Intro to GreenTouch

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GreenTouch Consortium:
Building the Roadmap
Dan Kilper
Chair, Technical Committee
2020 ICT Carbon Footprint
820m tons CO2
360m tons CO2
2007 Worldwide ICT
carbon footprint:
2% = 830 m tons
CO2
Comparable to the
global aviation
industry
260m tons CO2
Expected to grow
to 4% by 2020
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
The Climate Group, GeSI
Report “Smart 2020”, 2008
Tightening Energy Bottleneck
Bandwidth, Services,
Applications
 Capacity limits for
existing technology and
by power/thermal
budgets
 Publicly visible good-will
provided by being "Green"
 Proactive stance in reducing
greenhouse gas emissions
 Customers feel better about
service provider . . . leading
to revenue growth
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Energy
 Deploying new
efficient
equipment
Internet
 With energy costs skyrocketing, increasing share
of operations cost
 Cooling is high percentage
of network power
consumption (20% to 50%)
Fiber Capacity Deficit or “Crunch”
Penny Calls,
24/7 Connection
Gb/s
10x
Data
What next?
Traffic
Voice
Commercial
Systems
Only call on
weekends
1980
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
1990
2000
Year
2010
2020
The Network Energy Gap
50
Growth
40
Mobile
Data
Traffic
Internet
Backbone
30
Growing Gap!
20
Mobile
Efficiency
10
2005
Wireline
Efficiency
2010
2015
Year
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
2020
Kilper, et. al., IEEE JSTQE 2011
Ideal Efficiency Improvements on BAU: Flat in 2020
 Improving network efficiency at best keeps power consumption flat
over next decade
 What happens after 2020?
 Can only use ‘sleep modes’ once
BAU
Power/User (W)
100
10
Optimistic
Improvements
1
2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020
Year
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Current technology will only
sustain us for another decade:
how do we go beyond?
ICT Industry Responds
 First Step: metrics, awareness, standards, call to action
 Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI)
 ITU-T
 GreenGrid
Semiconductor Industry
Already Organized for the
Long View:
 Next Step: Cooperation, Action
 EARTH: LTE 2x
ITRS 15 years out
 Mobile VCE: Green Radio 100x
 Institute for Energy Efficiency: Wireless and Optical 100x
 GreenTouch: ICT Networks 1000x
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
What is GreenTouch?
GreenTouch Mission
By 2015, our goal is to deliver the architecture, specifications and
roadmap — and demonstrate key components — needed to increase
network energy efficiency by a factor of 1000 from current levels.
 Broad, open and global consortium executing research projects to
achieve aggressive goal
 Roadmap organization establishing reference architectures and
research targets to overcome major challenges facing network
scaling and energy
 Venue for cooperation and enabling demonstrations among research
organizations
 Forum for the exchange of information on energy trends,
challenges, & research on communication networks
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
GreenTouch Members
 AT&T Services
 Athens Information
Technology (AIT) Center
for Research & Education
 Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent
 Broadcom
 Carnegie Mellon
University
 CEA-LETI Applied
Research Institute for
Microelectronics
 China Mobile
 Chunghwa Telecom
 Columbia University
 Commscope/Andrew
 Draka Communications
 Dublin City University
 ETRI
 ES Network/Lawrence
Berkeley Labs
 Fondazione Politecnico di
Milano
 Fraunhofer-Geselleschaft
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France Telecom
Freescale Semiconductor
Fujitsu
Huawei
IBBT
IMEC
INRIA
KAIST
Karlsruhe Institute of
Technology
Katholieke Universiteit
Leuven (K.U. Leuven)
King Abdulaziz City for
Science and Technology
KT Corporation
National ICTA Australia
Nippon Telegraph and
Telephone Corp
Politecnico di Torino
Portugal Telecom
Inovação, S.A.
Samsung (SAIT)
Seoul National University
GreenTouch : Building the Roadmap | 2011
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
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Swisscom
TNO
Tsinghua University
TTI
TU Dresden
University College London
University of Cambridge
University of Delaware
University of L’Aquila
University of Leeds
University of Manchester
University of Maryland
University of Melbourne’s
Institute for a BroadbandEnabled Society (IBES)
University of New South
Wales
University of Paderborn
University of Rochester
University of Toronto
Waterford Institute of
Technology
ZTE
GreenTouch Organization
Executive Board
Gee Rittenhouse
Technical Committee
Operations Committee
Dan Kilper, Shugong Xu
Thierry V. Landegem, Kevin Kemp
Services, Applications Trends
Network Committee
Steve Korotky , Bian Sen
Kerry Hinton
Working
Groups
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
GreenTouch Working Groups
Working
Groups
Access Networks
Wireline Access
Networks
P. Vetter, L. Lefevre
Mobile Communications
U. Barth,
E. Calvanese-Strinati
Core Networks
Optical Networking &
Transmission
W. Shieh, C. Dorize
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Switching
and Routing
T. Klein, J. Elmirghani
GreenTouch Approach
 Bottom Up Research Organization
 Use of models to structure and guide research and
collaboration
 Funding through member contributions & external
sources
 Gauge impact of innovations on:
 Alternative metrics (carbon footprint, network power,
embedded energy)
 Adjacent technologies (data centers, handsets)
 Measure, model and predict energy consumption in ICT
networks (equipment trends, traffic, deployment)
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Targets and Challenges
How do we
prevent
this?
2
Power/User (W)
10
1
10
Wireline Access
0
10
-1
10
2010
2015
Year
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
2020
What are
the major
technical
obstacles?
If we wait
until 2020,
won’t see
solution
until 2030!
Consortium 5 Year Goal
100
Efficiency (Mb/s/W)
10
 Define architectures
1000x Target
 Demonstrate tech.
1
Use models for
network in 2020 to
set technology
demonstration
requirements
0.1
Total Network:
BAU
0.01
1E-3
1E-4
2010
2015
Year
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
2020
Network Eff. Improvement
Use Architecture Models &
Targets to Track Progress
Goal
1000
Remaining
targets achieved
100
10
3 targets
achieved
1
2010
2011
2012
12 targets
achieved
1 target
achieved
Architecture 1
Architecture 2
Architecture 3
2013
2014
2015
2016
Year
 Define architectures and track research results
 Identify targets for each architecture and update network efficiency in model
as targets are achieved
• Working groups define targets and evaluate completion
• Targets can be achieved within GreenTouch projects or from broader community
• Identify gaps in effort and solicit new activities
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Modeling Provides Clear Picture of Goals
• Baseline year 2010
• Target year 2020
• GreenTouch results in five years: 2015
Efficiency in Mbps/W
1.E+04
Efficiency in Target Year
1.E+03
GreenTouch 5 year Goal: Element efficiency demonstration
targets for model 2020 network
DRAFT
MODEL
Overall network efficiency
target in 2020
1.E+02
1.E+01
1.E+00
1.E-01
1.E-02
1.E-03
1.E-04
Access
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Transport
Rtg&Swg
Mobile
Overall
Roadmap Details Underway
GPON XGPON
After sleep mode
2 .0
Efficient HW design
1 .8
Virtual HGW
1 .6
1 .4
Tx:
P(W)
Notes
Mux
0.40
10pJ/b
Driver
1.00
25pJ/b
H o m e g a te w a y p ro c e s s o r
Laser
0.06
1.5pJ/b
V o ic e u s e r in te rfa c e
Mod
0.16
4pJ/b
BI PON
1 .2
W a tt/U s e r
 Draft wireline access
cpe trend
 Draft Core Opt Ntwk
transponder model
(R F o ve rla y)
1 .0
Subtotal
D a ta u s e r in te rfa c e (E th e rn e t a n d W ire le s s )
1.62
P O N d ig ita l
OE PON
0 .8
Rx:
PhotoRx
Low power circuits
beyond CMOS
0 .6
DeMux
Subtotal
0 .0
2010
2011
2012
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
2013
2016
2017
2020
3.6pJ/b
0.80
20pJ/b
0.95
2.56W
20%
+Inefficiencie
s
10.25W
80%
Pfunction
12.81W
Overheads
12.81W
0 .4
0 .2
0.144
Total
25.6W
Structure
Services, Applications & Trends
Mobile
Communications
Wireline Access
Networks
Core Switching
& Routing
Core Optical
Networking &
Transmission
2000X
1600X
400X
20X
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Some Research Projects…
Beyond Cellular – Green Mobile Networks
Virtual Home Gateway
Optimal End-to-End Resource Allocation
Service Energy Aware Optical Networks
Green Transmission Technologies
Minimum Energy Access Architectures
Single-Chip Linecards
Large-Scale Antenna Systems
Highly-Adaptive Layer Mesh Networks
Massive MIMO
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Steady
flow of
new
Projects
& coop.
activities
Processing
Unit
First Technology Demonstration: Large Scale Antenna
Array Systems, Using MIMO to Focus RF Energy
Marzetta, T. L., IEEE Trans
Wireless Comm, Nov 2010
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Current Antenna Technology
Antenna
End-user
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Current Antenna Technology
Antenna
End-user
Power used
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch
© 2011 GreenTouch
ConsortiumConsortium
Simulating Current Antenna Technology
16 element antenna array
Antenna
End-user
Power used = 16W
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Large Scale Antenna System Demonstration
Antenna
16 Antennas  16x power reduction!
Collaborators:
Bell Labs
Freescale
Huawei
imec
Samsung
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
End-user
Power used = 1W
Beyond Cellular Mobile
Separating Data Network from Signaling Network
Data Network
Signaling Network
Collaborators:
Polimi
Bell Labs
Huawei
Samsung
INRIA
Mobile Communications Working Group
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Wireline Access
Min. Energy Access
Architectures
Virtual Home
Gateway
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Un-cooled Tunable
Lasers
Low Power
OFDM in Optical
Access
Sleep Modes
Novel PON
Protocols; Low
Power Customer
Premises Equipment
DSP Platforms
for Wireless
Home Network
Fiber in the
Home
Single-Chip Router Linecards
Cross-X
Multiple Cores
Optical
Fiber
Silicon
Photonics
CMOS
Content
Cache
Hybrid Electronic – Photonic Chip
Core Switching & Routing Working Group
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Cooperation Among Diverse Research Groups
& Consortia
 Cooperating Project INTERNET: INTelligent Energy awaRe NETworks
Input
Thru port
Drop port
Add port
Backplane
Line cards
Zinwave
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Current GreenTouch Projects
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BCG2: Beyond Cellular Green Generation*
GTT: Green Transmission Technologies*
LSAS: Large Scale Antenna Systems*
Minimum Energy Access Architectures
*Cluster project made up of
several sub-projects/activities
 Minimum energy access architecture demonstration
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VHG: Virtual Home Gateway
OPERA: Optimal End to End Resource Allocation
STAR: Switching & Transmission
REPTILE: Router Power Measurements
Single Chip Linecard
ZeBRA: Zero Buffer Router Architectures
SEASON: Service Energy Aware Sustainable Optical Networks*
HALF MOON: Highly Adaptive Layer for Mesh On-off Optical Networks
EFICOST: Energy Efficient High Capacity OFDM Signal Transmission
Telecommunication Audits and Data Aggregation
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
GreenTouch Project Process
Project concept
presented to
relevant WG(s);
project proposal
prepared
incorporating any inkind or cash funding
from partners
Relevant WG(s)
discusses and
endorses the
proposal
Technical Committee
discusses and
approves the
proposal; passes
funding requests
onto the Executive
Board
Includes endorsement
of contributed or
cooperative projects
& activities
Opportunity for
members to review,
solicit, & fund projects
or make in-kind
contributions
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Members can direct
donations for the purpose
of funding projects or
activities, or make a
general contribution
Initial Activities
 Build research program
 First technology demonstration spring 2011
 Establish common reference architecture
 Define primary research targets
 Establish expected trends on key metrics to 2020
 Provide international forum for cooperation and
exchange of ideas on energy research topics
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
New Approaches: Focus on Energy
 New devices
• Analog vs digital, best use of optics and electronics
• Old ideas finding new life: large scale MIMO
 New architectures
• trade-off transmission/bandwidth and processing, distributed versus
centralized
 New protocols
• Longer packet sizes or no packets at all for certain applications
 Service optimized networks
• Move away from one size fits all—use most energy efficiency hardware for
the service
• Coordinate service delivery/applications with network hardware operation
 Restructuring layers, architectures, feature options
• How much do way pay in energy for convenience? duplicated functions (FEC)?
• What technologies do we really need in order to support the essential
capabilities?
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Minimizing Processing
 Repetition
• Unnecessary router hops
• Inter-operator exchange
• Multiple transmissions
 Remove processing from the data path
• Separate control channel?
 Focus on Service
• Content delivery vs. browsing vs messaging
 Push to the edges
• FEC
• Security, policy processing
 Simplified Addressing
• Geographic addressing/binary switching
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
Separate what is
needed from what
is convenience
A Scalable Internet: Holistic Re-Design
 Processing
• New addressing—transparent data flow
• End-to-End—security, FEC
 Back to the Future
• Optimized hardware for given task: service differentiation
– Take the movies out of the routers
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How many layers do we need?
How do protocols and algorithms impact hardware design?
How do we unlock physical potential—small cells, efficient MIMO?
What is the real energy cost for the features and functions
supported in the network?
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
ANNUAL GROWTH RATE (%)
Opportunities
 A global organization dedicated to the long
term sustainability of ICT networks
300
250
 Tackle major problems end-to-end, full
picture
200
 Lay the foundation technologies
150
 Clear vision for future: roadmap
100
Future is a different
game than the past
50
0
1995
2000
© 2011-2012 GreenTouch Consortium
2005
2010
YEAR
2015
2020
2025
Thank You
www.greentouch.org
© 2011 GreenTouch Consortium
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