Ch. 16 PPT - Moravia School District

Chapter 16
Transformations in Europe,
1500 - 1750
AP World History
Martin Luther (1483 - 1546)
Started Protestant Reformation – although did not originally intend to break away
from Church, Tetzel’s indulgences were the final straw.
Ninety-Five Theses in 1517 resulted in new Christian denominations
and his excommunication (1521).
John Calvin (1509 - 1564)
Calvinism teaches salvation is a gift from God to only
those predestined for salvation. Broke from the
Roman Catholic Church around 1530.
The Council of Trent (met on and off from 1545 to 1563). Issued condemnations on
what it defined as Protestant heresies and defined Church teachings. Started
Catholic, or Counter, Reformation
Europe following the
Which areas of Europe
had the largest areas of
Protestant sects –
What motivations
besides religious did
some leaders have
for breaking with the
Church –
The Peace of Augsburg (1555) brought a temporary truce in the religious conflict
in the Holy Roman Empire. Proved to be short lived - soon Thirty Years War
broke out (1618-1648), (result of a conflict in the Hapsburg-ruled Kingdom of Bohemia).
The Peace of Westphalia of 1648 ended the Thirty Years' War
France emerged as the dominant power on the European continent
Witch-hunts were searches for “witches” or “evidence of
witchcraft”, often the result of personal grudges/scores to settle, a
person being an outsider, etc. If accused of being a witch you
were all but guilty
The extraordinary fear of the power of witches in the late 16th
and 17th centuries is testimony to the belief in the spiritual
causes of natural events. (Over 100,000 people, 3/4 women,
were tried and at least ½ of them were executed)
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543), Polish astronomer, first
person (in Ren. Europe) to publish heliocentric theory. His book
is regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy; and the
start of the Scientific Revolution. (According to legend book was not published until the
end of his life; and he received it on his death bed - Why?)
Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642)
Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher;
played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. Built a 30x
telescope, openly supported Copernican theory.
Trial of Galileo
“And yet it moves”
What did the Church threaten Galileo with –
Why did he recant his theory; if he truly believed he was right -
Isaac Newton (1643 – 1727)
English physicist, mathematician, and astronomer, considered
to be one of the most influential thinkers of his time. His book
discusses classical mechanics, universal gravitation, and the
three laws of motion.
• Intellectual movement assumed that social behavior and
institutions were governed by natural laws.
• Influenced by Renaissance, Reformation, Sci Rev, (and
Greeks and Roman Republic). (Questioning traditional values and beliefs)
• Most thinkers were optimistic that the application of
reason would lead to human progress.
• Monarchs, nobles, and many from clergy attempted to put
down; but the printing press made that prospect all but
Thomas Hobbes (1588 - 1679)
Enlightenment philosopher – profoundly influenced by English Civil War.
His ideas on govt (Leviathon) differ drastically from that of his peers.
John Locke (1632 - 1704) - one of the most
influential Enlightenment philosophers. His
social contract theory and contributions to
democracy are reflected in the American
Declaration of Independence.
John Locke disputed claims to absolute authority by divine right. He
argued that rulers derived their authority from the consent of the
governed and, like everyone else, were subject to the law.
Locke believed all people had natural rights and it was the
govt’s job to protect those rights.
Pursuit of property
If govt did not protect these rights then the people had the right to -
Like Hobbes Locke was great influenced by a major
social/political event. What event so influenced his thinking
(Hint – Two Treatises on Govt written 1690)
François-Marie Arouet (1694 - 1778) - better known by the
pen name, Voltaire, advocate of many civil liberties,
including freedom of speech, religion, and free trade.
Montesquieu (1689 -1755)
Separation of powers, checks and balances found in many
constitutions throughout the world.
The Bourgeoisie
• Europe experienced spectacular growth from 1500-1700.
• Wealthy urban Bourgeoisie thrived on manufacturing,
finance, and especially trade.
• Amsterdam’s growth, built on trade and finance exemplifies
Bourgeoisie power.
• Forged mutually beneficial relationships with the
monarchs and built extensive family and ethnic
networks to facilitate trade.
• Partnerships between merchants and monarchs
led to the development of joint stock companies
and stock exchanges.
• Anglo-Dutch wars of the 1600s provide evidence of
the growing importance of trade.
• Many Bourgeoisie married into noble families or
purchased titles of nobility.
Peasants and Laborers
• Serfdom disappeared in Western Europe, but gained new
prominence in Eastern Europe.
• African slaves contributed greatly to Europe’s economy.
• New World crops helped peasants avoid starvation/improved
• High consumption of wood for heating, cooking, construction,
shipbuilding, and industrial uses led to deforestation.
• Europeans began to use coal instead of wood.
• Deforestation had particularly severe effects on the rural poor who
had used forests for building materials and food.
• Urban poor consisted of “deserving poor” and “undeserving poor.”
New World crops, like corn, potatoes, beans, squash,
helped peasants avoid starvation.
The trans-Atlantic slave trade Diaspora.
Middle Passage -
Women and the Family
• Women’s status tied closely to their husband.
• Young people of the Bourgeoisie married late to finish
education led to independence from parents and a low
birth rate.
• Bourgeoisie parents great emphasis on education and
promoted the establishment of schools.
• Most schools, professions, and guilds barred women.
State Development
• Between 1516 - 1519 Charles V inherited the thrones of
Castile and Aragon, with their colonial empires, the
Austrian Habsburg possessions, and position of Holy
Roman Emperor.
• Able to form coalition that defeated Ottomans at gates of
• Lutheran German princes rebelled against Frenchspeaking Catholic Charles, seized Church lands and gave
rise to German Wars of Religion.
• Rulers of Spain, England, and France began to pursue
own efforts at political unification.
Charles V (1500 – 1558)
Holy Roman Emperor, inherited the Spanish throne, halted the
Ottoman Empire’s advance into Europe, and is best known for
his strong opposition of the Protestant Reformation.
Empire of Charles V
Philip II (1527 – 1598) became the King of Spain when his father, Charles V,
abdicated and retired to a monastery. Used Spanish Inquisition to hunt down
anyone who was not Catholic (Jews, Muslims, Protestants, and his critics).
Launched Armada in 1588 to punish Elizabeth I and England
Spanish Armada 1588
Henry VIII (1491 - 1547)
King of England and besides his six marriages, Henry VIII is
known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from
the Roman Catholic Church.
Henry VIII’s six wives.
Catherine of Aragon was the youngest child of Ferdinand and
Isabella. She was Henry VIII’s 1st wife, the mother of Mary Queen of
Scots, and her divorce resulted in the separation of England from
the Roman Catholic Church.
Anne Boleyn was Catherine of Aragon’s Queen consort,
Henry VIII’s 2nd wife, mother of Queen Elizabeth I, and
was beheaded at the Tower of London for adultery.
Jane Seymour married Henry VIII 10 days after
Anne Boleyn’s execution, died two weeks after the
birth of Edward VI, was the only wife to receive
a queen’s funeral, and was buried beside Henry VIII.
Anne of Cleves was Henry VIII’s 4th wife. She was German and
he married her from a portrait, but when she showed up he
thought she was ugly. Fearing for her life, she agreed to a
Catherine Howard married Henry VII’s 20 days after his divorce
from Anne of Cleves. She was Anne Boleyn’s cousin and was
beheaded in less then two years for adultery.
Catherine Parr was Henry VIII’s 6th and final wife. She
was the first queen of Ireland.
Charles I (1600 – 1649)
King of England who believed he was an absolute monarch, did
not summon Parliament for 11 years. He plunged his kingdom into
the English Civil War after ordering the arrest of his leading critics
in the House of Commons. He was later beheaded for treason.
King James II (1633 – 1701)
Forced into exile in the Glorious Revolution (1688). William and
Mary (daughter) were called to the throne by Parliament, they
signed the English Bill of Rights and began a new
cooperation between the Parliament and the monarchs.
Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles symbolized the French monarch’s
triumph over the traditional rights of the nobility, clergy, and towns; as
well as broadcasting his power and wealth to all of France and Europe.
Required his most
powerful nobles to
at Versailles with h
Hall of Mirrors
Usefulness as a tool of state?
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469 - 1527)
Italian philosopher and writer – The Prince.
Advised rulers to achieve obedience through any means necessary
(Cesare Borgia).
“It is best to be both feared and loved; however if one
cannot be both it is better to be feared rather than
“The ends justify the means”
Meaning of each quote -
Warfare and Diplomacy
Cannon, muskets, and commoner foot soldiers became the
mainstays of European armies.
• Ships became more deadly with multiple tiers of
• England took the lead in naval development – best
demonstrated by defeat of the Armada
– From that point on England’s star rose; Spain’s waned
• With the emergence of Russia after the Great
Northern War the four powers of Europe; France,
Britain, Austria, and Russia were able to maintain
a balance of power.
Spanish Armada’s failed attempt to invade England (1588).
Superior English tactics and equipment; along with a
vicious storm spelled the end for Spain.
Route of the Armada
Where were the majority of the ships
destroyed (that were destroyed) -
Impact of the Armada’s defeat -
Charles XII
Peter the Great
Peter had already been
soundly defeated by
Charles. Consequently he
was unwilling to face
Charles’ army at full
strength and on Charles’
terms. The Russians used
the Scorched Earth Policy to
great effect. This tactic
would be copied in each of
the succeeding centuries by
the next two would be
invaders; and as in the case
of Peter’s defense of Russia
would work astoundly well.
Impact of Peter’s victory -
Scorched earth policy
– destroy anything the
advancing enemy might
be able to use–buildings
crops/fields, livestock,
etc; included poisoning
wells in towns/villages
when possible
18th century – Charles XII (Sweden)
19th century –
20th century –
Paying the Piper
• To pay heavy costs of war European monarchs made
profitable alliances with commercial elites.
• Netherlands became a commercial power after wrestling
autonomy from Spain.
• Spain damaged economy by kicking out Jews,
Protestants, and descendants of Muslims.
• England used naval dominance to break Dutch trade
power and improved its financial position by collecting
taxes directly and creating a central bank.
• France used increased tax collection, protective tariffs to
promote domestic industries, and improved transportation
network to benefit economy; but was not able to tax
nobles or secure low cost loans. Consequently royal
revenues were not able to keep pace with royal spending
Trade thrived when government taxation and regulation were
not excessive, where courts enforced contracts and collected
debts, and where military power stood ready to protect
overseas expansion by force when necessary.
Comparative Perspectives
– In 1575, French scholar Loys Le Roy
described three technological innovations that
he thought had propelled Europe into a
golden age: the printing press, the marine
compass, and gunpowder weapons.
– Le Roy noted that Europe had finally caught
up to the Muslim world and had benefitted
from the spread of knowledge and trade with
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