Cagri Ozge Topal
OSU ECEN 5060 Nanotechnology
The revolution of nanotechnology in molecular biology gives an
opportunity to detect and manipulate atoms and molecules at the
molecular and cellular level.
Definition of Nanobiosensor
Types of Nanobiosensors
Working Principle and Fabrication of Optical and FET Nanobiosensors
Application Areas and Current Research
Future Research
What is a Nanobiosensor?
 A biosensor is a measurement system for the detection of an analyte
that combines a biological component with a physicochemical
detector, and a nanobiosensor is a biosensor that on the nano-scale
Biological Recognition Element
Living biological system
(cell, tissue or whole organism)
Biological molecular species
(antibody, enzyme, protein…)
Biosensor Development
 1916 First report on the immobilization of proteins: adsorption of
invertase on activated charcoal.
 1956 Invention of the first oxygen electrode [Leland Clark]
 1962 First description of a biosensor: an amperometric enzyme
electrode for glucose. [Leland Clark, New York Academy of
Sciences Symposium]
 1969 First potentiometric biosensor: urease immobilized on an
ammonia electrode to detect urea. [Guilbault and Montalvo]
 1970 Invention of the Ion-Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET).
 1972/5 First commercial biosensor: Yellow Springs Instruments
glucose biosensor.
 1976 First bedside artificial pancreas [Clemens et al.]
 1980 First fiber optic pH sensor for in vivo blood gases.
 1982 First fiber optic-based biosensor for glucose
 1983 First surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor.
 1987 Launch of the blood glucose biosensor[ MediSense]
Principle of Detection
Electric distribution
Light intensity
Types of Nanobiosensors
Optical Biosensors
Nanotube Based Biosensors
Electrical Biosensors
Viral Nanosensors
Electrochemical Biosensors
Nanoshell Biosensors
Nanowire Biosensors
 Optical Nanobiosensors
A sensor that uses light to detect the effect of a chemical on a
biological system. [Kopelman et al.]
The small size of the optical fibers allow sensing intracelular
intercelular physiological and biological parameter in microenvironment.
Two kind of fabrication
methods for optical fiber tips;
1) Heat and Pull Method
2) Chemical Etching
Nanowire Field Effect Nanobiosensors(FET)
Sensing Element
Semiconductor channel
(nanowire) of the transistor.
 The semiconductor channel is fabricated using nanomaterials such
a carbon nanotubes,metal oxide nanowires or Si nanowires.
 Very high surface to volume radio and very large portion of the atoms
are located on the surface.
Extremely sensitive to environment
Applications of Nanobiosensors
Biological Applications
 DNA Sensors; Genetic monitoring, disease
 Immunosensors; HIV, Hepatitis,other viral diseas, drug testing,
environmental monitoring…
 Cell-based Sensors; functional sensors, drug testing…
 Point-of-care sensors; blood, urine, electrolytes, gases, steroids,
drugs, hormones, proteins, other…
 Bacteria Sensors; (E-coli, streptococcus, other): food industry,
medicine, environmental, other.
 Enzyme sensors; diabetics, drug testing, other.
Environmental Applications
 Detection of environmental pollution and toxicity
 Agricultural monitoring
 Ground water screening
 Ocean monitoring
Future Application
Cancer Monitoring
 Nanobiosensors play a very important role for early cancer detection in
body fluids.
 The sensor is coated with a cancer-specific antibody or other
biorecognation ligands. The capture of a cancer cell or a target protein
yields electrical, optical or mechanical signal for detection. [Professor
Calum McNeil detection of cancer proteins that cause MRSA]
Identification of Biomarkers
Validation of Cancer Biomarkers
Cancer Biomarkers
Ligands / Probes Developments
Cancer Diagnostics Biosensor ← Detector
Point of Care Cancer Diagnostics
 Cullum, B.(2000). The development of optical nanosensors for
biological measurements. Trends in Biotechnology, Vol 18,388-393.
 Vo-Dihn, T.(2002).Nanobiosensors: Probing the sanctuary of
individual living cells. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement,
Vol. 39, 154-161
 Pathak, P. et al.(2007). Cancer Research - Nanoparticles,
nanobiosensors and their use in cancer research. Journal of
Nanotechnology Online, Vol.3, 1-14.
 Rogers, K.(2006). Recent advances in biosensor techniques for
environmental monitoring. Analitica Chimica Acta. Vol. 568(1-2), 599624.
 Li, C. (2005).Complementary Detection of Prostate-Specific Antigen
Using In2O3 Nanowires and Carbon Nanotubes. Journal of the
American Chemical Society, Vol.127(36), 12484-12485.