Environmental issues - Penang Forum

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Penang Environmental Agenda
Leong Yueh Kwong
Malaysian Nature Society
29/10/11
1
Introduction
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Penang’s environmental problems are well known and
well published in the media over the last 25 years
Still a major concern judging by the entries in
PenangWatch.net with environment after public
transport and local government
Concerns include
 hill cutting
 Land reclamation
 Water pollution
 Air pollution
 Inappropriate development, etc
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From environmental protection to
sustainable development
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A paradigm shift from environmental
conservation and protection to sustainable
development
Shift as a result of the Earth Summit in Rio
1992
Environmental issues all subsumed under
Agenda 21- national and local
Sustainability becomes underlying framework
to view environmental issues
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Studies done on Penang’s environment
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Quite a large number of studies by USM on
water, air and noise pollution
Monitoring of air quality, water quality by
DOE
Flooding and mitigation by DID
Structure Plan 1980s
Penang Environmental Conservation Strategy
1999
Penang Strategic Development Plan 2 (20012010)
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Penang Environmental Conservation
Strategy (PECS)
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Comprehensive study commissioned by the Penang
State Government with inputs from 15 environmental
specialists
Identified all major environmental problems in
Penang
Recommended strategies to resolve the problems
Proposed action programs for the strategies
Identified departments, agencies and institutions that
would be involved
Proposed institutional arrangements to undertake the
action programs
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Scope of PECS
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Land use and integrated planning
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Land use plan
Hill land conservation
Land reclamation
Conservation and management of natural
resources
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Water
Forest
Biological diversity
Marine resources
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Scope of PECS ….cont’d
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Urban environment issues
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Urbanization and human settlements
Waste management
Industrial pollution
Environmental health
Infrastructure development
Transport
Energy use
Gardens, parks and open spaces
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Coastal zone management
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Coastal land reclamation
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Tanjung Tokong land reclamation
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Privatized
5 more islands to be reclaimed
Impacts on Gurney drive and Penang port
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Sedimentation
Shallowing of port
Increased sedimentaion and water quality
Jelutong land reclamation
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29/10/11
Privatized
Impacts on straits of Penang
Loss of linear park
8
Coastal zone management
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Closing of beaches and coastal waters to Penang
public and the issue of public access to beaches and
coastal waters
Hotels and high rise condos in beach front and loss of
aesthetic value
Carrying capacity of coastal zone exceeded? Over
building and violation of development control
guidelines
Hill cutting along Batu Feringhii and sedimentation of
coastal waters
Infrastructure inadequacy and traffic bottlenecks
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Hill cutting and development
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Legal and illegal hill cutting
Construction of illegal roads up the hills
Hill farms and soil erosion and abandonment
as practice not sustainable
Development in hill slopes
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Landslides and land slips in Paya Terubong
Water catchments and diversion of water to
farms and other use
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Drying up of waterfalls and streams
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Public open space
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Penang has very limited public open space
Federal Town and Country Department
recommends 6 to 7 acres per 1000 population
Penang Island Structure Plan recommends 8
hectares per 5000
MPPP requires only 2 hectares per 5,000
Urgent need when 90% of new residential
units are high rise and small for medium and
low cost housing
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Requirements for public open
space
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Projected population of Penang in 2010
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Public space requirements based on 4 ha per 2500
population
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1,647,000
1
1
1
1
ha
ha
ha
ha
neighborhood parks
town park
community park
regional park
Penang requires 2635 ha of public open space
Available space in Penang Island and Sebarang Perai
in 2000 is 449 ha
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How to find the space?
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Acquire land
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Allocate existing land
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Expensive option
Need political will
Land reclamation
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30% for public recreation
Linear coastal parks
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Next Steps
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Action required
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Working group on each issue
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Hill development
Coastal zone development and land reclamation
Pollution
Tree planting and greening of urban areas
Conservation of nature
Public open space
Etc, etc
Issues to be determined by the participants here
Institutional mechanisms for implementation
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