Reinforcement Learning Reinforcement Learning
Mitchell, Ch. 13
Rationale
• Learning from experience
• Examples not explicitly labeled, delayed
feedback
• Problem of credit assignment – which
action(s) led to payoff?
reward) for long-term consequences
Agent Model
• Transition function – T:SxA-&gt;S, environment
• Reward function R:SxA-&gt;real, payoff
• Stochastic but Markov
=
• Policy=decision function, p:S-&gt;A
• “rationality” – maximize long term expected
reward
– Discounted long-term reward (convergent series)
– Alternatives: finite time horizon, uniform weights
R,T
Markov Decision Processes (MDPs)
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if know R and T(=P), solve for value func Vp(s)
policy evaluation
Bellman Equations
dynamic programming (|S| eqns in |S| unknowns)
MDPs
• finding optimal policies
• Value iteration – update V(s) iteratively until
p(s)=argmaxa Vp(s) stops changing
• Policy iteration – iterate between choosing p and
updating V over all states
• Monte Carlo sampling: run random scenarios
using p and take average rewards as V(s)
Q-learning: model-free
• Q-function: reformulate as value function
of S and A, independent of R and T(=d)
Q-learning algorithm
Convergence
• Theorem: Q converges to Q*, after visiting
each state infinitely often (assuming |r|&lt;)
• Proof: with each iteration (where all SxA
visited), magnitude of largest error in Q
table decreases by at least g
• “on-policy”
Training
– exploitation vs. exploration
– will relevant parts of the space be explored if stick to
current (sub-optimal) policy?
– e-greedy policies: choose action with max Q value
most of the time, or random action e % of the time
• “off-policy”
– learn from simulations or traces
– SARSA: training example database: &lt;s,a,r,s’,a’&gt;
• Actor-critic
Non-deterministic case
Temporal Difference Learning
• convergence is not the problem
• representation of large Q table is the
problem (domains with many states or
continuous actions)
• how to represent large Q tables?
– neural network
– function approximation
– basis functions
– hierarchical decomposition of state space