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CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
REACT TO CONTACTMAINTAIN MOVEMENT
“On appearance of the enemy during the march, the
commander closes up the wagons and continues his
march in order…”
Revised Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1861, Article XXXVI, Paragraph 768
65
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
GENERAL DEFENSE ACTIONS
 Increase speed
 Do not stop unless a vehicle is disabled
 If one vehicle is disabled, the entire convoy stops
 Aggressively return fire
 Gun trucks engage the enemy from stand-off positions
 Drivers to the rear of the kill zone transit the kill
zone unless forced to stop
 Do not block the road
 Entire convoy proceeds to the next rally point
66
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIONS OF THE CONVOY
COMMANDER
 Receive spot report of attack and warn convoy elements
 Direct use of pyrotechnics and other signal devices as
required
 Direct gun trucks to return fire and suppress enemy
fire until threat neutralized or contact broken
 Direct convoy personnel to place heavy volume of fire
on the enemy
 Determine map location of ambush
 Call in artillery, CAS, or maneuver support
67
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIONS OF THE CONVOY COMMANDER
(CONTINUED)
 Provide SITREP and instructions to follow-on elements
 Transmit SALUTE and SITREP to higher headquarters
 Proceed to the rally point
68
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
REACT TO CONTACTMAINTAIN MOVEMENT
Intent is to maintain movement and speed in order to
reduce exposure and deny the threat the ability to
effectively engage the convoy.
Indirect fire/
CAS
Task Vehicle
Enemy Position
Control Vehicle
Gun Truck
69
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIONS OF THE CONVOY COMMANDER
(CONTINUED)
CONSOLIDATE AND REORGANIZE
• Establish security
• Receive ACE reports from subordinate element leaders
• Redistribute ammunition as required
• Coordinate load transfer, repairs, mortuary affairs,
and MEDEVAC operations
• Request emergency destruction authorization
• Forward SITREP to higher headquarters
• Leave no soldier behind
70
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACE REPORT FORMAT
1. AMMUNITION
2. CASUALTIES
3. EQUIPMENT
Make your report short,
and include only relevant
Information.
71
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
REACT TO CONTACTFORCED TO STOP
“…but if the enemy seizes a position that commands his road, [the
commander] attacks vigorously with the mass of his force, but is not
to continue the pursuit far from the convoy.”
Revised Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1861, Article XXXVI, Paragraph 768
72
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
GENERAL DEFENSE ACTIONS
 If one vehicle is disabled, the entire convoy must stop
 If in the kill zone:
• Dismount by exiting vehicle on the non-contact side
• Take cover
• Return maximum volume of fire
 All drivers stop, dismount, take cover, and lay
suppressive fire
 Vehicles short of kill zone do not enter it
 Gun trucks engage enemy from stand-off positions
 Conduct hasty recovery and CASEVAC to rally point
73
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIONS OF THE CONVOY
COMMANDER
 Receive spot report of attack and warn convoy elements
 Direct use of pyrotechnics and other signal devices as
required
 Direct gun trucks to return fire and suppress enemy
fire until threat neutralized or contact broken
 Direct convoy personnel to place heavy volume of fire
on the enemy
 Determine map location of ambush
 Call in artillery, CAS, or maneuver support
74
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIONS OF THE CONVOY COMMANDER
(CONTINUED)
 Order hasty recovery of disabled vehicles and CASEVAC
to the rally point
 Provide SITREP and instructions to follow-on elements
 Transmit SALUTE and SITREP to higher headquarters
 Proceed to the rally point
75
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
REACT TO CONTACTFORCED TO STOP
Intent is to quickly gain fire superiority, conduct CASEVAC
and hasty recovery operations, and exit the contact zone.
Enemy Position
 All vehicles stop
 Begin immediate suppression from contact side
Gun trucks reposition if necessary within standoff distance
 Non-contact side dismounts first followed by contact side
76
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
REACT TO CONTACTFORCED TO STOP
(CONTINUED)
Enemy Position
 Gain fire superiority or kill threat
 Begin CASEVAC/recovery operations
 Remount vehicles
 Proceed to the rally point
77
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
CASEVAC/RECOVERY
Intent is to perform buddy aid and hasty recovery, then move
out of the contact zone.
Enemy Position
A&L
Recovery
Team
 Aid and Litter vehicle moves on non-contact side to point of injury
 Loads casualties and links with convoy
 Recovery vehicle moves on non-contact side to disabled vehicle
 Conducts hasty recovery and links with convoy
78
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIONS OF THE CONVOY COMMANDER
(CONTINUED)
 Consolidate and reorganize
• Establish security
• Receive ACE reports from subordinate
element leaders
• Redistribute ammunition as required
• Coordinate load transfer, repairs, mortuary affairs,
and MEDEVAC operations
• Request emergency destruction authorization
• Forward SITREP to higher headquarters
• Leave no soldier behind
79
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
DEFEND AGAINST SNIPER
ATTACK
80
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
DEFEND AGAINST SNIPER
ATTACK
 Ensure all personnel wear helmets and body armor
 Receive sniper warning
 Use pre-designated signal to warn convoy elements
 Direct march elements to increase speed and
maintain interval
 Use smoke to obscure the target
 Do not stop
 Determine approximate location of sniper on map
81
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
DEFEND AGAINST SNIPER ATTACK
(Continued)
 Determine whether area is free fire or restricted
fire zone
 Deploy gun trucks to lay down suppressive fire
if necessary
 Call in artillery or CAS if possible
 Stop the convoy if a vehicle is disabled
 Proceed to the rally point
82
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
DEFEND AGAINST SNIPER ATTACK
(Continued)
 Consolidate and reorganize
• Establish security
• Receive ACE reports from subordinate
convoy elements
• Redistribute ammunition
• Coordinate load transfer, repairs, mortuary affairs,
and MEDEVAC operations
• Request emergency destruction authorization
• Forward incident report to higher headquarters
• Provide SITREP and instructions to follow-on elements
83
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
DEFEND AGAINST NBC ATTACK
84
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
DEFEND AGAINST NBC ATTACK
 Be aware of commonly used chemical agents and effects
 Be alert to chemical agents already present
 If attacked, take defensive actions as in any other
combat situation
 On consolidation and reorganization, perform hasty
decontamination and evacuate casualties
 Carry out minimal decontamination of equipment
necessary to continue the mission
 Report status to higher headquarters
85
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
DEFEND AGAINST AIR ATTACK
86
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIVE DEFENSE
 Shoot any attacking aircraft or UAV
 Fire at the nose of an approaching aircraft
 Fire at the fuselage of a hovering helicopter
 Fire slightly above the nose of a moving helicopter
 Fire in volume
 Lead aircraft crossing your position by 100 yards
 Take cover if time allows
87
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
ACTIVE DEFENSE
(Continued)
 Support your weapon if possible
 Lie on your back to return fire if caught in the open
 Aim mounted machine guns slightly above the nose
of head-on targets
 Control small arms fire so that attacking aircraft
fly through it
 Watch for repeated attacks by one or more additional
aircraft
88
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
PASSIVE DEFENSE
Dispersion
Open Column
 Maintain 80 to 100 meters between vehicles
 Results in less damage from air attack
 More difficult to control
 Cannot concentrate small arms fire
89
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
PASSIVE DEFENSE
Dispersion
Close Column
 Maintain interval of less than 80 meters
 Best executed during night operations if
there is a threat of air attack
90
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
PASSIVE DEFENSE
Camouflage
 Cover smooth surfaces and shiny objects
 If vehicles are not painted to match surroundings,
use mud or dust to mask stand-out effect
 Use tarps and bows to cover cargo
 When under air attack, take shelter under
anything that may obscure the vehicle’s outline
91
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
PASSIVE DEFENSE
Air Guard
 Assign observation responsibility of 9-3 o’clock
or 3-9 o’clock
 If the convoy lasts over an hour, place air guards
on shifts to avoid dulling the senses
Communications Security
 Transmissions subject to monitoring and jamming
 Use brief and infrequent transmissions
 Destroy COMSEC if overrun
92
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
PASSIVE REACTIONS
Halt the Convoy
 Harder to see
 Easy to continue march after attack
 Volume of weapons fire more dense
BUT
Enemy has greater chance of doing damage
93
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
HERRINGBONE FORMATION
 Vehicles off the road at 45 degree angles (50 to 100m interval)
 Staggered formation (like chicken tracks)
 Gun trucks act as roving or stationary defense
 Road is kept clear
 Best defense against air attack/indirect fire
Direction
 Difficult to concentrate fire if attacked
of
Traffic
Task Vehicle
Control Vehicle
Gun Truck
94
CONVOY SURVIVABILITY
PASSIVE REACTIONS
Disperse Vehicles
 Staggers vehicles so that there is not a straight line
BUT
Easier for the enemy to spot the convoy as it disperses
95
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