Chapter 4. Labor Market Equilibrium

advertisement
“Order is not pressure which is imposed
on society from without, but an
equilibrium which is set up from within.”
-Jose Ortega y Gasset


Labor market equilibrium coordinates the desires
of firms and workers, determining the wage and
employment observed in the labor market.
perfect competitive labor market
• invisible hand theorem
monopsonies,monopolies
policy application




producer surplus
worker surplus
The competitive market maximizes the total
gains from trade accruing to the economy.
efficient allocation: the allocation of persons
to firms that maximizes the total gains from
trade in the labor market.



If workers were mobile and entry and exit of
workers to the labor market was free, then there
would be a single wage paid to all workers.
The allocation of workers to firms equating the
wage to the value of marginal product is also the
allocation that maximizes national income (this is
known as allocative efficiency).
The “invisible hand” process: self-interested
workers and firms accomplish a social goal that
no one had in mind, i.e., allocative efficiency.



The “single wage” property of a competitive
equilibrium has important implications for
economic efficiency.
The allocation of workers to firms that
equates the value of marginal product across
markets is also the sorting that leads to an
efficient allocation of labor resources.
5.7
LA
Percent Annual Wage Growth
GA
NH
ME
VT
VA
5.5
MS
AR
5.3
MD
MA
IA
FL
NSC
C
KS
MI
CT
DE
TN
AL
NE
5.1
NJ
OK
MN
TXMO PA WI
RI
UT
AZ
ND
SD
OH
IL CO
KY
4.9
WV
IN
WA
NY
MT CA
NM
NV
4.7
ID
OR
WY
4.5
.9
1.1
1.3
1.5
Manufacturing Wage in 1950
1.7
1.9




NAFTA created a free trade zone in North
America.
Free trade reduces the income differential
between the United States and other
countries in the zone, such as Mexico.
Total income of the countries in the trade
zone is maximized as a result of equalized
economic opportunities across the countries
in the zone.
Download
Related flashcards

Economic theories

19 cards

Russian economists

23 cards

Spanish economists

54 cards

Create Flashcards