GENERAL ZOOLOGY

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ZOOLOGY
BIO 141
Dr. Sumithran
 http://people.eku.edu/sumithrans
/Zoo/Home.html
Introduction
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What is life?
Introduction
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Difficult to define
Therefore discuss properties of living
systems
Properties of Living Systems
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1) Chemical Uniqueness
Made up of large molecules
MACROMOLECULES
Four categories
Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Properties of Living Systems
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2) Complexity and Hierarchical
Organization
One level builds on previous level
Macromolecules
Cells
Tissue
Organs
Organ system etc
Emergent Characteristics –
Unique characteristics that appear at a given
level of organization
Properties of Living Systems
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3) Reproduction
Replacement of individuals in a population
Types of Reproduction
Asexual
Sexual
Properties of Living Systems
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4) Possession of a Genetic Program
Faithful transmission of traits – Heredity
Information contained in Genes
Specifically encoded in the DNA
Properties of Living Systems
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5) Metabolism
Complex chemical processes that go on in
cells – provide energy
Two processes
Anabolism – Building up reactions
Catabolism – Breaking down reactions
Properties of Living Systems
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6) Growth / Development
Changes that take place during the life of
an organism
Metamorphosis – The transformation that
take place in post-embryonic stages
Properties of Living Systems
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7) Environmental Interaction
Ecology – Study of interactions between
organisms and their environment
Organisms responding to stimuli from
environment
IRRITABILITY
IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL
CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES
DARWIN’S THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
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Charles Darwin
Galapagos Islands
1859 – Published “The Origin of Species”
Major obstacle – Heredity not understood
5 major theories
DARWIN’S THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
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1) Perpetual Change
Living world is neither constant nor cyclic
instead is constantly changing
Fossil Evidence
99% of species that once lived on the
planet now extinct
DARWIN’S THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
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2) Common Descent
All forms of life descended from a
common ancestor through branching
lineages
PHYLOGENY
DNA studies – Provide evidence
DARWIN’S THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
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3) Multiplication
of Species
new species are
produced by the
splitting and
transformation of
older ones
Process known as –
Speciation
DARWIN’S THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
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4) Gradualism
Large differences that characterize
different species, originate through the
accumulation of small changes over a
period of time
Did not take place overnight – but over
geological time
DARWIN’S THEORY OF
EVOLUTION
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5) Natural Selection
Explains why organisms are constructed
the way they are
To meet the demands of their
environment
CLASSIFICATION
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Developed by Linnaeus
Categories of Animal Classification
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Kingdom - Animalia
Phylum - Chordata
Class - Mammalia
Order - Primates
Family - Hominidae
Genus - Homo
Species - sapiens
The End
Write on Cards
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Name
Year in school
Major, Minor, Emphasis
Why are you taking this course?
Name one thing you would like to learn about in
this course
Career goals…
Hobbies, interests, anything cool!!!
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