First Nations of Canada

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First Nations of Canada Unit
DEFINITIONS
Aboriginal – the
descendants of the
original inhabitants of
Turtle Island (North
America).
This is an umbrella term
used to categorize all
people of Indian, Metis
and Inuit ancestry into a
single entity.
Usage is acceptable if
your intention is to
categorize all nations
into a single entity.
Crown:
refers to the government (term comes from the fact that we are
decedents of a monarchy – get it crown for king of queen)
Aboriginal:
refers to all peoples that are considered to be the first people to
inhabit the land.
First Nations: the native people of Canada to replace the word ‘Indian’.
Inuit: the native people of northern Canada
Metis:
people who are half First Nations and half European (mostly French)
FNIM:
initial commonly used in Canada for “First Nation Inuit Metis”
FSIN:
initials commonly used in Saskatchewan/Canada “Federation of
Saskatchewan Indian Nations”.
SICC:
initials for “Saskatchwewan Indian Cultural Centre”
AFN: “Assembly of First Nations”
Band:
a body of First Nations who share land.
Reserve: land given to the a group of First Nations in which they can live
and govern. In Saskatchewan we have approximately 60 Reserves.
Off-reserve:
a term used to describe people, services or objects that are
not part of a reserve but relate to First Nations people.
Tribal Council:
a regional group of First Nations members (think of it
as a bunch of Bands joining together). Some tribe names include:
Algonkin, Cree, Cheppewa, Haida, Huron, Iroquois, Shuswap, Assinaboine,
Ottawa, Dakota, Dene,
Indian Act:
a Canadian legislation first passed in 1876 but amended
(changed) several times since. Indian Act outlines who is considered
‘Indian’. It sets out the federal gov’t obligations to the First Nations
people. It also regulates the management of the Indian reserves, Indian
moneys and other resources.
Status Indian: a person who is registered as an Indian under the Indian
Act.
Terminology
… con’t
Non-status Indian:
an Indian who is not registered as an
Indian under the Indian Act.
Treaty Indian:
a Status Indian who belongs to a First
Nations group that signed a treaty with the crown.
Treaty:
an agreement signed between a specific tribe and
the crown.
Tribe:
a group of Indians who lived and worked together.
Urban Reserve: a reserve of land occupied by First Nations in
a Treaty that resides in a city. Saskatoon has many urban
reserves.
First Nations
First Nations – new term,
referring to the ancestors
of the original
inhabitants who are
classified by the term
“Indian”
replaces the term
‘Indian’ except in
reference to the Act
Umbrella term for those
recognized by the Indian
Act.
Terminology
Indian – legal term under the
‘Indian Act’; The Act defines
who can be an ‘Indian’
May have three legal
definitions:
Status – means you fit under the
Indian Act; registered, thus have
‘status’; every “Indian” has
status
Treaty – has status, plus belong
to a First Nation that signed a
treaty
Non-status – claim Indian/First
Nations status, yet are not
registered under the Act. They
identify with a First Nations or
Inuit Community culturally or
linguistically
FIRST NATIONS IN
SASKATCHEWAN
(Commonly used term in brackets)
NEHIYAWIK (Cree)
DENE (Chipewyan, but not
recommended)
ANISHINABE (Ojibway;
Saulteaux)
SIOUX: Lakota (Sioux),
Dakota (Sioux), Nakota
(Sioux); Assiniboine; Stoney
but not recommeded)
Part II: Identity
Current requirements:
Must produce records denoting Metis ancestry
Must be accepted by the Metis community as being Metis
Must expressly hold herself/himself to be of Metis
ancestry
Must have origins in the Metis Homeland
Must be accepted by whites as well as Indians – feel lost
as they don’t know where they fit in.
The Traditional Metis Homeland
Traditional First Nations Spirituality
God/Creator/Great Spirit
Sun/Moon/Earth/Stars
Rock/Fire/Air/Water
Plant Life
Insect World
Swimmers/Flyers
Four Legged Creatures
Humans
HELPFUL WEBSITES
http://www.fsin.com/ FSIN website
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numbered_Treaties Numbered Treaties
Website
www.google.ca Google
http://www.aboriginalcanada.gc.ca/acp/site.nsf/eng/ao04576.html#general
Aboriginal Canada
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