Test Review Questions

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Test Review Questions
Name two effects of ethyl
alcohol on neurons.
Effects of Ethyl Alcohol on Neurons
• Affects the dopaninergic neurons
• Fatal Toxicity
• Central Nervous System Depressant
Test Review Questions
Why is it illegal to drink and drive?
Why is it illegal to drink and drive?
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Impaired reflexes
Impaired processing
Impaired judgment
Impaired motor function
Test Review Questions
Why do people think that alcohol
is a stimulant?
Why do people think ETOH is a
stimulant?
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Initial Euphoria
Disinhibition
Reduction of fear and anxiety
Increase loquacity
“social lubricant”
Test Review Questions
How many drinks does a person
have to have before it begins to
affect the cells?
How many drinks does a person
have to have before it begins to
affect the cells?
One
Test Review Questions
What are the symptoms of
“hangover”?
What are the symptoms of
“hangover”?
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Fatigue/sleepyness
Headache
Thirst/dehydration
Nausea
Diarrhea
Flu like symptom
Confusion
Sensitivity to sound and light
shakes
Test Question Review
What is the relationship of alcohol
use and suicide?
What is the relationship of alcohol
use and suicide?
• Anesthesia (putting to sleep) of the frontal lobe
decreases impulse control
• Shutting down of the executive functions inhibits
problem solving
• Interference with the frontal lobe diminishes
reasoning ability
• Stimulation of the limbic system produces mood
swings
• The rate of suicide increases drastically when
alcohol is involved.
Test Review Questions
What is the effect of alcohol on
the circulatory system?
What is the effect of alcohol on the
circulatory system?
• Enlargement of heart – cardiomegalopathy
• Constriction of blood vessels with
increased blood pressure and heart rate
• Degeneration of capillaries
• Inhibition of clotting factors – increased
bleeding
Test Question Review
What is the effect of alcohol on
the digestive system?
What is the effect of alcohol on the
digestive system?
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Increased stomach acids (ulceration)
Gastritis
Depletion of nutrients
Disruption of bowel movements
Enlargements of esophogeal arteries
Pancreatitis
Fatty liver
Test Question Review
What is the effect of alcohol on
the urinary system?
What is the effect of alcohol on the
urinary system?
• Retain toxins, excrete proteins
• Higher rate of prostate problems – painful
urination
• Less sensitivity of bladder - increased
incontinence
Test Question Review
What is the effect of alcohol on
the muscular/skeletal system?
What is the effect of alcohol on
the muscular/skeletal system?
• Leaching (flushing out) of calcium from
bone causing brittle bone and
osteoporosis
• Lower production of white blood cells
• Atrophy of muscles (flabby)
• Fatigue and poor tone
• Increased back problems/pain
Test Question Review.
What is the effect of alcohol on
the reproductive system?
What is the effect of alcohol on the
reproductive system?
• Atrophy of ovaries and testicles
• FAS
• Lower production of testosterone and
estrogens
• Impotence &
Test Question Review
What is the relationship of
genetics to the development of
chemical dependency
What is the relationship of genetics
to the development of chemical
dependency?
• Children of alcoholics are four times more
likely to become chemically dependent.
• Fewer receptors for dopamine
Test Question Review
Which organ of the body has the
most functions?
Which organ of the body has the
most functions?
• Liver
• Takes out toxins
• Metabolizes ingested items (digestion)
Test Review Questions
What organ is responsible for
taking toxins out of the body?
What organ is responsible for
taking toxins out of the body?
The liver is the filter for the toxins.
Test Review Questions
What are the signs and symptoms
of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
What are the signs and symptoms
of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome?
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Smaller eyes
No frenulum
Lower IQ
maxillofacial expansion & other deformity
Congenital cardiac dysformity (hole in between
the chambers of the heart)
Poor impulse control
Lacunae (holes) in the brain
Malformed joints/dislocation
Problems with coordination
Test Review Questions
Can alcohol be found in breast
milk?
Can alcohol be found in breast
milk?
Yes, you bet!
Test Question Review
Name some of the main reasons
people use alcohol.
Name some of the main reasons
people use alcohol.
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Liquid courage (decrease inhibitions)
Socialization
Peer pressure
Anxiety relief
Sleep
Pain relief
euphoria
Test Review
Questions
What are the first brain
functions to be affected by
alcohol? What are the
results?
What are the first brain functions to
be affected by alcohol? What are
the results?
• Frontal lobe- decisions, problem solving,
inhibitions, planning (executive functions)
Test Review Questions
If drinking continues, what is the next
set of brain functions to be affected by
alcohol? What are the results?
If drinking continues, what is the
next set of brain functions to be
affected by alcohol? What are the
results?
Memory
Language
Emotional Regulation
Coordination
Reflexes
Test Review Questions
If drinking continues, what is the third
set of brain functions to be affected by
alcohol? What are the effects?
If drinking continues, what is the third
set of brain functions to be affected by
alcohol? What are the effects?
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Loss of Coordination Muscular control
Vomiting
Results in falling
Unconsciousness
Test Review Questions
If drinking continues uninterrupted,
what is the last of the brain functions to
be affected by alcohol? What are the
effects?
If drinking continues uninterrupted,
what is the last of the brain functions to
be affected by alcohol? What are the
effects?
• The primitive brain (medulla oblongata)
• Alcoholic coma
• Termination of heartbeat & breathing
Test Question Review
What percentage of fatal
accidents involve alcohol.
What percentage of fatal
accidents involve alcohol.
At least 50%
Test Question Review
What is a “black out”. What
causes it? What can be done
about it?
What is a “black out”. What
causes it? What can be done
about it?
Failure of the brain to encode
memory due to the chemical
interference. Only abstinence
from alcohol can prevent it. There
is no way to regain memory,
because it was never encoded.
Test Question Review
What is a “gray out”? Does it have any
implications for a diagnosis of alcohol
dependence?
What is a “gray out”? Does it have
any implications for a diagnosis of
alcohol dependence?
Partial or hazy memory of events that
occurred under the influence of alcohol. Black
outs and grey outs are one of the early signs
of chemical dependence, though not everyone
that has them develops dependency, most
dependents experienced them early.
Test Question Review
Why do people do things when
they are drinking that they would
not do sober?
Why do people do things when
they are drinking that they would
not do sober?
• Alcohol acts first on the executive
functions in the frontal lobe
• Putting to sleep of the impulse control
centers, judgement, insight, problem
solving causes disinhibition
What is disinhibition, and what
happens are the results of
becoming disinihibited.
• Inhibition is the little voice in the head that
says “you shouldn’ t do that!”
• When the voice is sleeping, people
become expressive, impulsive, and
without usual conscientious behavior
Test Question Review
What is “blood alcohol level”?
How is it determined?
What is “blood alcohol level”? How
is it determined?
• The percentage of alcohol that is absorbed
into the blood stream.
• Determined in percentages of .01 and up
• .02 is one drink (one beer, 4 oz of wine, 1
½ oz of alcohol
• .08 or four drinks in an hour is the legal
lower limit for DWI in NM
• .35- .40 is death
Test Question Review
How does a person “detoxify” from
alcohol?
How does a person “detoxify” from
alcohol?
• There are no medications that will expel the
alcohol
• Time
• Can be fatal
• High blood pressure - Stroke
• Seizures
• Heart arrhythmia
• There are medications that can help with the
symptoms
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