The Middle Ages Europe After The Fall of Rome And Feudalism and The Manor System Vocabulary • Chivalry – The code of honorable behavior for medieval knights. • Feudalism – The system of obligations that governed the relationship between lords and vassals in medieval Europe. • Knight – A warrior in medieval Europe who fought on horseback. Vocabulary • Manor – A large estate owned by a knight or lord. • Middle Ages – A period that lasted from about 500 to 1500 in Europe. Vocabulary • Serf – A worker in medieval Europe who was tied to the land on which he or she lived. • Vassal – A knight who promised to support a lord in exchange for land in medieval Europe. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • Due to corruption among the government and invasions by enemies Rome began to decline. • After the fall of Rome, warlords start their own kingdoms and call themselves king. • This is when the Middle Ages or Medieval times began. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • In the 480’s the Franks conquer Gaul (France) • Under their leader, Clovis, they become a strong Christian kingdom. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • In the late 700’s Charlemagne, warrior and leader, builds his powerful empire. • Charlemagne built his powerful empire by conquering many lands. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • Eventually, Charlemagne conquered Rome. • He had himself crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. This was conducted by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • In addition to being a great warrior and conquering many lands, Charlemagne also was a good leader. This allowed him to create a very strong empire. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • Charlemagne was a good leader by doing things to improve the lands he conquered. He built schools and brought in scholars. He developed a new system of money. He also gave land to nobles who were responsible for maintaining the roads, bridges, and fortifications and defense walls. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • During the same time period that Charlemagne was building his empire invaders began attacking settlements all over the continent. • Muslims came from the South. Magyars attacked from the East. The Vikings from Scandinavia invaded from the North. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • Vikings were the fiercest of the invaders and after Charlemagne’s death they were the group mostly responsible for the break up of Charlemagne’s Empire. • First the Vikings conquered and looted the lands in Europe. • Then they later set up trade centers and trade routes. Europe After the Fall of Rome Pages 503-505 • Eventually a group of Vikings called the Normans settled in northern France. These Vikings became church leaders and Christians. They adopted the ways of the Franks and customs of the empire Charlemagne once ruled. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • The Normans were lead by a French noble named William. William and his knights were able to conquer England. William named himself King of England. Others would come to know him as William the Conqueror. • As a reward for his knights who helped him conquer this land, William gave them each their own land. This was the start of feudalism in England. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • During the time of so many invasions the need for protection arose. • Lords could not depend on the king to provide them protection so each lord began to build up his own form of protection which meant a need for more knights. • For their protection, knights would be rewarded with land. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Feudalism was a social, political, and economic structure. • Monarchs or Kings and Queens were at the top. They were the supreme ruler of the kingdom and had the most wealth. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Nobles or Lords were on the next level. They pledged their loyalty and military support to the monarch and in return they were given land. • Lords would collect taxes, maintain order, enforce laws, and protect the serfs. They were also the ones responsible for building the castles. • Lords lived comfortably in large homes with servants. They did face difficulty though – they could die of disease or in battle. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Knights would promise to give military support the lords and in return they would be given fiefs or pieces of land. When they were given the land in return for their support they were then called vassals. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • At the bottom of the feudalism pyramid is the Serfs or Peasants. These people were the largest group in society. They owned no land but instead worked the land for the lord or vassal. • Serfs were not slaves but they were tied to the land. They could not advance in society. They could not be bought or sold separate from the land . • The serfs’ lives were hard. If you were a serf you had to work. Men did the farming, women gardened/made clothing/collected firewood, and children would help tend the sheep and chickens. • Comparing Feudal Japan and Europe – In both Feudal systems land was the basis. Each also had royalty, nobles, warriors, and peasants. – Warriors for both had a code of honorable behavior. • Bushido was the code for samurai. • The code of Chivalry was for the knights. The code of Chivalry said a knight should have true faith, be ready to die for the church, give generously to all, and use his strength to side against injustices. – In both Feudal systems Knights and Samurai were admired for their loyalty, bravery, and dedication. Feudal Societies Pages 512 - 515 Feudal Societies Pages 512 - 515 • Contrasting Feudal Japan and Europe – Religions • Europe believed in Christianity and Japan believed in Buddhism, Shinto, and Confucianism – Art and Literature • Europeans focused on religion in their art and literature. In Japan art and literature was themed around nature. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • The Manor System was the way of organizing agricultural labor and manage the feudal land. • Manors had four parts – – – – – The Manor House and Village Farmland Meadowland Wasteland Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • The Manor House and Village – The manor house could be a castle or house that the lord lived in. It would be surrounded by gardens, orchards, and farm buildings. The manor would also have a church and mill for grinding grain to flour. The village consisted of serf’s cottages which were straw and mud brick walls with dirt floors. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Farmland – They used a three-field rotation system. One field would be planted with wheat or rye. Another field would be planted with oats and barley. The third field would be left empty so the soil would stay fertile. Their would be fields that had good soil and some that had poor soil. Peasants were given the fields with the poor soil, while the lords land was the good soil. Peasants would have to farm their land and the lord’s land. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Meadowland – The animals used on the manor would graze in the meadowlands. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Wasteland – Both the wastelands and meadowlands have rivers and ponds for fishing. The forest provided wood for fuel and building material. Also, wildlife in the forest were a food source. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Serfs used the farmland that they were given to grow food for their family and sometimes they would have a surplus that they could sell to people living in towns. New technology allowed them to grow that surplus of food. – Heavier plow allowed farmers to dig deeper into the ground and let their plants grow better. – Horse Collar let farmers use horses instead of oxen to pull the plow. This was faster than using the oxen. • Population began to increase because there was more food available. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • With the growth of population trade also grew. Trade routes brought goods to and from Africa and Asia to Europe. • People left their jobs on the farms and went to towns were there was money to be made in the trade industry. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Knights didn’t want to get paid with land anymore because land wasn’t going to buy you trade goods. • Serfs left the land and went to the cities. • Feudalism declines and eventually disappears. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • As Feudalism declined and cities grew guilds became more common. • A guild is a group of people united by a common interest. Merchants could form a guild. They would work together to control the market and buy goods at a lower cost. • Guilds were mainly interested in controlling the quantity and quality of goods produced. • Guilds would protect craftspeople from competition from those from outside of the town. Feudalism and Manor Life Pages 506 - 511 • Women of Medieval Times – No matter what class women belonged to they had little rights in the middle ages. – Women who were not married but owned land would have some more rights than married women. – Noble women especially had to obey their father’s or husband’s wishes. – Women still had important roles in society however. • Peasants worked to help their families survive. • Noblewomen ran the manor household, directed servants, and ran the business of the manor while their husbands were away at war. • Some women would chose to join the church as nuns. Summing It Up! • The Middle Ages was a time of complicated obligations that were necessary for survival. • Feudalism and the Manor System were an important part of this time period. • Another important part of the times was Religion. Next, we will be studying the role of the church in medieval times.