Human Body Project: Skeletal System Bryanna Iturriaga Melissa Padilla Camila Raiano Biology Per.3 May, 13 2013 Skeletal Structure The human skeleton provides protection to all the other organs in the body. The human skeleton is constantly being formed and replaced. There is the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. Axial Skeleton: the bones of the skull and the vertebral column. Most complex of the axial skeleton is the skull. From 29 bones 8 form the cranium. The skull is attached to the top of the spine. The axial skeleton are the veritable column (26) rib cage (12 bones + sternum). Appendicular Skeleton: the bones of the arm and legs. The appendicular skeleton forms the shoulders, arms, hips, and legs. These bones attach to the axial skeleton, at the shoulders and hips. Structure and Growth of Bones There are two major types of bones trabecular and cortical. Trabecular are the spongy bones that support the end of the heavy bones. The cortical are the solid bones that are the shaft of the long bones. Each bone is filled with soft tissues called the bone marrow.. All these marrows are protected by a tough membrane called a periosteum. The periosteum have many blood cells that give nutrients to the bone. Bones are made of cartilage. When new bone cells are added they are added in the Haversian canals. These canals extend down the bone, and contain blood vessels. There are three types of main joints: Immovable Joints: little or no movement Slightly Movable Joints: limited movements Freely Moveable Joints: allow movement Functions of the Skeleton The human skeletal system performs a number of key functions in the human body. The key functions of the human skeletal system are: Support • The skeleton is the framework of the body, it supports the softer tissues and provides points of attachment for most skeletal muscles. Protection • The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them. • For example, cranial bones protect the brain, vertebrae protect the spinal cord, and the ribcage protects the heart and lungs. Assisting in Movement • Skeletal muscles are attached to bones, therefore when the associated muscles contract they cause bones to move. Bones with the help of muscles provide movement. A human body with a skeleton and what the human body would look like without a skeleton. Storage of Minerals • Functions of the Skeleton Bone tissues store several minerals, including calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). When required, bone releases minerals into the blood - facilitating the balance of minerals in the body. Production of Blood Cells • The red bone marrow inside some larger bones blood cells are produced. Storage of Chemical Energy • • With increasing age some bone marrow changes from 'red bone marrow' to 'yellow bone marrow'. Yellow bone marrow consists mainly of adipose cells, and a few blood cells. It is an important chemical energy reserve. A heart and lungs protected by ribs Blood cells created in the bone marrow Disease/Disorder: Arthritis Arthritis: Inflammation, swelling, redness of a joint. Common causes: Infection in the joint, cartilage wearing away. Disease/Disorder: Rickets Rickets: Bone-softening disease that causes severe bowling of the legs, poor growth, muscle pain, and weakness. Common causes: Lack of vitamin D, not enough calcium in diet, starvation/famine, kidney/liver disease. Mostly common in children Disease/Disorder: Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: condition in which bones become thin and spongy from loss of tissue. Common causes: Hereditary, history of broken bones, and low body weight. Disease/Disorder: Scoliosis Scoliosis: Abnormal curve of the spine. Common causes: Hereditary and birth defect. Bibliography: "List of Skeletal System Diseases." LIVESTRONG.COM. LIVESTRONG Foundation, 5 Mar. 2011. Web. 11 May 2013. "Skeletal System." Skeletal System. Health Index, n.d. Web. 11 May 2013. "Skeletal System." Skeletal System. J. Stein Carter, 14 Mar. 2001. Web. 11 May 2013. Johnson, George B., and Peter H. Raven. Skeletal System. N.p.: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2007. Print. "The Structure and Functions of Bones." The Skeletal System: (Basic Anatomy & Physiology). N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013. Expand Your Knowledge." The Skeletal System & It's Functions. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2013.