metaphysics, his ethics
…” Ernst Mayr
“Evolutionary theory has been enshrined as the
centerpiece of our educational system, and elaborate
walls have been erected around it to protect it from
unnecessary abuse.” Jeremy Rifkin
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
107
How Has Evolution Impacted Us?

Key influencers:





The impact on our society is pervasive



Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Sigmund Freud
Karl Marx, Adolf Hitler, Vladimer Lenin
Friedrich Neitzsche, Ernst Haeckel
John Dewey, Jean Paul Sartre
Science, education, politics, religion, culture
Secular humanism is a direct result of the
philosophy of evolution
The philosophy of evolution has led to many
modern evils in our society
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
108
Evolution Is At The Foundation
"Evolution is at the foundation of communism, fascism,
Freudianism, social darwinism, behaviorism, Kinseyism,
materialism, atheism, and in the religious world,
modernism and neo-orthodoxy"
-Henry Morris 1963, Genesis Flood p. 24
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
109
The Influence of Evolution


One’s view of evolution DOES matter, as
evidenced by the last 150 years
Evolution is more than a biological or
geological hypothesis


Evolution is a world view!
A person’s philosophy of origins will
inevitably determine:



His beliefs concerning his destiny
His beliefs concerning the meaning
and purpose of his life
His actions in the present world
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
110
The Influence of Evolution - 2

Evolution is imposed on every area
of our lives



Church, theistic evolution, culture
Morally, socially, mentally
Evolution provides an “apparent” way for
a man to escape his responsibility to God



No judge before whom we must all appear
Man is responsible only to himself
Whatever helps evolution helps society
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
111
Implications of Evolutionary Thought

Cheapening of human life


Unwarranted elevation of animal life





Abortion, Euthanasia
Animals should have human rights
Overly zealous ecology movement
Relativistic thinking
Movement away from law based on
Biblical concepts to popular will
“Change” is the norm
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
112
Abortion and Evolution



Embryo in womb goes through
“stages of evolution” – called
“embryonic recapitulation”
by Ernst Haeckel,
Women undergoing abortion
are told that the embryo is
only in the early stages of
evolution (fish or animal)
Late term abortions ->
Infanticide -> euthanasia?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
113
Conclusions








Jesus is our Creator AND Redeemer
Creation is an essential truth of the Bible
You can trust the Bible as God’s Word
Evolution is NOT a proven fact
Science does support Creation
It does matter what you believe
Learn to defend your faith – 1 Pet. 3:15
Don’t be deceived – Col. 2:8
Col. 2:8 “See to it that no one takes you captive
through philosophy and empty deception, according to
the tradition of men, according to the elementary
principles of the world, rather than according to Christ.”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
114
Which Foundation Will You
Trust and Build On?
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
115
More Information

ICR – Institute for Creation Research



Answers in Genesis




www.creationresearch.org
Publication of peer-reviewed creation articles
Dr. Heinz Lycklama’s Lectures


www.answersingenesis.org
Books, seminars, articles on Creation
Creation Research Society


www.icr.org
Acts and Facts articles on Creation
www.osta.com/creation & www.osta.com/apologetics
True Origin Archive


www.trueorigin.org
Exposing the myth of evolution
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
116
Thank you
for your
attention!
Dr. Heinz Lycklama
[email protected]
www.osta.com/creation
www.osta.com/apologetics
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
117
Creation Organizations

ICR – Institute for Creation Research


www.icr.org
Books by Henry Morris (founder), e.g.





The Genesis Flood
The Genesis Record
The Modern Creation Trilogy
Acts and Facts articles on Creation
Answers in Genesis



www.answersingenesis.org
Founded by Ken Ham
Books, seminars, articles on Creation
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
118
Creation Organizations - 2

Creation Evidence Museum



Creation Moments



www.creationevidence.org
Dinosaurs and human tracks
www.creationmoments.com
Radio spots
Creation Research Society


www.creationresearch.org
Publication of peer-reviewed creation articles
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
119
Creation Organizations - 3

Center For Scientific Creation



Creation Science Evangelism



www.creationscience.com
“In The Beginning” Book by Walt Brown, Ph.D.
www.drdino.com
Videos, seminars
Discovery Institute


www.discovery.org
Intelligent Design “Think Tank”
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
120
Important Books









The Genesis Record, Dr. Henry Morris
The Genesis Flood, Dr. John Whitcomb & Dr. Henry Morris
The Collapse of Evolution, Scott Huse
The Lie: Evolution, Ken Ham
Refuting Evolution, Dr. Jonathan Sarfati
Evolution: The Fossils Still Say No!, Dr. Duane Gish
Scientific Creationism, Dr. Henry Morris
Dinosaurs by Design, Dr. Duane Gish
Genetic Entropy & the Mystery of the Genome,
Dr. J.C. Sanford
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
121
More Important Books









The Young Earth, Dr. John Morris
Science and the Bible, Dr. Henry Morris
Tornado in a Junkyard, James Perloff
In The Beginning, Dr. Walt Brown
Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, Michael Denton
Darwin on Trial, Dr. Phillip Johnson
Darwin’s Black Box, Dr. Michael Behe
Design Inference, Dr. William Dembski
Icons of Evolution, Dr. Jonathan Wells
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
122
Yet More Important Books










The Battle for the Beginning, Dr. John MacArthur
Total Truth, Nancy Pearcey
The Design Revolution, Dr. William Demski
The Origin of Species Revisited, W. R. Bird
It Matters What We Believe, Mike Riddle
The Evolution of a Creationist, Jobe Martin
Grand Canyon (a different view), Tom Vail
In Six Days, Dr. John Ashton
Starlight and Time, Dr. Russell Humphreys
Starlight, Time and the New Physics, Dr. John Hartnett
@ Dr. Heinz Lycklama
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