Medical Factors pages 16-19

Medical Factors
Dietary choices
The choices that people make about food depends on many
factors including
 Dietary and medical needs
 Religion
 Ethical reasons
Coronary heart disease
An angina attack happens when blood
cannot get to the heart to supply it with
 This happens when the arteries leading to
the heart become narrower due to fatty
deposits. A heart attack will result if the
artery is completely blocked by a blood clot.
 Factors which increase the risk of coronary
heart disease are
 High blood pressure
 Smoking
 High cholesterol
You can lower cholesterol levels by
 Reducing the amount of saturated fat in your
 Increase the amount of fruit and vegetables
you eat
 Take regular exercise.
 Diabetes is the third most common
long term disease in the UK. It can lead
to complications such as
Heart disease
Kidney disease
Nerve problems
Diabetics cannot produce sufficient
insulin to control the glucose level in
the blood
There are two types of diabetes
Type 1 can be treated with injections
Type 2 can be controlled by diet and or
To prevent diabetes you should have a
balanced diet and take regular exercise.
Lactose intolerance
 People can be intolerant of
many foods. Lactose intolerance
is common and affects about
70% of the worlds population.
 It can be temporary or
permanent and is caused by a
lack of lactase the digestive
enzyme which breaks down
lactose found in cows, sheep and
goats milk into simple sugars.
 If you suffer you should avoid
milk products and replace them
with soya products.
 All allergies involve the immune
system, and are usually more
serious than food intolerance.
Symptoms of allergies are
Dry throat
Feeling bloated
Running or blocked nose
Sore/red eyes
Nut allergies
 In some people with a nut
allergy, a very small amount
can trigger anaphylaxis.
 This is a severe reaction
which causes the airways to
swell and lowers the blood
 It can result in death if not
treated quickly.
 Food labels must state if they
contain nuts.
Coeliac disease
 This is intolerance to
gluten which is found in
wheat, rye and barley.
 Coeliacs cannot absorb
nutrients if they eat gluten.
 Corn rice and potatoes do
not contain gluten.You can
also buy special gluten free
products in most shops.
 Followers of some religion are
required to follow certain rules.
Kosher or Halal meat is
slaughtered in a special way.
Jews-No shellfish or pork and
only kosher meat. No dairy
products and meat in the same
Hindus-no beef or beef
Sikhs-No beef or could be
Muslims-No pork, only Halal
Ethical issues
Some people avoid meat due to
environmental issues or health
 Some people avoid beef due to
concerns over BSE.
 Some avoid chicken and turkey
due to the bird flu issues.
 Some people avoid fish due to
the overfishing. Or prawns
because this fishing is very
energy expensive and wasteful.
Producing unnecessary
greenhouse gases.