11 Anthropometrics - Ergo

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Anthropometrics
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Ergonomic Design Goals
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Ergonomics
The Science of Error Reduction
When possible try to
design out the
chance of error.
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Anthropometrics
• Human Measurements
• Heights, Reaches,
Clearance
• Gender Strength
Differences
• Postural Strength
Differences
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Anthropometrics
Design so the large can fit, the small can reach
and the weak can lift, lower, push, pull & carry.
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Anthropometric Data & Statistics
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Anthropometric Data
5th
Dimension
50th
95th
Male
Female
Male
Female
Male
Female
Standing Vertical Grip Reach
76.8
71.1
81.9
75.8
87.0
80.5
Standing Forward Grip Reach
28.5
25.8
30.9
28.0
33.3
30.1
Height
64.6
59.8
69.1
64.0
73.6
68.1
Eye Height
62.8
55.9
67.3
60.0
71.9
64.2
Shoulder Height
52.4
48.2
56.7
52.2
61.0
56.1
Elbow Height
40.2
37.2
43.5
40.2
46.9
43.1
Sitting Vertical Grip Reach
45.5
42.1
49.4
45.7
53.4
49.2
Sitting Height
33.7
31.5
36.0
33.9
38.4
36.2
Sitting Eye Height
29.1
27.2
31.5
29.5
33.9
31.9
Sitting Elbow Height
7.7
7.3
9.7
9.3
11.6
11.2
Adapted from: Pheasant, Stephen, (1996). “Bodyspace: Anthropometry, Ergonomics and the
Design of Work”, Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis.
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Things To Consider
•
•
•
•
•
Determine what body dimensions are relevant.
Determine what population group is relevant.
Use the anthropometric data as a guide and a
place to start. It does not replace employee
input.
Just because something does not fall within
anthropometric guidelines does not mean it is
a significant ergonomic risk.
When designing workstations or equipment,
you will never be able to accommodate
everyone. You try to accommodate as much
of the population as you can, given the space
and cost parameters you have to work within.
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General Design Guidelines
• Standing Working
Heights
• Sitting Working
Heights
• Reaches
• Gender Strength
Differences
• Postural Strength
Differences
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Standing Workstation Height
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Seated Workstation Height
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Horizontal Reach Envelopes
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Secondary Reach Envelope
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Sagittal Reach Envelopes
• Avoid reaching
above
shoulder or
behind the
body.
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Strength Variability Between
Males & Females
Body Part
Percent
Arms
60 %
Trunk
64%
Legs
72%
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Male Grip Strength
Male (lbs)
Percentiles
18 - 29
30 - 39
40 - 49
50 - 59
60 - 69
70 - 79
5
75.2
88.0
84.4
78.3
70.5
-
25
93.7
101.2
97.7
93.7
82.5
70.1
50
110.9
112.0
108.0
102.5
90.4
80.5
75
123.5
124.6
121.3
112.4
100.3
88.4
95
144.0
144.6
134.5
132.1
113.5
100.5
Mean
110.2
113.8
109.0
102.1
90.6
76.9
Adapted from: Australian Fitness Norms, 1992, The Health Development Foundation, Adelaide, p.32.
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Female Grip Strength
Female (lbs)
Percentiles
18 - 29
30 - 39
40 - 49
50 - 59
60 - 69
70 - 79
5
52.0
49.6
49.6
40.8
38.6
-
25
62.8
61.7
59.5
54.0
50.3
47.6
50
66.8
68.3
66.1
63.9
55.1
55.1
75
75.0
76.1
72.8
70.5
61.7
59.5
95
85.5
88.2
83.8
78.3
74.7
67.2
Mean
68.0
69.0
66.4
61.3
55.6
51.4
Adapted from: Australian Fitness Norms, 1992, The Health Development Foundation, Adelaide, p.32.
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Anthropometrics
and Tool Design
• Grip strength as
a function of the
handle span
takes
anthropometric
data into
consideration.
• The optimal
separation is 45
to 55 mm.
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Posture Dependent Strength
Variability
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Arm Cranking Strength and
Postural Variability
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Strength Effect of
Elbow Position
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Maximum Force Exerted In Seated
Position at Various Elbow Angles
Movement
60 deg
90 deg
120 deg
150 deg
180 deg
Pull
28.6
40.0
47.3
55.5
54.5
Push
41.8
39.1
46.8
55.9
62.7
Right
19.1
16.8
15.5
15.0
15.5
Left
23.6
22.7
24.1
24.5
22.7
Up
22.3
25.5
27.3
25.5
19.5
Down
23.2
24.1
26.4
21.4
18.6
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Ear-Eye-Line
• The EE line is determined by using the earhole and the junction of the eyelids. The EE
line describes the posture of the head and
serves as reference for the angle of the line of
sight.
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Line of Sight
• The line of sight connects the pupil with
the visual target. Eye movement within
about 15 degrees above and below the
average line-of-sight angle is still
comfortable.
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Choosing Working Postures
• Sitting
– For accurate control, fine
manipulation.
– For continuous light
manipulation work.
– For close visual work
with prolonged attention.
– For limited headroom,
low work heights.
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Choosing Working Postures
• Standing
– For heavy, bulky loads
– When frequent
movement is required
– When there is no knee
room under the
equipment
– Where there is limited
front-rear space
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Designing Lifting Tasks
• Lifting zones are
based upon
anthropometric
data
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Cost-Benefit Function
• Anthropometric cost-benefit function showing
the percentage of members of a target
population accommodated by various ranges
of seat height adjustment.
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Remember
Design so the large
can fit, the small can
reach and the weak
can lift, lower, push,
pull & carry.
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