adoption and international adoption in the czech republic

ADOPTION AND
INTERNATIONAL
ADOPTION IN THE
CZECH REPUBLIC
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
www.law.muni.cz
THE CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
SOME INFORMATION ABOUT THE CZECH REPUBLIC
SOME INFORMATION ABOUT CZECH LEGAL ORDER
RELEVANT CURRENT STATISTICAL DATA
ADOPTION OF MINORS: CONCEPT
 LAW IN BOOKS
 LAW IN ACTION
5. INTERNATIONAL (intercountry) ADOPTION OF MINORS
 LAW IN BOOKS
 LAW IN ACTION
6. CONCLUSION
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
2
www.law.muni.cz
1. THE CZEH REPUBLIC
MAIN TURNING-POINTS
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
the Czechoslovak Republic
(since 1918)
the second word war
(1939 -1945)
the communist take-over
(in 1948)
the collapse of communism
(in 1989)
the Czech Republic
(since 1993)
the accession to the European
Union
(in 2004)
3
www.law.muni.cz
2. SOME INFORMATION ABOUT
CZECH LEGAL ORDER
 Austrian Civil Code - ABGB
(1918)
 both minors and aduls
 „contract“
 non full
 after 1989
 human right conventions
 Convention for Protection of Human Rights
and Fundamenta Freedoms (CE)
 Convention on the Rights of the Child (UN)
 Convention on Protection pf Children and
Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry
Adoption (Hague)
 European Convention on the Adoption of
Children (CE)
 Act on Family Law (1949)
 only adoption of minors because
of political reasons
 Act on the Family (1963)
 full adoption of minors
 amendment to the Act on
the Family (1998)
 better protection of mother, putative
father, family of origin
 the Children Act (1999)
 better protection of the child
 Civil Code (2014)
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková

new conception according to the revised
European Convention on the Adoption of Children4
(CE)
www.law.muni.cz
3. RELEVANT CURRENT STATISTICAL DATA
The population of the Czech Republic was 10 517 408 at 31 March 2014.
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
5
www.law.muni.cz
4. ADOPTION OF MINORS - LAW IN BOOKS
CONCEPT
A) NON EXISTING OR NON FUNCTIONING NATURAL
FAMILY
B) ADOPTABLE CHILD
C) CONSENT BY PARENTS OR THEIR NON-INTEREST
D) CONSENT BY CHILD
E) THE BEST INTEREST OF THE CHILD
F) THE EXISTENCE OF PROSPECTIVE ADOPTERS
G) MATCHING BY THE STATE
H) OBLIGATORY PRE-ADOPTION CARE
CH) THE MOTION AND THE COURT DECISION - STATUS
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
6
www.law.muni.cz
ADOPTABLE CHILD
 REAL ORPHAN
 DEAD PARENTS
 NO FAMILY AT ALL
 BABY- BOX (de facto, since 2005: cca 100 children)
 SOCIAL ORPHAN
 CONSENT OF THE PARENTS
 NON-INTEREST OF THE PARENTS
 PARENTS WERE DEPRIVED OF PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITY AND OF
THE RIGHT TO GIVE A CONSENT
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
7
www.law.muni.cz
THE INFORMED CONSENT OF THE PARENT
RULES
„Adoption requires the consent
of the child's parents.“


mother: 6 weeks from delivery
father: anytime after delivery


at the court
personally


option of consent withrawal: 3 months
expiry: after 6 years
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
 DIRECT
 parents know future adopters
 parenst „meets“ future adopters at
court
 NON DIRECT
 towards unknown adopters
 intermediation by the state:
matching
 parents will not „meet“ future
adopters at court
8
www.law.muni.cz
NON INTEREST OF THE PARENTS
 APARENT NON INTEREST
 SPECIAL COURT PROCEEDING
„ON ADOPTABILITY“
 LEGAL PRESUMPTION
„Proceedings, whether there will be
the consent of the parents necessary“
 3 MONTHS SINCE INSTRUCTION,
ADVICE AND ASSISTANCE (SOCIAL
WORK)
EFFECTS:
 the child is adoptable (not legally
free)
 the matching and adoption process
may start
-
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
9
www.law.muni.cz
THE RIGHTS OF PUTATIVE FATHER
Since 1998
„If paternity could not be determined pursuant to the legal
presumptions, the child, the mother and the man claiming to be the
father may request that the court determine paternity.“
„The child cannot be adopted until the court's ruling on the paternity
suit filed by a man who claims to be the father of the adopted child
takes effect.“
 inspiration by the case Keegan v. Ireland decided by the ECHR
- the child was born out of marriage,
but there was informal long lasting relationship
- mother left the father and gave the child for adoption
violation of Art. 8 Convention for the Protection of Human
Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
10
www.law.muni.cz
THE INFORMED CONSENT OF THE CHILD
 ADOPTEE
 over 12 years: always consent
the right to revoke
 THE MINOR PARENT
 over 16 years
 under 12 years: view
if not possible (a baby): the right to
be informed later – basic school
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
11
www.law.muni.cz
THE EXISTENCE OF RIGHT PROSPECTIVE ADOPTERS





high moral quality
full capacity to legal acts
good health conditions
adequate age difference (min. 16 years)
well motivated and prepared
 non close relatives (exception: surrogation)
 if couple, only husband and wife (different sex),
spouse of adopter, one of spouses, one person
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
12
www.law.muni.cz
LAW IN ACTION: MATCHING PROCESS
REGION
AUTHORITY
FOR CHILD
PROTECTION
CENTRAL
AUTHORITY
LOCAL
AUTHORITY
FOR CHILD
PROTECTION
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
13
www.law.muni.cz
OBLIGATORY PRE-ADOPTION CARE
 DECISION: THE COURT
 AIM: TO CREATE FAMILY TIES
 AT LEAST 6 MONTHS
 ON THE OWN COSTS OF FUTURE ADOPTERS AS
MAINTENANCE DUTY OF THE PARENTS IS SUSPENDED
 THE GUARDIAN IS APPOINTED AS EXCERCISE OF
PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITY IS SUSPENDED
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
14
www.law.muni.cz
THE COURT PROCEEDINGS ON ADOPTION
 ON THE MOTION OF FUTURE ADOPTERS
 PARTIES:
 parents, who give consent
 the child
 adoptive parents, one of couple and his/her spouse
 personal presens - hearing
 constitutive decision
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
15
www.law.muni.cz
EFFECTS OF ADOPTION OF MINORS
FULL ADOPTION - status change - important for everybody
Civil Code
 ties to natural family cease to exist
 the rise of new ties towards family of adopter
 the change of child´s surname – possiblity to have 2 surnames
vital register ►new documents
Act on registers, name and surname
 the adopters may choose or add new name to the child
Act on state citizenship
 the child becomes a citizen of the Czech Republic
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
16
www.law.muni.cz
REVOCATION OF ADOPTION
 IMPORTANT REASONS
 MOTION OF THE CHILD OR THE ADOPTIVE PARENTS
 THE COURT DECISION
 ONLY WITHIN 3 YEARS !!!!
EFFECTS:
 „COMEBACK“ TO NATURAL FAMILY
 CHANGE OF SURNAME
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
17
www.law.muni.cz
5. INTERNATIONAL ADOPTION OF MINORS
LAW IN BOOKS v. LAW IN ACTION
„THE HAGUE“
ACCORDING TO THE CONVENTION ON
THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AND
CO-OPERATION IN RESPECT OF
INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION (SINCE 2000)
ONLY CENTRAL AUTHORITY - STEPS





APPLICATION - MATCHING
INTERACTION: 7 – 21 DAYS
REPORTS - COURT: PREADOPTION CARE
FOLLOW-UP REPORTS: 6 MONTHS 3 REPORTS
THE CONSENT TO ADOPTION
„NON HAGUE“
to the Czech Republic: together ???
non official information 2010: 28
KONGO
from the Czech Republic: together ???
from the Czech Republic: 2010 – 6/2014: 505
(every year cca 35)
to the Czech Republic: ???
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
18
www.law.muni.cz
THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN GIVEN FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC TO
PREADOPTION CARE ACCORDING TO THE COUNTRIES (2000 – 2014)
Denmark
France
Iceland
Italy
Canada
Cyprus
Germany
Austria
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
USA
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
19
www.law.muni.cz
THE NUMBER OF CHILDREN GIVEN FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC TO
PREADOPTION CARE ACCORDING TO THE SEX (2000 – 2014)
boys
girls
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
20
www.law.muni.cz
6. CONCLUSIONS
 NEW CIVIL CODE WAS DESIGNED ACCORDING TO THE
CONVENTIONS
 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (CE)
Europe)
 Convention on the Right of the Child (UN)
 European Convention on Adoption of Children (CE, revised!)
 Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry
Adoption (the Hague)
 NEW CIVIL CODE
STANDARDS
BRAZIL 2014 - Zdeňka Králíčková
(HOPEFULLY)
MEETS EUROPEAN
21
Download
Related flashcards

Democratic socialism

40 cards

Media in Kiev

23 cards

First French Empire

27 cards

Geopoliticians

52 cards

Create Flashcards