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**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Outline**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Lecturers**

**Lectures**

**Dr. Szabolcs Rózsa**

Department of Geodesy and Surveying,

K. building groundfloor 16.

**Practicals**

**Dr. Lóránt Földváry**

Department of Geodesy and Surveying,

K. building groundfloor 16.

**Mr. Albert Kiss**

Department of Geodesy and Surveying

K. building groundfloor 16.

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Course details**

• **First part of a two-semester-course**

• **4 hours/week (equally divided between lectures and **

**practicals)**

**Communication:**

• **Activities involve lectures, practicals, tutorials and a field **

**practice**

• **Lectures - provide the theoretical background of the topics**

• **Practicals - practical sessions, in which You’ll carry out **

**measurements and process them.**

• **Tutorials - if there’s a need for additional guidance in the **

**preparation for assessments. Please note that You have to arrange an appointment in due time.**

• **Field practice - a 9-day-long intensive course after the **

**course Surveying II.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Attendance:**

• **Please attend all scheduled lectures, seminars and **

**practicals**

• **Please note: **attendance falling below 70% may lead to failing the course irrespective of the academic performance**.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Classroom tests:**

• **Altogether 4 classroom assessments:**

• **Practicals 1-4 (10 points)**

• **Using a theodolite – must pass**

• **Practicals 10-11 (10 points)**

• **Theory (involving the topics of the lectures) – 80 **

**points**

**Course Evaluation:**

Excellent good satisfactory pass fail

(5)

(4)

(3)

(2)

(1)

87-99

75-87

62-74

50-61

0-49

**You’re required to achieve a minimum of 50% in each classrom test to pass the course.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Learning resources:**

• **Some of the lecture notes are available for download on **

**the website of the department: http://www.geod.bme.hu/index_e.html**

• **However You shall write own notes during the lectures, **

**too.**

• **You’ll be suplied with computational sheets, field notes **

**etc. during the course.**

• **Textbook:**

**A. Bannister - S. Raymond - R. Baker**

**: Surveying (Seventh **

**Edition, Prentice Hall, 1998) **

**Cca. 16000 HUF**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Lecture notes can be downloaded from:**

**Website http://www.geod.bme.hu/index_e.html**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Website**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Historical Surveying**

**Surveying - Science and Profession**

**Methods of height determination**

**Levelling**

**The surveyors’ level**

**Outline**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Historical Surveying**

**What is Surveying?**

**The art of making measurements of the relative positions of natural and man-made features on the Earth’s surface, and the presentation of this information either graphically or numerically.**

**Since when?**

**The first surveying works date back to the antiquity, the **

**Greek provided the first account of surveying techniques.**

**Euclid founded the theoretical background for surveying by the development of his geometry.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Historical Surveying**

**Eratosthenes **

**(ca. 250 BC)**

**„Spherical Earth”**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Historical Surveying**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Historical Surveying**

**Surveying - Science and Profession**

**Methods of height determination**

**Levelling**

**The surveyors’ level**

**Outline**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Surveying - Science and Profession**

**Surveying vs. Geodesy**

• **in most languages there are no distinctions between **

**the terms**

• **in English (according to Vanicek - Krakiwsky): **

• **Surveying: the practice of positioning **

• **Geodesy: the theoretical foundation of surveying**

**Geodesy is the scientific background of Surveying as a profession.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Surveying - Science and Profession**

**Surveying:**

**The art of making measurements of the relative positions of natural and man-made features on the Earth’s surface, and the presentation of this information either graphically or numerically.**

**Geodesy:**

**Geodesy is the discipline that deals with the measurements and representation of the Earth, including its gravity field, in a three-dimensional time varying space.**

**Geodesy focus on the Earth and neglect any man-made features on it (e.g. buildings, public utilities, etc.), while surveying use the results of geodesy for positioning and mapping of these features.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Basic principles of Surveying**

**Recall the definition of Surveying:**

The art of **making measurements of the relative **

**positions **of natural and man-made features on the Earth’s surface, and the **presentation of this information **either graphically or numerically.

**How to achieve this?**

**Nowadays 3D positioning can be achieved using satellite techniques, too.**

Let’s determine the position (X

P

, Y

P

) of point P!

Absolute vs Relative positioning

X

P

*Y*

d

BP

P d

AP

Y

P

*B*

(X

B

,Y

B

)

**Control points**

**(known coords; marked on the field)**

*A*

(X

A

,Y

A

)

*l*

*AB*

*X*

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

*Y*

**Basic principles of Surveying**

Let’s determine the position of a third, unknown point (C).

We have two unknowns: X

P

, Y

P

We need two measurements: b a

• two distances

• one distance and an angle

• two angles

*P*

d

BP d

AP d

AP b

*B*

(X

B

,Y

B

)

*A*

(X

A

,Y

A

) a a

*X*

**According to the space involved:**

**Classification of Surveying**

• **relatively small areas**

• **surface of earth can supposed to be **

**flat**

• **measurements plotted represent a **

**horizontal projection of the actual field measurements**

**Note: **The two radii can supposed to be parallel, when the l(A,B) is small.

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Classification of Surveying**

**Don’t forget! Size does matter!**

• **large areas**

• **surface of the Earth can not supposed to be flat**

• **the curvature of the Earth is taken into account**

**Mostly used for establishing control networks, determining the size and shape of the Earth and determining the gravity field of the Earth.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**How to create a countrywide coordinate system?**

•

•

In order to use the relative positioning, a proper number of control points are needed. These points: are coordinated points; are marked.

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Control Networks**

Why is it necessary to have a common countrywide coordinate system?

Many engineering tasks cover a large area (highways, bridges, tunnels, channels, land registry, etc.), where the common coordinate system (reference system) should be available.

The Control Network provide us with control points given in the same refence system (coordinate system).

Thus measuring the relative positions of unknown points using these control points, the coordinates of the new points can be computed in the same reference system.

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**The role of Surveying in Civil Engineering Practice**

**Surveyors are needed:**

•

**to maintain the geometric order during the construction process**

•

**to provide fundamental data for the design and planning process**

•

**to provide quantity control during the construction process (for example: earthwork quantities)**

•

**to monitor the structure after the construction **

**Wrong geometry – the structure is not functional!**

**outstanding structures can be created!**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**The role of Surveying in Civil Engineering Practice**

**Surveying activities during the construction process**

**Before Construction**

**Planning and data collection**

**Observations in the field**

**Processing the observations**

**(office)**

**Drawing maps, plans or providing numerical data**

**Presenting documentation to the client**

**Under construction**

**Setting out on each phase of construction**

**Field checks of construction**

**Providing data and services to the client**

**After construction**

**Final (as-built) plan or map on the construction**

**Presenting documentation to the client**

**Deformation **

**Monitoring/**

**Load Tests**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Outline**

**Introduction**

**Historical Surveying**

**Surveying - Science and Profession**

**Methods of height determination**

**Levelling**

**The surveyors’ level**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Methods of height determination**

**Question 1:**

**What does the height (elevation) of a point mean?**

**Question 2:**

**What does it mean, when point B is at a higher elevation than point A?**

**Answer 1:**

**The height of a point represents its energy level above a reference level.**

**Answer 2:**

**For example water flows from point B to point A.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Methods of height determination**

**Definition of height systems:**

• **The potential energy of a point should be represented by the height of **

**a point. Hence water should flow from the higher elevation towards the lower elevation.**

• **Should have metric unit.**

**What should be the reference of height determination? What is the 0 level?**

• **Since the height systems should represent the potential energy **

**level, we need a reference surface, which is an equipotential surface of Earth’s gravity field.**

• **The surface of calm water forms an equipotential surface**

• **Mean Sea Level – Kronstadt (Baltic Sea) is used in Hungary **

**(formerly Triest, Adriatic Sea).**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Methods of height determination**

Equipotential surfaces

*A*

*H*

*A*

*H*

*B*

*B*

*MSL*

equipotential surface

**g**

**Gravity vector is always perpendicular to the equipotential surface.**

**Equipotential surface **

**Gravity vector **

**(=) **

**(=) horizontal surface vertical direction**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Methods of height determination**

**1D position determination - determining the height**

**We can not determine absolute heights above the reference level **

**Relative height determination - determining the height differences**

**Levelling benchmarks are needed - control points for which the elevation is known.**

*B*

*H*

*BA*

*H*

*B*

*H*

*A*

*A*

*H*

*B*

*H*

*A*

**Reference level**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Methods of height determination**

**How can we determine the height difference?**

**Two solutions:**

• **setting a horizontal plane, and measuring the offset from this plane**

• **measuring the slope and slope distance between the points**

**Levelling**

**Trigonometrical height determination**

*B l*

*AB*

*H*

*BA*

*H*

*B*

*H*

*A*

*A*

a

*H*

*B*

*H*

*A*

**Reference level**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Outline**

**Introduction**

**Historical Surveying**

**Surveying - Science and Profession**

**Methods of height determination**

**Levelling**

**The surveyors’ level**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**The principle of levelling**

**Line of sight**

*(l*

*A*

*)*

*H*

*AB*

**A**

d

**A**

*l*

*A*

*H*

*AB*

*=l*

*A*

*-l*

*B*

*=(l*

*A*

*)-*

d

**A**

*-(l*

*B*

*)+*

d

**B**

**When **

d

*A*

*=*

d

*B*

**(spherical approximation, equal distance to A and B)**

*H*

*AB*

*=(l*

*A*

*)-(l*

*B*

*)*

d

**B**

*l*

*B*

*(l*

*B*

*)*

**B**

**Levelling**

**Over short distances the horizontal line and level line coincide.**

**For a distance of 100m the effect of the curvature is less than 1 mm.**

**The levelling device (called level) must be set up so, that the line of sight is perpendicular to the gravity vector (plumb line). -> the line of sight is horizontal.**

*Horizontal line of sight*

*Graduated staff*

*Level*

*Graduated staff*

*Difference in height*

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Levelling**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Introduction**

**Historical Surveying**

**Surveying - Science and Profession**

**Methods of height determination**

**Levelling**

**The surveyors’ level**

**Outline**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**The Surveyor’s level**

**Tilting level**

**Diaphragm**

**Bubble tube**

**Tilting screw**

**Circular bubble**

**Tilting axis**

**Levelling head**

**Clamping screw - to fix the telescope in one vertical plane**

**Tangent screw (slow motion screw) - to finely rotate the telescope along a vertical axis**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**Elements of Surveyor’s level**

**How to set the line of sight to be exactly horizontal?**

**More general: how to set anything to be exactly horizontal?**

**The bubble tube**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**The bubble tube**

**The radius determines the sensitivity of the bubble tube:**

a

R

1 a

R

2

R greater than R

1 2

**Sensitivity: how much the bubble moves due to a given amount of inclination. The more the bubble moves, the more sensitive the bubble tube is.**

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**

**The bubble tube**

**The determination of sensitivity:**

a

R

1 a

R

1

L l

1 a

L l

2

*l*

2

*l*

1

*L*

a

*radians*

a

a

*radians*

206264 .

8

**Sz. Rózsa: Surveying I. – Lecture 1**