Europe After the Fall of Rome & Feudalism and Manor

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The Middle Ages
Europe After The Fall of Rome
And
Feudalism and The Manor System
Vocabulary
• Chivalry – The code of honorable behavior for
medieval knights.
• Feudalism – The system of obligations that
governed the relationship between lords and
vassals in medieval Europe.
• Knight – A warrior in medieval Europe who
fought on horseback.
Vocabulary
• Manor – A large estate owned by a knight or
lord.
• Middle Ages – A period that lasted from
about 500 to 1500 in Europe.
Vocabulary
• Serf – A worker in medieval Europe who was
tied to the land on which he or she lived.
• Vassal – A knight who promised to support a
lord in exchange for land in medieval Europe.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• Due to corruption among the government and
invasions by enemies Rome began to decline.
• After the fall of Rome, warlords start their
own kingdoms and call themselves king.
• This is when the Middle Ages or Medieval
times began.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• In the 480’s the
Franks conquer Gaul
(France)
• Under their leader,
Clovis, they become
a strong Christian
kingdom.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• In the late 700’s Charlemagne, warrior and leader,
builds his powerful empire.
• Charlemagne built his powerful empire by conquering
many lands.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• Eventually, Charlemagne conquered Rome.
• He had himself crowned Emperor of the Holy
Roman Empire. This was conducted by Pope
Leo III on Christmas Day.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• In addition to being a
great warrior and
conquering many
lands, Charlemagne
also was a good
leader. This allowed
him to create a very
strong empire.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• Charlemagne was a good leader
by doing things to improve the
lands he conquered. He built
schools and brought in scholars.
He developed a new system of
money. He also gave land to
nobles who were responsible for
maintaining the roads, bridges,
and fortifications and defense
walls.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• During the same time period that
Charlemagne was building his empire invaders
began attacking settlements all over the
continent.
• Muslims came from the South. Magyars
attacked from the East. The Vikings from
Scandinavia invaded from the North.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• Vikings were the fiercest of the
invaders and after Charlemagne’s
death they were the group mostly
responsible for the break up of
Charlemagne’s Empire.
• First the Vikings conquered and
looted the lands in Europe.
• Then they later set up trade
centers and trade routes.
Europe After the Fall of Rome
Pages 503-505
• Eventually a group of
Vikings called the
Normans settled in
northern France. These
Vikings became church
leaders and Christians.
They adopted the ways
of the Franks and
customs of the empire
Charlemagne once
ruled.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• The Normans were lead by a
French noble named William.
William and his knights were able
to conquer England. William
named himself King of England.
Others would come to know him
as William the Conqueror.
• As a reward for his knights who
helped him conquer this land,
William gave them each their own
land. This was the start of
feudalism in England.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• During the time of so many invasions the need
for protection arose.
• Lords could not depend on the king to provide
them protection so each lord began to build
up his own form of protection which meant a
need for more knights.
• For their protection, knights would be
rewarded with land.
Feudalism and
Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Feudalism was a social, political,
and economic structure.
• Monarchs or Kings and Queens
were at the top. They were the
supreme ruler of the kingdom
and had the most wealth.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Nobles or Lords were on the next
level. They pledged their loyalty and
military support to the monarch and
in return they were given land.
• Lords would collect taxes, maintain
order, enforce laws, and protect the
serfs. They were also the ones
responsible for building the castles.
• Lords lived comfortably in large
homes with servants. They did face
difficulty though – they could die of
disease or in battle.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Knights would
promise to give
military support the
lords and in return
they would be given
fiefs or pieces of land.
When they were given
the land in return for
their support they
were then called
vassals.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• At the bottom of the feudalism pyramid is the
Serfs or Peasants. These people were the
largest group in society. They owned no land
but instead worked the land for the lord or
vassal.
• Serfs were not slaves but they were tied to
the land. They could not advance in society.
They could not be bought or sold separate
from the land .
• The serfs’ lives were hard. If you were a serf
you had to work. Men did the farming,
women gardened/made clothing/collected
firewood, and children would help tend the
sheep and chickens.
• Comparing Feudal Japan and
Europe
– In both Feudal systems land was
the basis. Each also had royalty,
nobles, warriors, and peasants.
– Warriors for both had a code of
honorable behavior.
• Bushido was the code for samurai.
• The code of Chivalry was for the
knights. The code of Chivalry said a
knight should have true faith, be
ready to die for the church, give
generously to all, and use his
strength to side against injustices.
– In both Feudal systems Knights
and Samurai were admired for
their loyalty, bravery, and
dedication.
Feudal Societies
Pages 512 - 515
Feudal Societies
Pages 512 - 515
• Contrasting Feudal Japan
and Europe
– Religions
• Europe believed in
Christianity and Japan
believed in Buddhism,
Shinto, and Confucianism
– Art and Literature
• Europeans focused on
religion in their art and
literature. In Japan art and
literature was themed
around nature.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• The Manor System was the way of
organizing agricultural labor and
manage the feudal land.
• Manors had four parts –
–
–
–
–
The Manor House and Village
Farmland
Meadowland
Wasteland
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• The Manor House and Village – The manor house could
be a castle or house that the lord lived in. It would be
surrounded by gardens, orchards, and farm buildings. The
manor would also have a church and mill for grinding
grain to flour. The village consisted of serf’s cottages
which were straw and mud brick walls with dirt floors.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Farmland – They used a three-field rotation system. One field
would be planted with wheat or rye. Another field would be
planted with oats and barley. The third field would be left empty so
the soil would stay fertile. Their would be fields that had good soil
and some that had poor soil. Peasants were given the fields with
the poor soil, while the lords land was the good soil. Peasants
would have to farm their land and the lord’s land.
Feudalism and
Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Meadowland – The
animals used on the
manor would graze
in the meadowlands.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Wasteland – Both the wastelands and meadowlands have rivers
and ponds for fishing. The forest provided wood for fuel and
building material. Also, wildlife in the forest were a food source.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Serfs used the farmland that they were
given to grow food for their family and
sometimes they would have a surplus
that they could sell to people living in
towns. New technology allowed them to
grow that surplus of food.
– Heavier plow allowed farmers to dig
deeper into the ground and let their plants
grow better.
– Horse Collar let farmers use horses instead
of oxen to pull the plow. This was faster
than using the oxen.
• Population began to increase because
there was more food available.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• With the growth of population trade also grew. Trade routes
brought goods to and from Africa and Asia to Europe.
• People left their jobs on the farms and went to towns were
there was money to be made in the trade industry.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Knights didn’t want to
get paid with land
anymore because land
wasn’t going to buy you
trade goods.
• Serfs left the land and
went to the cities.
• Feudalism declines and
eventually disappears.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• As Feudalism declined and cities
grew guilds became more common.
• A guild is a group of people united
by a common interest. Merchants
could form a guild. They would work
together to control the market and
buy goods at a lower cost.
• Guilds were mainly interested in
controlling the quantity and quality
of goods produced.
• Guilds would protect craftspeople
from competition from those from
outside of the town.
Feudalism and Manor Life
Pages 506 - 511
• Women of Medieval Times
– No matter what class women belonged to they had little
rights in the middle ages.
– Women who were not married but owned land would have
some more rights than married women.
– Noble women especially had to obey their father’s or
husband’s wishes.
– Women still had important roles in society however.
• Peasants worked to help their families survive.
• Noblewomen ran the manor household, directed servants, and ran
the business of the manor while their husbands were away at war.
• Some women would chose to join the church as nuns.
Summing It Up!
• The Middle Ages was a time of complicated obligations
that were necessary for survival.
• Feudalism and the Manor System were an important
part of this time period.
• Another important part of the times was Religion. Next,
we will be studying the role of the church in medieval
times.
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