File - AJHS General Music

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Baroque Era
1600-1750
Baroque Era
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Three distinct styles of the period were
-Church music
-Theater music
-Chamber music
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Music, art, and architecture of this time
becomes very important to the wealthy
because of its large scale productions,
spectacular ideas, and major contrasts
Baroque Era
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Dramatic music
First written in Florence, Italy
Soon spread throughout Europe
Baroque Era
Major developments in dramatic music
Oratorio- dramatic large-scale production
dealing with a biblical subject
-oratorio has a narrator (soloist), chorus, and
orchestra
-no costume, staging, or scenery used
Opera- does not deal with Biblical subjects
-large scale production with singing
-has staging, scenery
-soloists
-chorus
Baroque Era
Cantata- shorter work
-limited to soloists
-small number of chorus members
-small orchestral accompaniment
-written on either sacred or secular
subjects
Passion Music- centered specifically
on the Christian Easter story
Baroque Era
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Baroque music left the style of a cappela
that was used in the Renaissance
The keyboard of choice was the
harpsichord
During the Baroque Era, instrumental
music came to the forefront, rather than
vocal music
During the Baroque period, the soprano
and bass voices were more important in a
choral composition than the tenor and the
alto
What’s happening in America?
Jamestown colony founded in 1607
 Henry Hudson explored what is now
called the Hudson River in 1609
 In 1621, Thomas Ravenscroft wrote the
“Whole Booke of Psalms” (4 part
compositions with texts from the Book of
Psalm in the bible
“The Grounds and Rules of Musick
Explained” –first singing instruction book
in America written by Rev. Walter of
Roxbury
 Before this music was learned by rote and
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What’s happening in America?
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Philadelphia founded in 1682 by William
Penn
The famous Salem Witch trials began in
1692
1738- John Wesley founded the Methodist
Church in America
Robert Stevenson’s book-“Protestant
Church in America” was an important
resource in American music
Moravian school or organ builders
considered best in the New World
Famous Composers of the Baroque EraAlessandro Scarlatti
Alessandro Scarlatti
1660-1725
 Born in Naples
 His best known operas
-La Rosaura (1690)
-Teodora (1693)
-Tigrane (1715)
-Griselda (1721)
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Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Monteverdi
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1567-1643
Born in Cremona
Wrote 9 books of Secular madrigals
First opera was “Orfeo”
1613-he became conductor of St.
Mark’s Basilica in Venice
1632- was ordained as a Catholic
priest
Rhythm and Meter
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Rhythm and meter become more
defined.
Usually a single rhythm can be heard
through an entire piece.
Bar lines are now used to group
notes on the staff into measures
Antonio Vivaldi
Antonio Vivaldi
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1678-1741
Born in Italy
Nicknamed “The red-headed priest”
Wrote “The Four Seasons”
Leading violinist in St. Mark’s Basilica
Music Teacher at an orphanage for girls
Wrote numerous cantatas, oratorios, and
motets
Wrote over 400 concertos
Jean Baptiste Lully
John Baptiste Lully
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1632-1687
Developed a unique for a French
Opera
First section is slow with dotted
rhythm
Second section fast and lively
Third section is like the first section
Basso continuo
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This helps to clarify what the
harmony is.
A single bass line used to reinforce
bass voices
Usually played by Harpsichord or
bassoon. Can also be played by
cello and other instruments.
Ground bass
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Ground bass is also known as basso
ostinato
Ground bass is music constructed
from the bottom up.
The bass will play the same short
figure over and over while other
upper instruments add in above it
with different melodies based on the
bass.
Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
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(1685-1750)
Born March 21, 1685, Eisenach, Germany
Born same year as George F. Handel
Music was a family business
Had 20 children
-7 with 1st wife (his 2nd cousin)
-13 with 2nd wife (singer)
All children taught music
Wrote 200 sacred and secular cantatas
(was not appreciated while alive)
Bach cont.
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Musical Handwriting was considered the
most beautiful and intricate of any
composer
Bach received his earliest training from his
father, who was a musician in Eisenach
He composed in all the musical forms
popular during the Baroque except for
Opera.
Bach’s 3 professional positions were in
the towns of Arnstadt, Muhlhausen,
Weimar
Bach cont.
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Bach’s mother died when he was 9 and
father when he was 10
Bach did not write church music in the
fourth city in which he worked, Cothen,
because he was only hired to write music
for court entertainment
Bach’s last job was in the city of Leipzig,
Germany
Bach was blind at the end of his life
The Baroque Era ended the same year
that Bach died in 1750
Johann Sebastian Bach
Some of Bach’s work’s include:
-The Wedding Cantata
-The Peasant Cantata
-The Christmas Oratorio
-Magnificant
-Mass in B-minor
-St. John Passion
-Prelude & Fugue in B-flat
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Johann Sebastian Bach
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Toccata & Fugue in D-minor
Sleepers Awake
Brandenburg Concerto
The Well-Tempered Clavier
A number of fugues, chorales,
toccatas, solo pieces and other
works
George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel
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February 23, 1685
Born in Halle, Saxony
Born the same year as Bach
Unlike Bach, no family of musicians,
George begged his father for lessons
Becomes outstanding organist and
harpsichordist
First music teacher was Zachow
Also studied violin and oboe
George Frideric Handel
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1726- Handel becomes a British citizen
Was known as the greatest composer of
the oratorio
Was employed by the Elector of Hanover,
who was named King George I of England
First music position was as an organist in
the cathedral in Halle
Wrote 40 Italian Operas
Made and lost several fortunes
Court Musician
George Frideric Handel (1685-1754)
created music in 4 categories
The Secular Cantatas
- Catholic Sacred Music
- Oratorios
- Operas
 Handel is known as the greatest
composer of the oratorio during the
entire Baroque Era
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George Frideric Handel
-Last composition was The Triumph of Time
and Triumph
 By the end of his life, he was also blind
 He is buried in Westminster Abbey
 Handel wrote a number of works that have
lasted through the centuries:
-St. John Passion
-Coronation Anthems
-Saul
-Israel in Egypt
George Frideric Handel
-Serse
-Sansom
-Judas Maccabaeus
Most outstanding oratorios:
-Acis and Galatea
-Esther
-Alexander’s Feaste
-Messiah
-Jeptha
Opera
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Opera is drama presented in music
Early opera was put on for Royal
Weddings and such.
1637 the first Public Opera Theater
opens (these are equivalent to
modern day movie theaters)
By the end of the century there were
seven in Venice alone.
Opera had two major parts
Recitative: Singing that imitates
speech. It is mostly used for plot
action, dialogue, and important
situations.
Aria: Extended solo that has more
musical elaboration and coherence.
The vocal part is more melodic, the
rhythm is more consistent, and
accompaniment usually uses the
entire orchestra.
Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell
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1659-1695
Born in Westminster
Father was a singer in the court of
King Charles II
Purcell is the most famous English
composer of the time period.
Henry Purcell
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He was an Organist at Westminster
Abbey. He wrote sacred
instrumental and theater music
Most famous composition is “Dido
and Aeneas”
Chronology of Baroque Era
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1600- The Baroque Era begins
1601- Shakespeare writes Hamlet
1602- Galileo Galilei discovers the
law of gravity
1604- Shakespeare writes Othello
1605-Pope Paul V is crowned
1606- Shakespeare writes Macbeth
1607- Jamestown Colony is founded
Chronology cont.
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1607- Monteverdi’s first opera,
“Orfeo,” is performed
1609- Henry Hudson explores the
Hudson River
1610- Louis VIII is crowned King of
France
1611- The King James version of the
Bible is published
Chronology cont.
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1620-The pilgrims arrive near Cape
Cod on the Mayflower
1621- Pope Gregory XV is crowned
1625- Charles I is crowned King of
England
1630- Boston is founded by the
Puritans
1636- Harvard College is founded by
Roger Williams
Chronology Cont.
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1640- The first book printed in the
colonies is the “Bay Psalm Book”
1643- Louis XIV is crowned King of
France
1643- Marc-Antoine Charpentier is
born near Paris, France
1653- Jean-Baptiste Lully is
appointed court composer in Paris
Chronology Cont.
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1653- Oliver Cromwell dissolves the
English Parliament
1659- Henry Purcell is born in
Westminster, England
1660- Alessandro Scarlatti is born in
Italy
1664- New Amsterdam is renamed
New York
Chronology Cont.
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1665- Heinrich Schutz writes the “St.
John Passion”
1666- Heinrich Schutz writes the “St.
Matthew Passion”
1678- Antonio Vivaldi is born in
Venice, Italy
1682- Philadelphia is founded by
William Penn
1683- Jean-Phillipe Rameau is born
in Venice, Italy
Chronology Cont.
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1685- G.F. Handel is born in Halle,
Saxony
1689- William III and Mary are
crowned King and Queen of England
1692- The Salem witch trials occur in
Massachusetts
1701- Yale College is founded
1704- Handel writes the “St. John
Passion
Chronology Cont.
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1704- Bach writes his first cantata
1714- George I is crowned King of
England
1715- Louis the XV is crowned King
of France
1724- Bach writes the “St. John
Passion”
1727- Handel writes the “Coronation
Anthems”
Chronology Cont.
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1729- Bach writes the “St. Matthew
Passion”
1730- Bach writes the cantata “A
Mighty Fortress is Our God”
1738- Bach publishes “Mass in Bminor”
1738-Handel writes “Saul,” “Israel in
Egypt,” and “Serse”
Chronology Cont.
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1738- The Methodist Church is
founded by John Wesley
1743- Handel writes “Samson”
1746- Handel writes “Judas
Maccabaeus”
1750- The death of Johann
Sebastian Bach ends the Baroque
Era
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