asthma attacks

 ACUTE ILLNESS – BEGINS SUDDENLY AND CONTINUES
FOR A SHORT PERIOD
 CHRONIC ILLNESS – PROGRESSES SLOWLLY, OVER A
LONG PERIOD OF TIME
 TERMINAL ILLNESS – RECOVERY IS NOT EXPECTED
AND IT ENDS IN DEATH
 TUMOR - RAPID GROWTH OF ABNORMAL CELLS
 MALIGNANT TUMOR – GROWS RAPIDLY AND
INVADES OTHER BODY TISSUES
 BENIGN TUMOR – GROWS SLOWLY AND REMAINS IN
A LOCALIZED AREA
 METASTASIS – THE SPREAD OF CANCER TO OTHER
AREAS OF THE BODY
RISK FACTORS FOR CANCER
 TOBACCO – SMOKING, CHEWING, AND SECOND-HAND
SMOKE
 EXPOSURE TO RADIATION – SUN, TANNING BOOTHS, X-RAY
PROCEDURES
 ALCOHOL
 DIET – HIGH FAT DIET, OVERWEIGHT
 CHEMICALS AND OTHER SUBSTANCES – METALS,
PESTICIDES, ASBESTOS
 HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
 DIETHYLSTILBESTROL – SYNTHETIC ESTROGEN
 CLOSE RELATIVES WITH CERTAIN TYPES OF CANCER MELANOMA, BREAST, OVARIAN, PROSTATE, COLON CANCER
 SURGERY – TUMORS ARE REMOVED TO CURE
OR CONTROL THE CANCER.
 RADIATION – X-RAY BEAMS ARE DIRECTED
TO THE CANCEROUS AREAS. DESTROYS BOTH
CANCER AND NORMAL CELLS.
 CHEMOTHERAPY – DRUGS ARE GIVEN THAT
DESTROY BOTH CANCER AND NORMAL CELLS.
TREATMENT SIDE EFFECTS INCLUDE :
WEAKNESS, NAUSEA, VOMITING, DIARRHEA,
LOSS OF APPETITE, HAIR LOSS
 PAIN RELIEF OR CONTROL
 REST AND EXERCISE
 FLUIDS AND NUTRITION
 PREVENTION OF SKIN BREAKDOWN
 PREVENTION OF CONSTIPATION
 DEALING WITH TREATMENT SIDE EFFECTS
 PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, AND SPIRITUAL NEEDS
ARTHRITIS – INFLAMMATION OF A JOINT
THE WEARING AWAY OF THE CARTILAGE THAT
COVERS THE ENDS OF BONES AT THE JOINT.
OCCURS WITH AGING,
JOINT INJURY, OBESITY.
PAIN OCCURS WITH
WEIGHT-BEARING AND
JOINT MOVEMENT.
HIPS, KNEES, SPINE,
FINGERS, AND THUMB
OR COMMONLY
AFFECTED.
JOINTS BECOME STIFF AND PAINFUL
CHRONIC INFLAMMATION OF THE JOINTS
CAUSES REDNESS, SWELLING,STIFFNESS, AND PAIN
CAN OCCUR AT ANY AGE
MORE COMMON IN WOMEN
 MEDICATIONS TO TREAT THE PAIN AND
INFLAMATION
 HEAT OR COLD APPLICATIONS
 SURGICAL REPLACEMENT OF AFFECTED JOINTS
 ASSIST WITH ADL’S
 ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ROM EXERCISES
 ENCOURAGE ACTIVITY AND INDEPENDENCE
 PROVIDE ADAPTIVE EQUIPMENT – CANE,WALKER,
PLATE, SILVERWARE, RAISED TOLIET SEAT
MORE
COMMON IN
WOMEN
BECAUSE OF
HORMONAL
CHANGES AND
LOSS OF
CALCIUM
AFTER
MENOPAUSE
SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS
INCLUDE LOW
BACK PAIN,
GRADUAL LOSS
OF HEIGHT, AND
STOOPED
POSTURE
FRACTURES CAN
EASILY OCCUR.
LOSS OF BONE TISSUE AND LACK OF CALCIUM CAUSES BONES TO
BECOME BRITTLE AND POROUS.
TOBACCO USE, ALCOHOLISM, BEDREST, AND IMMOBILITY ARE OTHER
RISK FACTORS
BONES OF THE SPINE, HIPS AND WRISTS MOST OFTEN AFFECTED
 CALCIUM AND VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS
 WEIGHT-BEARING EXERCISE : WALKING
 STRENGTH TRAINING : WEIGHT LIFTING
 BACK BRACES
 WALKING AIDS
 PROTECT FROM FALLS AND ACCIDENTS
 BE GENTLE!
A BROKEN BONE
IN A CLOSED FRACTURE
THE BONE IS BROKEN
BUT THE SKIN IS INTACT
IN AN OPEN FRACTURE THE
SKIN IS BROKEN AND THE
BONE PROTRUDES FROM
THE SKIN
• DO NOT COVER A WET CAST WITH BLANKETS, OR
OTHER MATERIAL. CASTS GIVE OFF HEAT AS THEY DRY
AND CAN CAUSE BURNS IF THE HEAT IS NOT ALLOWED
TO ESCAPE.
• USE PILLOWS TO SUPPORT THE CAST. DO NOT LET THE
CAST REST ON A HARD SURFACE.
• SUPPORT THE CAST WITH YOUR PALMS, NOT YOUR
FINGERTIPS.
• CHECK FOR ROUGH EDGES ON THE CAST.
• DO NOT STICK ANYTHING DOWN THE CAST TO
SCRATCH.
• ELEVATE THE CASTED EXTREMITY.
• REPORT C/O PAIN, NUMBNESS, ODOR, SWELLING, PALE
SKIN, CYANOSIS, OR DRAINAGE ON THE CAST.
 KEEP THE PERSON IN GOOD ALIGNMENT
 DO NOT REMOVE THE TRACTION
 LET THE WEIGHTS HANG FREELY
 DO NOT ADD OR REMOVE WEIGHTS
 PERSON USUALLY MUST REMAIN ON THEIR BACK
 GIVE GOOD SKIN CARE TO PREVENT BREAKDOWN
 CHANGE THE LINEN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM
 PERSON CAN USE A TRAPEZE TO HELP MOVE UPPER BODY
 CHECK PIN SITES FOR SIGNS OF INFECTION
AMPUTATION IS THE REMOVAL OF ALL OR PART OF AN
EXTREMITY.
PROSTHESIS- ARTIFICIAL BODY PART
HIP FRACTURES ARE COMMON IN ELDERLY PERSONS
HIP FRACTURES ALWAYS REQUIRE SURGERY
 MAY NEED PIN, SCREWS OR JOINT REPLACEMENT
 REHABILITATION WILL BE
NEEDED AFTER SURGERY
 PARTIAL WEIGHT BEARING –
SOME WEIGHT MAY BE PUT ON
AFFECTED LIMB
 FULL WEIGHT BEARING –
TOTAL WEIGHT MAY BE PUT
ON AFFECTED LIMB
 KEEP HIP ABDUCTED WHEN IN BED
 PUT PILLOW BETWEEN LEGS
 DO NOT ROTATE THE HIP OUTWARD
 DO NOT BEND FROM WAIST (MORE THAN 90˚)
 DO NOT ALLOW THE PATIENT TO CROSS HIS LEGS
 A MINOR STROKE MAY CAUSE MINOR DAMAGE
 A MAJOR STROKE MAY CAUSE SEVERE DAMAGE
 SYMPTOMS DEPEND ON THE AREA OF THE BRAIN DAMAGED
 A STROKE ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE BRAIN CAUSES SYMPTOMS
ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BODY
 A STROKE ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRAIN CAUSES
SYMPTOMS ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE BODY
 HEMIPLEGIA – PARALYSIS ON ONE SIDE OF THE BODY
EXPRESSIVE APHASIA – DIFFICULTY IN SPEAKING OR WRITING
 RECEPTIVE APHASIA – DIFFICULTY IN UNDERSTANDING
 MAY NEED ASSISTANCE WITH ADL’S
EMOTIONAL COMPLICATIONS OF A STROKE
 ANGRY OUTBURSTS
 SUDDEN TEARS ( LABILE TEARS )
 INAPPROPRIATE CRYING OR LAUGHING
 INCREASED IRRITABILITY
 MAY HAVE PERSONALITY OR BEHAVIOR CHANGES
 SUDDEN NUMBNESS OR WEAKNESS OF THE FACE,
ARM, OR LEG, OR ON ONE SIDE OF THE BODY
 SUDDEN CONFUSION, TROUBLE SPEAKING, OR
UNDERSTANDING
 SUDDEN TROUBLE SEEING IN ONE OR BOTH EYES
 SUDDEN TROUBLE WALKING, DIZZINESS, OR LOSS
OF BALANCE
 SUDDEN, SEVERE HEADACHES
CAUSED BY LACK OF A CHEMICAL NEUROTRANSMITTER
IN THE BRAIN.
 CHRONIC DISEASE
THAT AFFECTS
CONTROL OF MOTOR
FUNCTION
 INTELLIGENCE IS
NOT AFFECTED
 MASK-LIKE FACIAL
EXPRESSION
 TREMORS
 SWALLOWING
PROBLEMS
 MEDICATIONS MAY
HELP SYMPTOMS
 ONSET USUALLY BETWEEN THE AGES OF 20 AND 40
PROGRESSIVE DISEASE THAT AFFECTS THE BRAIN
AND SPINAL CORD
 GRADUAL DESTRUCTION OF MYELIN, SUBSTANCE
THAT COATS AND INSULATES THE NERVE FIBERS
 CAUSES INTERFERENCE WITH THE TRANSMISSION
OF NERVE IMPULSES
 SYMPTOMS INCLUDE NUMBNESS, WEAKNESS,
TREMORS, LOSS OF BALANCE, AND PARALYSIS
 THERE IS NO CURE FOR MS
 INJURY OCCURS TO THE BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD
 PERSON MAY BE COMATOSE
SYMPTOMS OF HEARING LOSS
 SPEAKING TOO LOUDLY
 LEANING FORWARD TO HEAR
 TURNING AND CUPPING THE BETTER EAR TOWARD THE
SPEAKER
 ANSWERING QUESTIONS INAPPROPRIATELY
 ASKING FOR WORDS TO BE REPEATED
 ALERT THE PERSON TO YOUR PRESENCE
 DO NOT APPROACH THE PERSON FROM BEHIND
 POSITION YOURSELF AT THE PERSON’S LEVEL
 FACE THE PERSON WHEN SPEAKING
 STAND OR SIT IN GOOD LIGHT
 SPEAK CLEARLY AND DISTINCTLY
 DO NOT SHOUT
 DO NOT COVER YOUR MOUTH, SMOKE, EAT, OR
CHEW GUM WHILE TALKING
 SIT ON THE SIDE OF THE BETTER EAR
 KEEP CONVERSATIONS SHORT
 TURN OFF THE HEARING AID WHEN NOT IN USE.
 CHECK AND REPLACE THE BATTERIES AS NEEDED
 DO NOT GET THE HEARING AID WET!!!
 TAKE THE HEARING AID OFF BEFORE SHOWERING OR
SHAMPOOING
 CLEAN THE EARMOLD WITH A SLIGHTLY DAMP CLOTH
WHEN NEEDED
CLOUDING OF THE LENS
PAINLESS
PROGRSSIVE
RESULTS IN LOSS OF
VISION
LENS MUST BE
SURGICALLY REMOVED
AND A NEW LENS
IMPLANTED
 PRESSURE WITHIN THE EYE INCREASES
 SYMPTOMS INCLUDE BLURRED VISION,AND THE
PERSON SEES “HALOS” OR RINGS OF LIGHTS AROUND
OBJECTS
 CAN CAUSE TOTAL BLINDNESS IF NOT TREATED
 TREATED WITH EYE DROPS THAT DECREASE THE
PRESSURE IN THE EYE
CARING FOR THE BLIND PERSON
 IDENTIFY YOURSELF WHEN YOU ENTER A ROOM.
GIVE YOUR NAME AND TITLE. DO NOT TOUCH THE
PERSON UNTIL YU HAVE INDICATED YOUR
PRESENCE.
 ADDRESS THE PERSON BY NAME WHEN YOU ARE
TALKING TO THEM. THIS WAY THEY WILL KNOW THE
COMMENT OR QUESTION IS DIRECTED AT THEM.
 DO NOT REARRANGE THE FURNITURE.
KEEP DOORS EITHER OPEN OR SHUT – NOT PARTLY
OPEN.
 KEEP HALLWAYS FREE OF EQUIPMENT.
 WALK SLIGHTLY AHEAD OF THE PERSON.
 TELL THE PERSON WHEN YOU ARE COMING TO A
CURB OR STEPS.
 EXPLAIN FOOD PLACEMENT BY REFERRING TO THE
HANDS OF A CLOCK.
THREE DISORDERS ARE GROUPED TOGETHER UNDER
THE NAME COPD
 CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
 EMPHYSEMA
 ASTHMA
THESE DISORDERS INTERFERE WITH THE NORMAL
EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE
LUNGS. THEY OBSTRUCT AIR FLOW.
INFLAMMATION OF THE BRONCHIAL TUBES
PART OF AN UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION
SYMPTOMS INCLUDE FEVER, CHILLS, SORE THROAT,
AND COUGH.
LUNG TISSUE LOSES ITS ELASTICITYAND THE ALVEOLI
REMAIN EXPANDED
THE PERSON BREATHES HARDER AND FASTER IN AN
ATTEMPT TO GET MORE AIR
THE PERSON LEANS
FORWARD IN AN
ATTEMPT TO
BREATHE EASIER
THE SKIN IS
USUALLY CYANOTIC
AND THE PERSON
DEVELOPS A
“BARREL CHEST”
AIR PASSAGES NARROW WITH ASTHMA
RESULTS IN DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING
EPISODES CAN OCCUR SUDDENLY AND ARE CALLED
ASTHMA ATTACKS
MEDICATION IS GIVEN WHICH DILATES THE RESPIRATORY
PASSAGES
REPEATED ATTACKS CAN DAMAGE THE RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
INFECTION OF THE LUNG
TISSUE
ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA
CAUSED BY FOOD, FLUID,
OR SECRETIONS IN THE
LOWER AIRWAY
HYPOSTATIC PNEUMONIA
FLUIDS ACCUMULATE IN
THE LUMGS, LEADING TO
INFECTION
CAUSED BY A BACTERIAL INFECTION
STEADY INCREASE IN TB CASES EACH YEAR DUE TO
INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS
 SPREAD BY AIRBORNE DROPLETS
 DISEASE IS FOUND BY SKIN TEST OR CHEST X-RAY
 TREATMENT MAY TAKE FROM 3 TO 7 MONTHS OF
DRUG THERAPY
 POSITION THE PATIENT FOR EASE IN BREATHING.
 ENCOURAGE FLUIDS.
 ENCOURAGE PROPER NUTRITION.
 PROVIDE FREQUENT REST PERIODS.
 PROVIDE MOUTH CARE EVERY TWO HOURS OR MORE
OFTEN IF NEEDED.
 ASSIST WITH OXYGEN ADMINISTRATION IF
ORDERED.
ABNORMAL RESPIRATORY PATTERNS
TACHYPNEA
BRADYPNEA
APNEA
DYSPNEA
HYPERVENTILATION
HYPOVENTILATION
PROMOTING OXYGENATION
 POSITIONING
FOWLERS
ORTHOPNEIC
 COUGHING AND DEEP BREATHING EXERCISES
REMOVES MUCUS
ALLOWS MORE AIR INTO LUNGS
OXYGEN SOURCES
WALL OUTLET
OXYGEN CONVERTOR
OXYGEN TANK
COMMON OXYGEN DEVICES
NASAL
CANNULA
NON-REBREATHER
MASK
RULES FOR OXYGEN SAFETY
 FOLLOW NURSES DIRECTIONS AS TO WHEN TO REMOVE
OXYGEN DELIVERY DEVICE.
 CHECK FOR SIGNS OF IRRITATION FROM THE DEVICE.
 NEVER SHUT OFF OR ADUST THE OXYGEN FLOW RATE.
 TELL THE NURSE IF THE FLOW RATE HAS BEEN CHANGED.
 GIVE ORAL HYGIENE AS NEEDED.
 REMIND THE PERSON AND FAMILY NOT TO SMOKE WHEN
OXYGEN IS BEING USED.
MEDICAL TERM FOR HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
HYPERTENSION IS COMMON IN HEART DISEASE AND
DIABETES.
CORONARY
ARTERIES
SUPPLY THE
HEART WITH
BLOOD.
IF THEY
BECOME
CLOGGED OR
BLOCKED THE
BLOOD FLOW
TO THE HEART
MUSCLE IS
DECREASED.
 GENDER
 AGE
FAMILY HISTORY
 SMOKING
 OBESITY
 LACK OF EXERCISE
 HYPERTENSION
 HIGH CHOLESTEROL
 DIABETES
MAJOR COMPLICATIONS INCLUDE ANGINA PECTORIS
AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
ANGINA IS CHEST PAIN THAT OCCURS WHEN
NARROWED BLOOD VESSELS DO NOT ALLOW ENOUGH
OXYGENATED BLOOD TO REACH THE HEART MUSCLE.
ANGINA SITES
ATTACKS MAY
BE TRIGGERED
BY EXERCISE,
EATING, OR AN
EMOTIONAL
EXPERIENCE.
REST AND
NITROGLYCERIN
OFTEN RELIEVE
SYMPTOMS.
OCCURS FROM AN ABRUPT DECREASE IN CORONARY
BLOOD FLOW
MAY BE CAUSED BY A BLOOD CLOT OR OTHER MATERIAL
BLOCKING THE BLOOD VESSEL
RESULTS
IN DEATH
OF THE
CARDIAC
TISSUE
(SKIN OR LIPS)
OCCURS WHEN THE HEART
MUSCLE WEAKENS AND
FAILS TO PUMP EFFICIENTLY
THE LUNGS FILL WITH FLUID
AND CAUSE SHORTNESS OF
BREATH
THE BREATHING IS LABORED
AND THE PULSE MAY BE FAST
AND IRREGULAR
URINE OUTPUT IS
DECREASED BECAUSE THE
BODY IS HOLDING FLUID
*
MAY PASS THROUGH THE
URINARY SYSTEM UNNOTICED IF
IT IS SMOOTH AND ROUND
MAY LODGE IN THE KIDNEY,
URETER, BLADDER, OR URETHRA
IF THE STONE IS LARGE OR
IRREGULAR SHAPED
PAIN DEVELOPS IN THE BACK
AND RADIATES TO ADJOINING
AREA. ALSO HAVE NAUSEA,
VOMITING,CHILLS AND HEAVY
PERSPIRATION.
INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEYS
 RESULTS FROM AN INFECTION OR A CIRCULATORY
PROBLEM
 KIDNEYS LOSE ABILITY TO FILTER AND RESULTS IN
A BUILDUP OF TOXINS IN THE BLOOD
 TREATMENT MAY INCLUDE KIDNEY DIALYSIS
DIABETES
SIGNS OF HYPOGLYCEMIA
 WEAKNESS
 TREMBLING
 SHAKING
 DIZZINESS
 FAINTNESS
 HEADACHES
 LACK OF INSULIN
AFFECTS THE BODY’S
ABILITY TO USE
CARBOHYDRATES
 BODY BURNS FATS FOR
ENERGY WHICH CAUSES
BY PRODUCTS CALLED
KETONES
 TYPE I DIABETES –
INSULIN DEPENDENT
 TYPE II DIABETES –
CONTROLLED BY DIET
 TYPE 1 DIABETES

TREATED WITH INSULIN INJECTIONS
 TYPE II DIABETES

TREATED WITH DIET AND EXERCISE

ORAL MEDICATION
 SLOWED CIRCULATION AND NERVE DAMAGE PLACE
THE PATIENT AT RISK FOR INJURY, INFECTION, AND
GANGRENE
 EXAMINE THE FEET FOR DISCOLORATION OR INJURY
 PREVENT PRESSURE OF NT FEET OR TOES BY BED
LINEN, SHOES, OR SOCKS.
 DO NOT CUT THE TOENAILS OF A DIABETIC PATIENT
 OBSERVE DIETARY INTAKE
NOTE ANY CHANGES IN THE PATIENT’S MOOD,
BEHAVIOR, OR PERSONALITY
 WATCH FOR SKIN PROBLEMS
HEPATITIS
 INFLAMMATION OF THE LIVER
 HEPATITIS A – SPREAD BY FECAL-ORAL ROUTE
 HEPATITIS B – SPREAD BY SEX WITH INFECTED PERSON OR
SHARING NEEDLES WITH INFECTED PERSON
 HEPATITIS C – CHRONIC HEPATITIS – SPREAD BY SEXUAL
ACTIVITY AND IV DRUG USE
SIGNS OF HEPATITIS
 JAUNDICE (YELLOW TINGE TO SKIN OR WHITES OF EYE)
 LOSS OF APPETITE, NAUSEA, VOMITING
 DARK URINE, LIGHT-COLORED FECES
 ATTACKS THE ABILITY TO FIGHT OTHER DISEASES
 MANY DRUGS HELO REDUCE COMPLICATIONS AND
PROLONG LIFE
 THERE IS NO CURE OR VACCINE
 SPREAD THROUGH BODY FLUIDS – BLOOD, SEMEN,
VAGINAL SECRETIONS, BREAST MILK
 IV DRUG USE
 HIV INFECTED MOTHERS
 ALWAYS FOLLOW STANDARD PRECAUTIONS TO PROTECT
YOURSELF AGAINST THE AIDS VIRUS
 COMMON IN ELDERLY PERSONS
 THEY HAVE MANY LOSSES – DEATH OF FAMILY AND
FRIENDS, LOSS OF HEALTH, LOSS OF INDEPENDENCE,
 LONELINESS AND DRUG SIDE EFFECTS CAN CAUSE
DEPRESSION
SIGNS OF DEPRESSION
 FATIGUE AND LACK OF INTEREST
 FEELINGS OF HOPELESSNESS
 THOUGHTS OF DEATH AND SUICIDE
 POOR GROOMING
 WITHDRAWAL FROM PEOPLE
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