ADDERALL (the study drug)

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ADDERALL (the study drug)
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What is it?
History
Effects and Uses
Concerns
Future Plans
What exactly is it?
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Proclaimed by some students to be the wonder drug, but controversy is rising
Amphetamine combination used to treat (ADHD) & other disorders; popular college study tool
Racemic stereoisomers; dextro isomer of amphetamine saccharate and d, & I-amphetamine asperate salts
mixed in 3:1 ratio
Amphetamine - is basically speed
Meth-amphetamine - amphetamine with additional methyl group attached to its nitrogen (amine group)
Amphetamines
First synthesized; Germany 1887
In 1932, amphetamine was marketed
as Benzedrine in over-the-counter
inhaler to treat nasal congestion
In 1935 physicians successfully used
it to treat narcolepsy
1950s, legal manufactureing
dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) &
methamphetamine (Methedrine) used
non medically by college students,
truck drivers, and athletes.
In 1971, there were 31 amphetamine
preparations being distributed by 15
pharmaceutical companies. Legal
production over 12 billion pills / year.
For a 10 mg Tablet
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2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
mg Dextroamphetamine Saccharate
mg Amphetamine Aspartate
Dextroamphetamine Sulfate
mg Amphetamine Sulfate
Adderall
History
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Originally marketed in 1960; NDA 11-522 filed for
approval for Obesity; Rexar Pharmaceuticals
distributed Obetrol till 1973, when FDA withdrew
application for failed blind study test
Rexar continued distribution low-scale till sold 20
years later
Richwood Pharmaceuticals purchased Rexar,
changed it’s named to Adderal; sold it for ADHD
FDA reapproved the drug in 1996 after tests were
performed
Acquisition of Richwood Pharmaceuticals to Shire
brought rights of Adderall
Shire founded in 1986 in UK by four entrepreneurs
(Dennis Stephens, Harry Stratford, Peter Moriarty,
and Geoff Hall)
Popularity sores - continues to increase on college
campuses
2003; Adderall XR introduced, a slow release form of
original pill
2005; Canada suspends marketing of Adderall XR
due to SUD among children
Experienced Effects
EFFECTS
Positive:
Increased alertness, motivation, and
talkativeness
Mood shift in Positive direction
Appetite suppressor; helps in Obesity cases
Used to treat depression
There is significant improvement in the perfusion to
the superior cortical surface of the Brain.
Negative:
Increased aggressiveness & paranoia
Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing
rate
Withdrawal symptoms: Exhaustion and
Insomnia if overdone or at night
Addiction in long term use
Neutral:
Flushes the body; diarrhea & dryness of mouth
Dilates pupils
Note the marked decrease in perfusion to the
surface of the Brain when the patient is doing a
concentration task not on Adderall. The yellow
and green colors show significant decreased
activity in the top surface of the Brain.
Concerns
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Those who shouldn’t take it
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Heart defects
– have been linked to supraventricular tachycardia
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Overactive thyroid
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Glaucoma
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Blood vessel diseases
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Nursing Mother’s
– drugs get transferred in excreted milk
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Due to tolerance build up increased dosages
can lead to dependency
May cause existing mental illness's to worsen
and possible psychosis; 10 or 11 recent cases
Most were on adderall for longer than 3 years
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Other amphetamine drugs have proven to
stunt bone growth
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Alcohol mixtures can be dangerous
- alcohol is a (CNS) suppressant
Never take with any Monoamine Oxidase
Inhibitors
-could cause coma or Seizures
-MAOI drugs include Nardil (phenelzine
sulfate), Parnate (tranylcypromine sulfate),
Marplan (isocarboxid),
The Future
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Amphetamines and their cousins will
continue to be around
Ignorance; A mixture w/a different name
inevitably introduced as new
College students will always find some
substitute similar
Now approved legally; Adderall production of
course continued
ADHD continues to be diagnosed
Illegally people have & will continue to make
and abuse amphetamines
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