19-Nov-occup43

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Occupational Health & Safety
Learning Objectives
• Lead Poisoning
•Sources
•Symptoms
•Prevention & Control
• Occupational Health Services
• MCQs & SAQs
9 P’s of Sources of Lead
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Paint
Petrol
Pencils
Pottery
Plates (Lead plates used in batteries)
Pipes (lead pipes)
Polish (leather polishing)
Printing industry
Pesticides
ABC of Lead Poisoning
A Anaemia
B Bartonian lines
C Colic abdominal, constipation, convulsions, coma
D Drop (foot/wrist drop), delirium
E Encephalopathy
• F Fatigue
• G GIT symptoms (anorexia and dysphagia)
• H Headache, hyper uricaemia, Haemolysis
• I Insomnia / irritability
• J Judgment decreased
• K Kidney function impaired
• L Loss of appetite
• M Mental confusion and memory loss
• N Nausea, vomiting diarrhoea
• P Palsy (Paralysis) / pains in extremities
• R Red cell stippling / Renal failure (acute)
• T Teleky’s sign / tremors / teratogenic effects
Advantages of Occupational health care
•Investigates and assesses load factors and hazards and
gives expert assistance for eliminating them
•Gives information and advice
•Estimates employees’ working ability and monitors
their health condition
•By its knowledge and skills supports action for
maintaining working ability in the development of
individuals, working environment and working
community, in this way also affecting productivity
continued
Advantages of Occupational health care
•Prevents occupational diseases and other workrelated illnesses
•Prevents premature incapacity for work, reduces
pension costs
•Reduces absenteeism due to sickness
•Can make calculations of the profitability of
occupational safety and health and occupational
health care in cooperation with workplaces or
encourage workplaces to make these themselves.
Components occupational health
services – CONT..
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Assessment of dusts pollution
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Assessment of noise pollution
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Assessment of vibration
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Assessment heat radiation
•
Assessment of radiation
Occupational epidemiology
• The science of the occurrence of diseases in
human population as applied to the field of
occupational health for the following
purpose:– Identification of diseases of occupational origin
when the same diseases also occur in the
community at large.
– Identification of causes of occupational, disease
– Checking the effectiveness of control measures
through prospective studies.
Legislation regarding occupational health
and safety in pakistan
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Mines Act 1923
Factories Act 1934
Ordinance 2001
Docks Labours Act 1934
Petroleum Rules 1937
Pakistan Hazardous Operations Rules 1963
Workman's Compensation act 1923 and Rules 1961
Provincial Employees social Security Regulations 1967
The Oil and Gas (safety in drilling and production)
Regulations 1974
• Hazardous Substances Rule 2003
• OHSAS 18001 Standards
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HIERARCHY OF CONTROLS
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SURVIELLANCE PROGRAMME
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Remedial Action Plan
Remedial action Plan should state the Additional control and
recovery measures.
Remedial action plan should be SMART.
S------Specific
M-----Measurable
A-----Achievable
R-----Realistic
T-----Time bound
This plan should include priorities, responsible person and
target dates for actions.
13
PRE -EMPLOYEMENT HEALTH SCREENING
• To determine the pre-existing health conditions of individuals prior to
commencement of work
• To make sure that he / she is physically and mentally fit for the type of
activity he / she is employed for.
• At the time of employment , HR/ IR arrange pre-employment medical
examination in liaison with Medical Dept.
• General physical Examination
• Chest x-ray
• ECG
• Urine R/E
• Stool R/E
• Hepatitis B Ag
• Anti HCV Antibodies
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Specialized tests will be conducted for staff
deputed on specialized jobs or they have special
requirements as part of their job like crane or
fork lift operators , drives, Electrical Technicians
• Color blindness
• Audiometric tests
• Pre employment Medical Record will be
maintained in personal file of individual by
Medical Dept. at HO
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PREIODIC HEALTH SURVEILLIENCE
• Periodic Health Surveillance to
be conducted for staff:
• At risk from workplace
exposure
• In compliance with regulatory
requirement
• To detect early, reversible
health affects
• Periodic Surveillance Record
will be maintained at Field /
Location level.
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Functions of Occupational Health Service
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Placing people in suitable work
Maintaining people in suitable work
Providing treatment
Controlling recognized hazards
Identifying unrecognized hazards
Avoiding potential risks
7. Screening for early evidence of nonoccupational disease
8. Health education and safety training
9. Surveillance of sanitary, catering & welfare
amenities
10.Environment control outside the work place
Main Responsibilities of a doctor Working
in an Industry
• Knowledge of the work environment
• Medical examinations for general as well as
occupationally health surveillance
• Treatment services for illness and injury
• Health education
• Ability to access, prevalence studies.
Legislative Measures
The Factories Act
 The factories act covers the matters relating to
Health, Safety & Welfare of the workers
 Lighting, Ventilation & Temperature Standards
 Hours of work day (not more than 48 hours per
week & 9 hours per day)
 Employment of young persons (< 14yrs)
 Treatment of Waste & Effluent to render them safe
Social Security Act (PESSI-1965)

Applicable to factories employing 10 or more employees

Deduction from the employees (7% of the total wages)

Benefits to the employees

Medical

Sickness

Disablement

Maternity

Dependents Benefit
Occupational Hygiene Inspection
• What are you going to inspect???
- Refer to the checklist on factory inspection
Special Characteristics
Silicosis: X-ray chest shows Snow-storm appearance
Anthracosis: Small, ill-defined opacities in the mid &
upper zones
Asbestosis: Ground-glass appearance in lower two
thirds of lung fields
Byssinosis: Monday morning fever (Tightness in the
chest )
Farmer’s Lung: Due to exposure to grain
Expected Questions
MCQ-1
A person aged 40, who had been working as a
labourer in grain market for the last 25 years
presented with history of repeated attacks of
respiratory infections in the last 1 year. X-ray
showed pulmonary fibrosis. The likely diagnosis
was:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Tuberculosis
Sillicosis
Sillicotuberculosis
Farmer’s lung
Baggassosis
26
MCQ-2
A Ship Breaking Industry worker reported to
you with complaints of cough, dyspnoea on
exertion and chest pain. His X-ray chest
showed ‘Honeycomb’ appearance. The
diagnosis would be:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Asbestosis
Siderosis
Silicosis
Aspergillosis
Byssinossis
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MCQ-3
A worker who had been in the battery
manufacturing unit for the last 20 years, reported
to you with complaints of lost appetite and
abdominal colic of 2 weeks duration. You would
prefer to investigate him for:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Cholecystitis
Lead poisoning
Appendicitis
Ameobiasis
Stomach cancer
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MCQ-4
A woman working in an industry during night
shifts is exposed to 750 lux of light. She is
most probably at risk of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Keratomalacia
Breast cancer
Dermatitis
Conjunctival xerosis
Night blindness
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MCQ-5
Which of the following disease is more
common in rural areas in the agriculturists
who are mainly dependent on farming in the
fields?
a. Chronic bronchitis
b. Lung Cancer
c. Zoonotic diseases
d. Drug dependence
e. Acute Respiratory Tract Infections
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MCQ-6
Air pollution can lead to which one of the
following :
a. Bronchial asthma
b. Impetigo
c. Chronic bronchitis
d. Cholecyctitis
e. Lumbago
31
MCQ-7
The cancer seen in aniline industry or with
aromatic amines is:
a. Skin cancer
b. Lung cancer
c. Cancer bladder
d. Cancer rectum
e. Cancer kidney
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MCQ-8
X-ray chest shows ground glass appearance in
lower two-thirds of lung in:
a. Anthracosis
b. Silicosis
c. Asbestosis
d. Farmer’s lung
e. Bagassosis
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MCQ-9
For Pneumoconiosis following is true:a. Byssinosis is due to inhalation of cotton fiber dust
b. Anthracosis is due to inhalation of iron dust
c. Bagassosis is due to inhalation of coal dust
d. Silicosis is due to inhalation of sand particles
e. Siderosis is due to inhalation of sugarcane fibres
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MCQ-10
• Which of the following is responsible for over
half of all deaths from unintentional injuries?
a. Drowning
b. Motor vehicle crashes
c. Poisoning
d. Firearm injuries
e. Air Crashes
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MCQ-11
Majority of the mortality by road traffic
accidents can be saved by:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Seat belts
Safety helmets
Leather clothing
Goggles
New Tyres
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MCQ-12
A farmer of rural Punjab reports to a medical
officer in the month of August with the
complaints of fever, severe head-ache, anorexia,
weakness, prostration, arthralgia, weakness and
rash. The doctor noticed petechiae and blood
examination shows leucopenia. The probable
diagnosis is:a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Malaria
Classic dengue fever
Typhoid
Chicken pox
Meningococcal meningitis
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MCQ-13
Bagassosis is due to inhalation of :a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Sugar cane fibers
Sand particles
Cotton fibers dust
Tobacco particles
Sand particles
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MCQ-14
• The headquarter of ILO is in:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Geneva
Rome
Paris
New York
London
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MCQ-15
Anthrax is a disease caused by:
a. Inhalation of coal dust
b. Inhalation of silica
c. Inhalation of spores
d. Inhalation of a virus
e. Inhalation of iron dust
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SAQ-1
• A forty year old pottery industry worker
presented with complaints of fever and weight
loss; he also complained about cough and
blood stained sputum. X-ray confirmed
fibrosis of lungs and hilar lymphadenopathy:
• Which factor in this particular trade has lead
to the development of this condition?
• Which measures do you recommend for
prevention of this condition?
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• What is Occupational Health? What steps you will
take for prevention of occupational diseases?
• What are sources of lead poisoning? Write signs and
symptoms caused by it. Give preventive measures.
• Define pneumoconiosis. What are common dusts
causing pneumoconiosis? Give detailed account of
silicosis.
• Enlist occupational risks to health care providers.
• Write functions of occupational health services.
• What are various health hazards to a farmer
working in the fields?
Thank you !!
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