60311 - Apartheid Review - Fullerton Union High School

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South Africa
http://www.worldmapnow.com/images/2009/11/south-africa-map.gif
Tribes in South Africa
• Zulu
• Xhosa
• Sotho
AREIAL VIEW
TABLE MOUNTAIN & BAY
• http://www.tropicalisland.de/travel_south_africa_cape_town
.html
Early History
A Time Line
• 1806 – British seize Cape of Good Hope
• 1835 – Great Trek
• 1856 – Orange Free State (Afrikaner republic)
• 1854 – Transvaal (Afrikaner republic)
• 1867 – Discovery of Gold
• 1886 – Discovery of Diamonds
• 1889 – 1902 – The Boer War (British and Dutch settlers)
The Boers
• The Boers were white
farmers who were
descendants of the Dutch.
• They migrated from the
Cape because of British
colonialism and constant
border wars between the
British and the natives.
The Great Trek
KIMBERLEY
• http://www.palagems.c
om/kunz_reminiscences
2.htm
A scene in the Kimberly
region of South Africa,
illustrating the handling of
diamonds, called
diamond digging, which is
somewhat along the lines
of placer gold mining.
The Boer Wars
• Fought between the UK
and the two Boer republics
• 1st war
• short lasting about one year
• was the struggle between
Boer people trying to regain
their independence.
• 2nd war
• longer
• ended with the conversion of
the Boer republics and British
colonies.
THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
• 1910 South Africa creates a white minority
government —
• FEDERATION OF:
• 1. TRANSVAAL
• 2. ORANGE FREE STATE
• 3. CAPE (COLONY)
• 4. NATAL
• INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF RACIAL
DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE BLACK
MAJORITY
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
& APARTHEID
• 1911 & 1926 MINES & WORKS ACT
• Color Ban on certain jobs; Salaries for whites higher
• 1913 & 1936 NATIVES LAND ACTS
• Land Raid—Allocated 13% of total land to the
black majority and 87% to the white minority
• 1923 NATIVES ACT (URBAN AREAS)
• Segregation in residential areas of cities— Blacks
had to carry special papers to stay in cities
• 1937 NATIVES LAWS AMENDMENT ACT
• Pass laws required Blacks to carry identification
and authorization to enter white areas.
PASSBOOK
http://www.un.org/av/photo/subje
cts/apartheid.htm
3rd image
A Black South African shows his passbook issued by
the Government. Blacks were required to carry passes
that determined where they could live and work.
AFRIKANER NATIONALISM
1900-1948
• 1918 – Secret Broederbond
• Poor education for black Africans
• 1936 – Representation of Voters Act
• Blacks can only vote for white people
• LANGUAGE - AFRIKAANS IN THE WESTERN CAPE
• Unique language origins—Dutch modified by
indigenous & outside languages
• SOUTH AFRICA FLAG (1928-1994)
• The Boers and the British
ruled together under the
Union of South Africa.
• In 1948, the National
Party was voted into
power and instituted a
policy of apartheid.
• The apartheid was a
policy of segregation.
http://www.south-africa-tours-and-travel.com/images/signboard-from-theapartheid-era-apartheid.jpg
APARTHEID LEGISLATION MANDATED:
• 1950 POPULATION REGISTRATION ACT
• Registration by Color Forced to register as : White, Bantu (Black), Asian
(Indian & Pakistani) or Colored (people of mixed race)
• 1950 GROUP AREAS ACT
• Geographic Separation in business and residence
• 1953 RESERVATION OF SEPARATE AMENITIES
ACT
• Segregation of Buses, Parks, and other Public Places
• 1953 Bantu Education Act
• Separate but Not Equal: Enforced Racial Discrimination
of schools
A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982.
Segregated public facilities in Johannesburg,
1985.
Young, black South Africans looking in on a game of soccer at an all-white school in
Johannesburg. Government spending, about 10 times more for white children than for black,
clearly showed the inequality designed to give whites more economic and political power. Poorly
trained teachers, overcrowded classrooms, and inadequate recreational facilities were normal for
black children, if in fact they had any schooling available at all.
More Restrictions!!!
• The Bantu Authorities Act of 1951 and the
Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959
furthered these divisions between the races by creating
ten African "homelands“ to be self-governed by the
various “tribes.”
• The Bantu Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970
made every black South African a citizen of one of the
homelands which eliminated black Africans from
South African politics.
BANTUSTANS
AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO MINORITY WHITE RULE
• One Man’s Freedom Fighter is Another Man’s Terrorist
• 1912 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIVE NATIONAL
CONGRESS BECOMES THE AFRICAN NATIONAL
CONGRESS—THE ANC
• STRIKES, BOYCOTTS AND SYMBOLIC ACTS OF
DEFIANCE
• 1950s DEFIANCE CAMPAIGN MASS RESISTANCE—
PUBLIC DISOBEDIENCE
• 1955 FREEDOM CHARTER
FREEDOM CHARTER 1955
• We, the People of South Africa, declare for all our country
and the world to know:
• that South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and
white, and that no government can justly claim authority
unless it is based on the will of all the people;
www.sahistory.org.za/
AFRICAN RESISTANCE TO MINORITY WHITE RULE
• 1959 PAN AFRICANIST CONGRESS
• PAC split from the ANC because
it objected to the ANC‘s non-racial policies & took
a bolder approach based more on mass action.
MASSACRE AT SHARPEVILLE 1960
STATE TERRORISM
• TERROR IS OFTEN AT ITS BLOODIEST WHEN USED
BY DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENTS AGAINST THEIR
OWN CITIZENS.
REACTIONS TO THE TERRORIST STATE
• 1961 SOUTH AFRICA IS
EXPELLED FROM THE
COMMONWEALTH OF
NATIONS
• MANDELA – “SPEAR OF
THE NATION”— 200 ACTS
OF SABOTAGE AGAINST
PASS OFFICES,
GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS,
AND POWER SUPPLIES
• 1962 MANDELA ILLEGALLY LEAVES
• 1. SUPPORT FOR THE ANC
• 2. TO MILITARY TRAINING.
• 1962 MANDELA IMPRISONED FOR 3 YEARS
• 1963 RIVONIA TREASON TRIAL
ROBBEN ISLAND
ROBBEN ISLAND
• 12 km FROM CAPE TOWN
• A PRISON FOR
400 YEARS
TO ISOLATE
OPPONENTS OF
APARTHEID
NELSON MANDELA
IN PRISON
SOUTH AFRICA
THE APARTHEID STATE
• 1970s INCREASED GOVERNMENT REPRESSION
• COLOR BAN ON FREEDOM OF TRAVEL AND WORK—
BLACK AFRICANS BECOME MORE IMPOVERISHED
Grave of the young
Black leader, Steve Biko,
in King Williams Town,
South Africa. Biko died
while in prison in 1977.
During the investigation
into his death, strong
evidence was presented
that Biko suffered
violent and inhumane
treatment during his
imprisonment.
SOWETO TOWNSHIP
• 20 km FROM JOHANNESBURG
• LARGEST BLACK URBAN COMMUNITY
COMPRISING THE BLACK COMMUNITIES OF
THE SOUTHWESTERN TOWNSHIPS
SOWETO TOWNWHIP
SOWETO STUDENT MASSACRE 1976
• STUDENT RIOT AGAINST GOVERNMENT MANDATE TO
TEACH AFRIKAANS LANGUAGE
• 1,000 DEAD
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