Beef Production Week 4 Winter Feeding of Beef Cattle II 6.98

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Level II Agricultural
Business Operations
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Basic principles & decisions
Basic principles of maximising feed intake
Feeding systems: Conventional versus TMR
Cattle feed decisions
◦ Individual animal groups
◦ Target performance
◦ Feed cost & budgets
Getting winter feeding
decisions right:
Improves animal
performance
Reduces days to
slaughter
Cuts production
cost
£££££
Basic Decisions
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Lots of things impact on winter feeding
decisions:
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Cattle weight & stage of production
Calving system
Cow condition
Silage availability & quality
Price of concentrate
Cattle market value
The five freedoms are:
++ Freedom from hunger and thirst
++ Freedom from discomfort
++ Freedom from pain, injury and disease
++ Freedom to express normal behaviour
++ Freedom from fear and distress
Cattle Weight
(kg)
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
Simultaneous
feeding
(m)
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.55
0.60
0.65
0.70
0.75
Ad-lib feeding
(m)
0.15
0.17
0.19
0.22
0.24
0.26
0.28
0.30
0.32
Maximising dry matter intake is key to achieving high
animal performance
Present fresh palatable feed.
Have water available at all times
Provide adequate feed space
Provide adequate lying space
Provide a dry lying area
A well designed and managed feed area can be as
important as what is fed
Very smooth clean surface
Eating surface 10cm above hoof height
Clean out refused food regularly
Site water trough to avoid feed being splashed
Rub marks on neck rails – shows wrong position
Pro’s:
•Flexibility
•Inclusion of commodities
•Reduced feed space
requirement
•Acidosis control
•Mixing precision
•Potential for improved feed
efficiency – properly
balanced rations
•Utilisation of low quality
forages
Con’s:
•Price
•Operational costs (fuel, labour,
wear)
•Building and yard layout
•Complicates feeding if a lot of
feed groups
Pro’s
• Low level mechanisation
• Low operating cost
• Simple management of
different feed groups
Con’s
• Physical input
• Potentially lower feed precision
• Potentially higher feed waste
Important: What stage of the production cycle are your cattle are at?
Store & finishing cattle
Silage
quality
Winter gain
(kg/d)
Grazing
gain (kg/d)
Gain/year
(kg)
Feed
cost/kg (p)
Poor
0.0
1.2
220
95
Average
0.5
1.0
275
83
Good
0.8
0.8
290
98
It is important to find a balance between animal performance and
cost of production.
Silage quality
Average daily gain (kg/d)
Poor
0.00
Average
0.35
Good
0.55
Good (high dry matter)
0.70
Need to be careful with a no-meal strategy
Silage Quality
Silage Fed (Kg)
Concentrate (Kg) Daily Feed Cost
(£/day)
Good
23
-
0.57
Average
21
0.8
0.70
Poor
16
2.5
0.90
Assume: Silage £25/t, Concentrate £200/t
300kg Ch store bullock
◦ Output
◦ 180 day housed @ 0.6kg/day = 108kg
◦ 108kg + 300kg = 408kg at turnout
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Cost
21kg silage + 0.8kg meal = £0.70/day x 180days
Vet, Med & Misc = £20
Interest (6%) = £25
= £171
◦ If worth £750 (£2.50/kg) in Sept 2014
◦ Need £921 (£2.26) in March 2015 to break even
◦ Need £1011 (£2.48) in March 2015 to get £15/month
Store ration (kg/t)
Maize gluten
Rolled barley
Soya hulls
Maize Distillers
Molaferm
Minerals
ME 11, CP 16 as fed
£180/t
450
200
200
100
25
25
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Front load concentrates
Better to overshoot target early, rather than
later in winter
No meal for at least 1 month pre-turnout
Aim for turnout as soon as ground conditions
permit
Growing to finishing – the big change!
Timing is the key to changing successfully from the growing to the
finishing ration.
Target Days on
Finishing ration
Daily Liveweight
Gain (kg)
Feed Period
Gain (kg)
Continental
80 – 100
1.2 - 1.5
120 – 150
Traditional
60 – 80
1.0 - 1.4
80 - 90
Silage Quality
Silage Fed (Kg)
Concentrate (Kg) Daily Feed Cost
(£/day)
Good
22
4.5
1.45
Average
20.0
5.5
1.60
Poor
15.0
7.0
1.77
Assume: Silage £25/t, Concentrate £200/t
Finishing ration (kg/t)
Maize meal
Barley
Maize Distillers
Rapeseed meal
Citrus pulp
Molasses
Minerals
ME 11, CP 13% as fed
£200/t
300
250
150
125
100
50
25
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Diet 1:
20kg Average Silage
5.5 kg Concentrate
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Diet 2:
5kg Silage
3kg Concentrate
3kg Wholecrop wheat
3kg Bread
5kg Potatoes
2kg Straw
1Kg Molasses
Both Diets deliver the same level of feed energy and output
500kg steer @ 1.90/kg
100 day feed period
20kg silage + 5.5kg Conc.
= £1.60/day x 100 days
Veterinary & Miscellaneous
Total Cost = £950 + £195 = £1145
= £950
= £160
= £35
£195
620kg @ 55% KO =
341kg @ 350p =
Total
costs =
Margin =
Margin/month
=
341kg
£1193
£1145
£48
£15
Sensitivity Analysis:
+/- 10p/kg beef price = £34 per head

You have 30 Aberdeen Angus cross heifers on
the farm as housing time approaches. They
have an average weight of 450kg.

What are you going to do with them?
Silage Quality
Silage Fed (Kg)
Concentrate (Kg) Daily Feed Cost
(£/day)
Good
29
-
0.73
Average
32
-
0.80
Poor
36
-
0.90
Assume: Silage £25/t, Concentrate £200/t
Important: Ensure sufficient feed space when restricting silage
Cow Condition
Silage Fed (Kg)
Concentrate (Kg) Daily Feed Cost
(£/day)
High (4)
24
-
0.60
Good (3)
32
-
0.80
Low (2)
40
-
1.00
Assume: Average Quality Silage £25/t, Concentrate £200/t
Important: Ensure sufficient feed space when restricting silage
Silage Quality
Silage Fed (Kg)
Concentrate (Kg) Daily Feed Cost
(£/day)
Good
45
-
1.12
Average
40
2.0
1.40
Poor
33
4.0
1.62
Assume: Silage £25/t, Concentrate £200/t
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