File - Ms. Sweeney`s Science

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Chapter 17
Endocrine and
Hematologic
Emergencies
National EMS Education
Standard Competencies (1 of 3)
Medicine
Applies fundamental knowledge to provide
basic emergency care and transportation
based on assessment findings for an acutely
ill patient.
National EMS Education
Standard Competencies (2 of 3)
Endocrine Disorders
• Awareness that:
– Diabetic emergencies cause altered mental
status
• Anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology,
assessment, and management of:
– Acute diabetic emergencies
National EMS Education
Standard Competencies (3 of 3)
Hematology
• Anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology,
assessment, and management of:
– Sickle cell crisis
– Clotting disorders
Introduction (1 of 2)
• Endocrine system affects nearly every:
– Cell
– Organ
– Bodily function
• Endocrine disorders can have many signs
and symptoms.
Introduction (2 of 2)
• Hematologic emergencies
– Rare in most EMS systems
– Difficult to assess and treat
– EMT offers support and may save life
Anatomy and Physiology
• Endocrine system is a complex message
and control system.
– Glands secrete hormones.
– Hormones are chemical messengers.
– System maintains homeostasis
Pathophysiology (1 of 2)
• Diabetes affects the body’s ability to use
glucose (sugar) for fuel.
• Occurs in about 7% of the population
• Complications include blindness,
cardiovascular disease, and kidney failure.
Pathophysiology (2 of 2)
• As an EMT, you need to know signs and
symptoms of blood glucose that is:
– High (hyperglycemia)
– Low (hypoglycemia)
• Central problem in diabetes is lack, or
ineffective action, of insulin.
Types of Diabetes (1 of 4)
• Diabetes mellitus: “sweet diabetes”
• Diabetes insipidus: excessive urination
• Type 1 and type 2 diabetes both:
– Are equally serious
– Affect many tissues and functions
– Require life-long management.
Types of Diabetes (2 of 4)
• Type 1 patients do not produce insulin.
– Need daily injections of insulin
– Typically develops during childhood
– Patients more likely to have metabolic problems
and organ damage
– Considered an autoimmune problem
Types of Diabetes (3 of 4)
• Type 2 patients produce inadequate
amounts of insulin, or normal amount that
does not function effectively.
– Usually appears later in life
– Treatment may be diet, exercise, oral
medications, or insulin.
Types of Diabetes (4 of 4)
• Severity of diabetic complications depends
on patient’s average blood glucose level
and when diabetes began.
• Obesity increases the risk of diabetes.
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (1 of 8)
• Glucose is a major source of energy for the
body.
• Insulin is needed to allow glucose to enter
cells (except for brain cells).
– A “cellular key”
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (2 of 8)
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (3 of 8)
• Classic symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes
(“3 Ps”):
– Polyuria: frequent, plentiful urination
– Polydipsia: frequent drinking to satisfy
continuous thirst
– Polyphagia: excessive eating
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (4 of 8)
• When glucose is unavailable, the body turns
to other energy sources.
– Fat is most abundant.
– Using fat for energy results in buildup of
ketones and fatty acids in blood and tissue.
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (5 of 8)
• Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
– A form of acidosis seen in uncontrolled diabetes
– Without insulin, certain acids accumulate.
– More common in type 1 diabetes
– Signs and symptoms:
• Weakness
• Nausea
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (6 of 8)
• DKA
– Signs and symptoms (cont’d):
• Weak, rapid pulse
• Kussmaul respirations
• Sweet breath
– Can progress to coma and death
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (7 of 8)
• Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic (HHNC)
nonketotic coma
– More often caused by type 2 diabetes
– Slower, more gradual onset than DKA
– No sweet-smelling breath
– Excessive urination results in dehydration.
The Role of Glucose and
Insulin (8 of 8)
Source: Accu-Chek® Aviva used with permission of Roche Diagnostics.
Blood glucose monitoring kit
Hyperglycemia and
Hypoglycemia (1 of 3)
• Both lead to diabetic emergencies.
• Hyperglycemia: Blood glucose is above
normal.
– Result of lack of insulin
– Untreated, results in DKA
Hyperglycemia and
Hypoglycemia (2 of 3)
• Hypoglycemia: Blood glucose is below
normal.
– Untreated, results in unresponsiveness and
hypoglycemic crisis
• Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia and
hypoglycemia are similar.
Hyperglycemia and
Hypoglycemia (3 of 3)
Hyperglycemic Crisis (1 of 3)
• Hyperglycemic crisis (diabetic coma) is a
state of unconsciousness resulting from:
– Ketoacidosis
– Hyperglycemia
– Dehydration
– Excess blood glucose
Hyperglycemic Crisis (2 of 3)
• Can occur in diabetic patients:
– Not under medical treatment
– Who have taken insufficient insulin
– Who have markedly overeaten
– Under stress due to infection, illness,
overexertion, fatigue, or alcohol
Hyperglycemic Crisis (3 of 3)
• If untreated, can result in death
• Treatment may take hours in a wellcontrolled hospital setting.
Hypoglycemic Crisis (1 of 3)
• Hypoglycemic crisis (insulin shock) is
caused by insufficient levels of glucose in
the blood.
• Can occur in insulin-dependent patients:
– Who have taken too much insulin
– Who have taken a regular dose of insulin but
have not eaten enough food
Hypoglycemic Crisis (2 of 3)
• Can occur in insulin-dependent patients
(cont’d):
– Who have engaged in vigorous activity and
used up all available glucose
– Who have vomited a meal after taking insulin
• Insufficient glucose supply to the brain
Hypoglycemic
Crisis (3 of 3)
• If untreated, it
can produce
unconsciousness and
death.
• Quickly
reversed by
giving glucose
Patient Assessment of
Diabetes
• Patient assessment steps
– Scene size-up
– Primary assessment
– History taking
– Secondary assessment
– Reassessment
Scene Size-up
• Scene safety
– Diabetic patients often use syringes for
insulin.
– Use gloves and eye protection at a minimum.
• Mechanism of injury (MOI)/nature of illness
(NOI)
– Remember, trauma may also have occurred.
Primary Assessment (1 of 4)
• Form a general impression.
– Other medical or trauma emergencies may be
responsible for diabetic patient’s symptoms
• Airway and breathing
– Be alert for Kussmaul respirations and sweet,
fruity breath (DKA).
Primary Assessment (2 of 4)
• Airway and breathing (cont’d)
– Hypoglycemic patients will have normal or
shallow to rapid respirations.
– Manage respiratory distress.
Primary Assessment (3 of 4)
• Circulation
– Dry, warm skin: hyperglycemia
– Moist, pale skin: hypoglycemia
– Rapid, weak pulse: hyperglycemic crisis
Primary Assessment (4 of 4)
• Transport decision
– Provide prompt transport for patients with
altered mental status and inability to swallow
– Further evaluate conscious patients capable
of swallowing and able to maintain airway
History Taking (1 of 3)
• Investigate chief complaint
– Obtain history of present illness from
responsive patient, family, or bystanders.
– If patient has eaten but not taken insulin,
hyperglycemia is more likely.
History Taking (2 of 3)
• Investigate chief complaint (cont’d)
– If patient has taken insulin but not eaten,
hypoglycemia is more likely.
– Carefully observe signs and symptoms;
determine whether hypo- or hyperglycemic.
History Taking (3 of 3)
• SAMPLE history—Has the patient:
– Taken insulin or pills to lower blood sugar?
– Taken his or her usual dose today?
– Eaten normally?
– Experienced illness, unusual amount of
activity, or stress?
Secondary Assessment (1 of 2)
• Physical examination
– Full-body scan
– Focus on mental status, ability to swallow,
and ability to protect airway.
Secondary Assessment (2 of 2)
• Vital signs
– Obtain complete set of vital signs.
• Use available monitoring devices (eg,
glucometer, pulse oximeter).
• Normal blood glucose: 80 to 120 mg/dL
Reassessment (1 of 4)
• Interventions
– Reassess patient frequently.
– Provide indicated interventions.
• Hypoglycemic, conscious, can swallow:
– Encourage patient to drink juice.
– Administer oral glucose (if protocols allow).
– Provide rapid transport.
Reassessment (2 of 4)
• Interventions (cont’d)
– Hypoglycemic, unconscious, risk of aspiration:
• Patient needs intravenous (IV) glucose or
intramuscular (IM) glucagon (beyond EMT
competencies).
• Provide rapid transport.
Reassessment (3 of 4)
• Interventions (cont’d).
– Unconscious, known diabetic:
• If hypoglycemic, give oral glucose (if protocols
allow).
• If hyperglycemic, patient needs insulin and IV
fluid therapy (beyond EMT competencies).
– When in doubt, give glucose (if protocols
allow).
Reassessment (4 of 4)
• Communication and Documentation
– Coordinate communication and documentation
– Inform receiving hospital about prehospital
patient assessment and care.
Emergency Medical Care for
Diabetic Emergencies (1 of 2)
• Oral glucose
– Commercially
available gel given
to increase blood
glucose
Source: Courtesy of Paddock Laboratories, Inc.
– Follow local
protocols for
administration
(Skill Drill 17-1).
Emergency Medical Care for
Diabetic Emergencies (2 of 2)
• Oral glucose (cont’d)
– Contraindications: inability to swallow and
unconsciousness
– Wear gloves before putting anything in patient’s
mouth.
Problems Associated With
Diabetes (1 of 7)
• Seizures
– Rarely life threatening
– May indicate an underlying condition
– Consider trauma and hypoglycemia as causes.
– Ensure airway is clear.
– Place patient on side.
Problems Associated With
Diabetes (2 of 7)
• Seizures (cont’d)
– Put nothing in patient’s mouth.
– Have suctioning equipment ready.
– Provide oxygen or artificial ventilations for
inadequate respirations or cyanosis.
– Transport promptly.
Problems Associated With
Diabetes (3 of 7)
• Altered mental status
– May be caused by diabetes complications
– May be caused by other conditions (poisoning,
head injury, postictal state, or decreased brain
perfusion)
– Ensure airway is clear.
Problems Associated With
Diabetes (4 of 7)
• Altered mental status (cont’d)
– Be prepared to provide artificial ventilations and
suctioning if patient vomits.
– Provide prompt transport.
• Alcoholism
– Symptoms mistaken for intoxication
Problems Associated With
Diabetes (5 of 7)
• Alcoholism (cont’d)
– Especially common when symptoms result in a
motor vehicle crash or other incident
– Confined by police in a “drunk tank,” the
diabetic patient is at risk.
– Look for emergency medical identification
bracelet, necklace, or card.
Problems Associated With
Diabetes (6 of 7)
• Alcoholism (cont’d)
– Perform blood glucose test at scene (if
protocols allow) or emergency department.
– Diabetes and alcoholism can coexist in a
patient.
Problems Associated With
Diabetes (7 of 7)
• Airway management
– Patients with altered mental status can lose gag
reflex.
– Vomit or tongue may obstruct airway.
– Carefully monitor airway.
– Place patient in lateral recumbent position.
– Make sure suction is available.
Hematologic Emergencies
• Hematology is the study and prevention of
blood-related diseases.
• Blood is “the fluid of life.”
– Understanding it helps understand disorders.
Anatomy and Physiology
• Blood is made up of cells and plasma.
– Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, which
carries oxygen to the tissues.
– White blood cells “clean” the body.
– Platelets are essential for clot formation.
– Plasma transports blood cells.
Pathophysiology (1 of 10)
• Sickle cell disease
– Inherited disorder, affects red blood cells
– Predominant in African Americans and persons
of Mediterranean descent
– Red blood cells are sickle or oblong shaped,
contain hemoglobin S, are poor oxygen carriers,
and live for only 16 days.
Pathophysiology (2 of 10)
• Sickle cell disease (cont’d)
– May cause hypoxia; swelling or rupture of blood
vessels or spleen; and death
– Four main types of sickle cell crises:
• Vaso-occlusive crisis
• Aplastic crisis
• Hemolytic crisis
• Splenic sequestration crisis
Pathophysiology (3 of 10)
• Sickle cell disease (cont’d)
– Vaso-occlusive crisis
• Blood flow to organs is restricted
– Aplastic crisis
• Worsening of baseline anemia
– Hemolytic crisis
• Acute, accelerated drop in hemoglobin level
– Splenic sequestration crisis
• Acute enlargement of spleen
Pathophysiology (4 of 10)
• Sickle cell disease (cont’d)
– Complications:
• Cerebral vascular attack
• Gallstones
• Jaundice
• Avascular necrosis
Pathophysiology (5 of 10)
• Sickle cell disease (cont’d)
– Complications (cont’d)
• Splenic infections
• Osteomyelitis
• Opiate tolerance
• Leg ulcers
Pathophysiology (6 of 10)
• Sickle cell disease
(cont’d)
– Complications
(cont’d)
• Retinopathy
• Chronic pain
• Pulmonary
hypertension
• Chronic renal
failure
Pathophysiology (7 of 10)
• Clotting disorders
– Thrombosis
• Development of blood clot in blood vessel
– Thrombophilia
• Tendency to develop blood clots
• Blood-thinning medications used to treat
Pathophysiology (8 of 10)
• Clotting disorders (cont’d)
– Thrombophilia (cont’d)
• Not common in pediatric patients
• Risk factors:
– Recent surgery, impaired mobility, congestive
heart failure, cancer, respiratory failure, infectious
diseases, over 40 years of age, being overweight/
obesity, smoking, oral contraceptive use
Pathophysiology (9 of 10)
• Clotting disorders (cont’d)
– Hemophilia
• Congenital; impaired ability to form blood
clots
• Predominant in males (1 per 5,000–10,000)
• Hemophilia A most common
• Hemophilia B second most common
Pathophysiology (10 of 10)
• Clotting disorders (cont’d)
– Hemophilia (cont’d)
• Signs and symptoms:
– Spontaneous, acute, chronic bleeding
– Intracranial bleeding (major cause of death)
• During assessment, seriously consider
injury/illness that can cause bleeding.
Patient Assessment of
Hematologic Disorders
• Patient assessment steps
– Scene size-up
– Primary assessment
– History taking
– Secondary assessment
– Reassessment
Scene Size-up
• Scene safety
– Wear gloves and eye protection at a
minimum.
• MOI/NOI
– Remember, trauma may also have occurred.
Primary Assessment (1 of 3)
• Form a general impression.
– Perform a rapid scan
• Airway and breathing
– Inadequate breathing or altered mental status:
• High-flow oxygen at 12 to 15 L/min via NRB mask
Primary Assessment (2 of 3)
• Airway and breathing (cont’d)
– Sickle cell crisis patients may have increased
respirations or signs of pneumonia
– Manage respiratory distress.
Primary Assessment (3 of 3)
• Circulation
– Sickle cell patients: increased pulse rate
– Hemophilia patients:
• Be alert for signs of acute blood loss.
• Note bleeding of unknown origin.
• Be alert for signs of hypoxia.
• Make a transport decision.
History Taking (1 of 3)
• Investigate chief complaint.
– Obtain history of present illness from
responsive patients, family, or bystanders.
– Physical signs indicating sickle cell crisis:
• Swelling of fingers and toes
• Priapism
• Jaundice
History Taking (2 of 3)
• Assess pain using OPQRST mnemonic.
– Single location or felt throughout body?
– Visual disturbances?
– Nausea, vomiting, or abdominal cramping?
– Chest pain or shortness of breath?
History Taking (3 of 3)
• Obtain SAMPLE history from responsive
patient or family member.
– Have you had a crisis before?
– When was the last time you had a crisis?
– How did your last crisis resolve?
– Recent illness, unusual amount of activity, or
stress?
Secondary Assessment
• Physical examination
– Focus on major joints.
– Determine level of consciousness (AVPU).
• Vital signs
– Obtain complete set of vital signs.
• Look for signs of sickle cell crisis.
• Use pulse oximeter, if available.
Reassessment (1 of 2)
• Reassess vital signs frequently.
• Interventions
– Provide indicated interventions
– Reassess interventions
• Hospital care for sickle cell crisis:
– Analgesics, penicillin, IV fluid, blood
transfusion
Reassessment (2 of 2)
• Hospital care for hemophilia:
– IV therapy (for hypotension)
– Transfusion of plasma
• Coordinate communication and
documentation.
Emergency Medical Care for
Hematologic Disorders
• Mainly supportive and symptomatic
• Patients with inadequate breathing or
altered mental status:
– Administer high-flow O2 at 12 to 15 L/min.
– Place in a position of comfort.
– Transport rapidly to hospital.
Summary (1 of 12)
• The endocrine system maintains stability in
the body’s internal environment
(homeostasis).
• Type 1 and type 2 diabetes involve
abnormalities in the body’s ability to use
glucose (sugar) for fuel.
Summary (2 of 12)
• Polyuria (frequent, plentiful urination),
polydipsia (frequent drinking to satisfy
continuous thirst), and polyphagia
(excessive eating due to cellular hunger)
are common symptoms, or the “3 Ps,” of
uncontrolled diabetes.
Summary (3 of 12)
• Patients with diabetes have chronic
complications that place them at risk for
other diseases.
• Hyperglycemia is the result of a lack of
insulin, causing high blood glucose levels.
Summary (4 of 12)
• Hypoglycemia is a state in which the blood
glucose level is below normal. Without
treatment, permanent brain damage and
death can occur.
• DKA is the buildup of ketones and fatty
acids in the blood and body tissue that
results when the body relies upon fat for
energy.
Summary (5 of 12)
• Hyperglycemic crisis (diabetic coma) is a
state of unconsciousness resulting from
DKA, hyperglycemia, and/or dehydration
due to excessive urination.
Summary (6 of 12)
• Hypoglycemic crisis (insulin shock) is
caused by insufficient blood glucose levels.
Treat quickly, by giving oral glucose (if
protocols allow), to avoid brain damage.
Summary (7 of 12)
• When assessing diabetic emergencies, err
on the side of giving oral glucose (if
protocols allow). Do not give oral glucose to
patients who are unconscious or who
cannot swallow properly and protect the
airway. In all cases, provide rapid transport.
Summary (8 of 12)
• Problems associated with diabetes include
seizures, altered mental status, “intoxicated”
appearance, and loss of a gag reflex, which
affects airway management.
• Hematology is the study and prevention of
blood-related disorders.
Summary (9 of 12)
• Sickle cell disease is a blood disorder the
affects the shape of red blood cells.
Symptoms include joint pain, fever,
respiratory distress, and abdominal pain.
Summary (10 of 12)
• Hemoglobin A is considered normal
hemoglobin. Hemoglobin S is considered
an abnormal type of hemoglobin and is
responsible for sickle cell crisis.
Summary (11 of 12)
• Patients with sickle cell disease have
chronic complications that place them at
risk for other diseases, such as heart attack,
stroke, and infection.
Summary (12 of 12)
• Patients with hemophilia are not able to
control bleeding.
• Emergency care in the prehospital setting is
supportive for patients with sickle disease or
a clotting disorder such as hemophilia.
Review
1. Type 1 diabetes is a condition in which:
A. too much insulin is produced.
B. glucose utilization is impaired.
C. too much glucose enters the cell.
D. the body does not produce glucose.
Review
Answer: B
Rationale: Type 1 diabetes is a disease in
which the pancreas fails to produce enough
insulin (or none at all). Insulin is a hormone
that promotes the uptake of sugar from the
bloodstream and into the cells. Without
insulin, glucose utilization is impaired because
it cannot enter the cell.
Review
2. A 45-year-old man with type 1 diabetes is
found unresponsive. Which of the following
questions is MOST important to ask his
wife?
A. “Did he take his insulin today?”
B. “How long has he been a diabetic?”
C. “Has he seen his physician recently?”
D. “What kind of insulin does he take?”
Review
Answer: A
Rationale: All of these questions are important to ask
the spouse of an unconscious diabetic. However, it is
critical to ask if the patient took his insulin. This will
help you differentiate hypoglycemic crisis from
hyperglycemic crisis. For example, if the patient took
his insulin and did not eat, or accidentally took too
much insulin, you should suspect hypoglycemic crisis.
If the patient did not take his insulin, you should
suspect hyperglycemic crisis.
Review
3. A diabetic patient presents with a blood glucose
level of 310 mg/dL and severe dehydration. The
patient’s dehydration is the result of:
A. excretion of glucose and water from the
kidneys.
B. a deficiency of insulin that causes internal fluid
loss.
C. an infection that often accompanies
hyperglycemia.
D. an inability to produce energy because of
insulin depletion.
Review
Answer: A
Rationale: In severe hyperglycemia, the
kidneys excrete excess glucose from the
body. This process requires a large amount of
water to accomplish; therefore, water is
excreted with the glucose, resulting in
dehydration.
Review
4. Which combination of factors would MOST
likely cause a hypoglycemic crisis in a
diabetic patient?
A. Eating a meal and taking insulin
B. Skipping a meal and taking insulin
C. Eating a meal and not taking insulin
D. Skipping a meal and not taking insulin
Review
Answer: B
Rationale: The combination that would most
likely cause a hypoglycemic crisis is skipping
a meal and taking insulin. The patient will use
up all available glucose in the bloodstream
and become hypoglycemic. Left untreated,
hypoglycemic crisis may cause permanent
brain damage or even death.
Review
5. A 19-year-old diabetic male was found
unresponsive on the couch by his
roommate. After confirming that the patient
is unresponsive, you should:
A. suction his oropharynx.
B. manually open his airway.
C. administer high-flow oxygen.
D. begin assisting his ventilations.
Review
Answer: B
Rationale: Immediately after determining that
a patient is unresponsive, your first action
should be to manually open his or her airway
(eg, head tilt–chin lift, jaw-thrust). Use suction
as needed to clear secretions from the
patient’s mouth. After manually opening the
airway and ensuring it is clear of obstructions,
insert an airway adjunct and then assess the
patient’s breathing.
Review
6. What breathing pattern would you MOST
likely encounter in a patient with diabetic
ketoacidosis (DKA)?
A. Slow and shallow
B. Shallow and irregular
C. Rapid and deep
D. Slow and irregular
Review
Answer: C
Rationale: Kussmaul respirations—a rapid
and deep breathing pattern seen in patients
with DKA—indicates that the body is
attempting to eliminate ketones via the
respiratory system. A fruity or acetone breath
odor is usually present in patients with
Kussmaul respirations.
Review
7. A woman called EMS because her 12year-old son, who had been experiencing
excessive urination, thirst, and hunger for
the past 36 hours, has an altered mental
status and is breathing fast. You should be
MOST suspicious for:
A.
B.
C.
D.
low blood sugar.
hypoglycemia.
hypoglycemic crisis.
hyperglycemic crisis.
Review
Answer: D
Rationale: The child is experiencing a
hyperglycemic crisis secondary to severe
hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemic crisis is
characterized by a slow onset; excessive
urination (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), and
hunger (polyphagia). Other signs include
rapid, deep breathing with a fruity or acetone
breath odor (Kussmaul respirations); a rapid,
thready pulse; and an altered mental status.
Review
8. If the cells do not receive glucose, they will
begin to metabolize:
A. fat.
B. acid.
C. sugar.
D. ketones.
Review
Answer: A
Rationale: If the body’s cells do not receive
glucose, they will begin to metabolize the next
most readily available substance—fat. Fat
metabolism results in the production of
ketoacids, which are released into the
bloodstream (hence the term “ketoacidosis”).
Review
9. In contrast to a hyperglycemic crisis, a
hypoglycemic crisis:
A. rarely presents with seizures.
B. presents over a period of hours to days.
C. should not routinely be treated with glucose.
D. usually responds immediately after treatment.
Review
Answer: D
Rationale: Hypoglycemic crisis usually
responds immediately following treatment with
glucose. Patients with hyperglycemic crisis
generally respond to treatment gradually,
within 6–12 hours following the appropriate
treatment. Seizures can occur with both
hyperglycemic crisis and hypoglycemic crisis,
but are more common in patients with
hypoglycemic crisis.
Review
10. Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis
experience polydipsia because:
A. they are dehydrated secondary to excessive
urination.
B. the cells of the body are starved due to a
lack of glucose.
C. fatty acids are being metabolized at the
cellular level.
D. hyperglycemia usually causes severe
internal water loss.
Review
Answer: A
Rationale: Severe hyperglycemia—which
leads to diabetic ketoacidosis—causes the
body to excrete large amounts of glucose and
water. As a result, the patient becomes
severely dehydrated, which leads to
excessive thirst (polydipsia).
Review
11. When dealing with hematologic disorders,
the EMT must be familiar with the
composition of blood. Which of the
following is considered a hematologic
disease?
A. Sickle cell disease
B. Hemophilia
C. Lou Gehrig’s disease
D. Both A and B
Review
Answer: D
Rationale: Hematology is the study and
prevention of blood-related diseases, such as
sickle cell disease and hemophilia.
Review
12. What are the two main components of
blood?
A. Erythrocytes and hemoglobin
B. Cells and plasma
C. Leukocytes and white blood cells
D. Platelets and neutrophils
Review
Answer: B
Rationale: The blood is made up of two main
components: cells and plasma. The cells in
the blood include red blood cells
(erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes),
and platelets. These cells are suspended in a
straw-colored fluid called plasma.
Review
13. The assessment of a patient with a hematologic
disorder is the same as it is with all other
patients an EMT will encounter. The EMT must
perform a scene size-up, primary assessment,
history taking, secondary assessment, and
reassessment. In addition to obtaining a
SAMPLE history, EMTs should ask which of the
following questions?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Have you had a crisis before?
When was the last time you had a crisis?
How did your crisis resolve?
All of the above
Review
Answer: D
Rationale: SAMPLE is the mnemonic used in
taking the history of all patients. In addition to
asking the SAMPLE, EMTs should also ask
about past crises.
Review
14. Which one of the following is NOT an
appropriate treatment for EMTs to provide
to a patient who has a hematologic
disorder?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Analgesics for pain
Support of symptoms
High-flow oxygen therapy at 12 to 15 L/min
Rapid transport
Review
Answer: A
Rationale: Although analgesics would benefit
a patient suffering from a hematologic disorder,
the administration of such medications is not in
the scope of practice for the EMT. ALS
providers would have to be present to provide
this emergency care.
Credits
• Opener: Courtesy of Jason Pack/FEMA.
• Background slide images: © Jones & Bartlett
Learning. Courtesy of MIEMSS.
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