The Baroque Era Music, art and architecture 1600-1750 What should I know about the Baroque Era? 1600-1750 Music: Counterpoint: Structure & Ornament Bach, Vivaldi, Handel Art: Drama! Drama! Drama! Lush and fanciful: Stuff the canvas Bernini, Rubens, Velázquez Architecture: Symmetry Swarming and swirling spaces Trevi Fountain, Ottobeuren Basilica The Age of Reason New modes of thinking and scientific discoveries arose in the 17th century Two schools of thought: Rationalist: all knowledge can be gained through reason alone Empiricist: all knowledge must be gained through the senses, experience ART in the Baroque Emphasis on the drama of experience. Bernini turned a Nun’s Spiritual Experience into a real emotional climax. Contemplate the St. Theresa below, painted in the Renaissance Period, BEFORE the Baroque. Bernini: The Ecstasy of St. Theresa Velázquez Painted portraits for Spanish royalty Importance of the individual Attention to detail RUBENS Baroque Architecture Symmetry and structure are key Baroque Architecture reads like an episode of “Pimp My Cathedral” EVERYTHING must be Decorated! Trevi Fountain, Rome Baroque Music Expresses the Order of the universe through highly structured musical forms Lively: Many forms were taken from old dances like the Minuet, Gigue, and Gavotte Counterpoint: two independent voices weaving together Johann Joseph Fux, Baroque composer and theorist states the aim of perfectly Baroque music: "A composition meets the demands of good taste if it is well constructed, avoids trivialities as well as willful eccentricities, aims at the sublime, but moves in a natural ordered way, combining brilliant ideas with perfect workmanship." Baroque Instruments Organ Harpsichord Strings! Limited winds, brass, percussion The Organ The harpsichord J.S. Bach Over 1,100 works!! BWV: his own opus system for numerating his works Not to be confused with “Sebastian Bach” of Skid Row … or the Terminator J.S. Bach Facts God, Music, Family Most compositions were of a sacred nature, as he worked for the church Prolific father: 20 Children!!! Organist by trade 1685-1750: these dates also mark the height of the Baroque era Never left Germany! He didn’t get around much… This map reflects the 100 mile area in which Bach traveled in his lifetime. The Red Priest - on account of his red hair Worked with orphan girls at the Ospedale in Venice, Italy Many compositions were exercises for these young musicians Over 400 violin concerti! Yeah! Not your normal orphanage: Many noblemen had illegitimate children in Venice. Because of their proximity to the city, they could still take care of their offspring by giving money to the orphanage, thereby sponsoring quite a fancy music program. Follow-up Questions 1. How is music from the Baroque era different than music written today? 2. Are any of the pieces we have played in class from the Baroque period? 3. How are the instruments you play today different from those in the Baroque era?