Toxoplasmosis

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TOXOPLASMOSIS

Definition:
contagious disease of all worm blooded animal even
human caused by toxoplasma and characterized by
encephalitis, pneumonia and neonatal mortalities

Etiology:
T. gondii
attack all organ especially reticulo-endothelial and
central nervous system
Epidemiology
1. Distribution: wide distributed, present in Egypt
2. Species affected: Cat consider as final host
and other spp. (dog, ruminants, equine, bird,
rabbits and human) act as intermediate host
3. Transmission: cat infect by eating meat contain
infective oocyst or by ingestion of cont. food by
sporulated oocyst.

Intermediate host infected by ingestion of cont. food by
sporulated oocyst.
LIFE CYCLE
Tachyzoite invade any cell in body form tissue
cyst in CNS, muscles and visceral organ
CLINICAL SIGNS

Dog:
Occur mostly in dog less than one year
Localised in resp., neuromuscular, gasterintestinal
Characterised by fever, tonsilitis, diarrhea, vomiting
In old dog signs associated with neural and muscular affection
as tremors, ataxia, paralysis and stiffness, also
Ocular lesion as retinitis and uveitis

1.
Cat
Prenatal toxoplasmosis
Still born kitten, kitten have enlarged abdomen because
of enlarged live and ascites and encephalitis
2.
Postnetal toxoplasmosis
Presistent or intermittent fever, dyspnea
Hepatitis
Diarrhea, vomiting
Stiffness and lamness due to CNS involvement
Retinitis and uveitis
DIAGNOSIS
Field diagnosis
1. History
2. Clinical signs
3. Epidemiology


1.
Laboratory diagnosis
Serological test:
CFT, hemagglutination test, sabin field man test
2.
Fecal examination:
cat may be serological positive and fecal ex. negative
because of oocyst shed during 1-2 w
3.
Cytological examination:
Tachyzoites detect in various body fluid
4.
CSF analysis:
Increase protein and leukocytes
5.
Histopathology
Granulomatous tissue in brain, lung

Toxoplasma isolation
Mice inoculation by
Tissue emulsion of brain, lung or body fluid or clean
sporulated oocyst
I/P or I/C
Oocyst detect in brain at 4-6 w post infection and
tachyzoite in peritoneal fluid at 4-6w post infection
TREATMENT

Clindamycine 10-20 mg/kg for dog
12.5-25 mg/kg for cat
sulfonamide
CONTROL
1.
2.
3.
4.
Avoid contact between cat and farm animal
Avoid contam. of food by cat`s feces
Carcass of infected animal should be
destroyed
Feeding of cat commercial processed food
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