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Teachers’ Salaries
in Latin America
Earnings Gaps and Their
Evolution at the turn of the
20th century
Alejandra Mizala and
Hugo Ñopo
This paper
What is this paper about?
»
To what extent are teachers’
earnings below (or above) those
of their peers? (with a particular
emphasis on : “who are their
peers?”)
»
What role do their
sociodemographic characteristics play?
»
How are
distributed?
»
How these differences evolved?
these
differences
How do we do it? Methodology
»
Harmonized and comparable
measures for a group of countries
in the region
»
Matching and a decomposition
that compares only individuals
with the same characteristics
(Ñopo, 2008)
»
A more precise comparison of
teachers and their peers
This paper (2)
Findings? Insights?
»
The extent to which teachers are
underpaid is stronger than what
has been previously reported in
the literature.
»
Important role for education and
part-time work.
»
Cross country heterogeneity.
»
Job schedules and job tenure (that
is, larger vacations and more job
stability) also play an important
role (compenssting differentials)
»
Teachers’ underpayment is more
pronounced among males, older
workers, household heads, parttimers, informal workers, those
who work in the private sector,
and among those with complete
tertiary education.
»
The earnings gaps decreased
during last decade, especially for
preschool and primary teachers,
females, younger workers, and
part-timers
The Literature: Mixed Evidence
»
»
»
»
»
Psacharopoulos et al. (1996). 12 countries LA
circa 1989. Mixed evidence
Liang (1999). 12 countries LA circa 1995. Mixed
evidence: BRA, ECU ↓; BOL, CHI, PAR =
Hernani (2005). 17 countries LA circa 2000.
Teachers ↑ 25% (except in Brasil)
Argentina, Bolivia, Guatemala, México, Perú
(fuera de Lima): teachers ↑.
Chile: M: teachers ↓. F: teachers ↑.
Teachers’ Salaries in Latin America. How Much
are They (under or over) Paid?
This paper: 9 countries (9 household surveys)
Country
Name Of The Survey
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panamá
Uruguay
Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilio (PNAD)
Encuesta de Caracterizacion Socioeconomica Nacional (CASEN)
Encuesta de Empleo, Desempleo y Subempleo (ENEMDU)
Encuesta de Hogares de Propositos Multiples (EHPM)
Encuesta Permanente de Hogares de Propositos Multiples (EPHPM)
Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares (ENIGH)
Encuesta Nacional de Hogares sobre medicion de Niveles de Vida (EMNV)
Encuesta de Hogares (EH)
Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH)
Year Coverage
2008
2009
2006
2009
2007
2008
2005
2007
2007
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
National
Urban
Populations of interest: school teachers and other
professionals and technicians
Office Workers/Other Proessionals and Technicians/Teachers (non tertiary) Working Populations*
Country
Full Set
Number of
Expanded
Pre-School and
Elementary Teachers
Secondary Teachers
Other Professionals
and Technicians
Number of
Number of
Number of
Expanded
Expanded
Expanded
observations observations observations observations observations observations observations observations
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
Honduras
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panamá
Uruguay
157775
82905
9147
24299
26203
44373
11024
18843
25432
76800000
6021479
2404002
1961864
1910929
39900000
1652432
1269338
532842
3829
1521
522
518
688
35
377
395
592
1870619
111737
115693
41415
50867
26909
48401
24953
12238
1055
278
254
54
205
71
64
220
418
494701
31928
56255
4758
14618
50962
9292
14764
9023
19798
8568
1093
1788
2807
3323
592
1702
2841
9647079
1027836
293211
203243
188640
3015056
118800
131078
61053
All countries
400001
132452886
8477
2302832
2619
686301
42512
14685996
* Working populations in each country are identified as those earning a salary in the main occupation.
Comparing apples and oranges
Country
Code
CIUO codes for teachers*
232
233
331
332
2311
2312
2313
2321
3311
3312
3313
3321
1310
1320
1330
1340
Profesores de la enseñanza secundaria
Group 2
Group 3
Profesionales Científicos e Intelectuales
Brazil
Mexico
CIUO Codes for other
professionals and technicians
(all countries)
Description
Maestros de nivel superior de la enseñanza primaria y preescolar
Maestros de nivel medio de la enseñanza primaria
Maestros de nivel medio de la enseñanza preescolar
Professores de nível superior na educação infantil
Professores de nível superior do ensino fundamental (primeira à quarta série)
Professores de nível superior no ensino fundamental de quinta à oitava série
Professores do ensino médio
Professores de nível médio na educação infantil
Professores de nível médio no ensino fundamental
Professores de nível médio no ensino profissionalizante
Professores leigos no ensino fundamental
Profesores de Preparatorias y equivalentes
Profesores de Enseñanza Secundaria
Profesores de Enseñanza Primaria
Profesores de Enseñanza Preescolar
Técnicos y profesionales de nivel medio
* Used in Chile, Ecuador, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Uruguay
Descriptive statistics: the sociodemographic profile
Pre-School and
Elementary Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and
Technicians
(1)
(2)
(3)=(1 & 2)
(4)
Men (Gender)
12.4%
34.3%
17.5%
55.3%
Age Groups
24 and under
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
54 and over
10.5%
32.0%
30.9%
19.9%
6.7%
7.9%
29.7%
28.2%
24.9%
9.3%
9.9%
31.5%
30.3%
21.1%
7.3%
15.2%
32.4%
25.3%
17.9%
9.1%
Education Level
None or primary incomplete
Primary complete or secondary incomplete
Secondary complete or tertiary incomplete
Tertiary complete
0.3%
3.2%
88.6%
7.9%
0.0%
1.3%
75.2%
23.5%
0.2%
2.8%
85.5%
11.5%
3.9%
9.9%
69.7%
16.6%
Presence of Children (≤12 years) in the Household
47.4%
38.4%
45.4%
38.9%
Presence of Elder (≥65 years) in the Household
14.2%
14.3%
14.2%
13.2%
Head of the Household
30.4%
40.2%
32.7%
46.6%
Presence of Other Household Member with Labor Income
78.8%
77.2%
78.4%
72.7%
Personal Characteristics
Descriptive statistics: the sociodemographic profile
Pre-School and
Elementary Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and
Technicians
(1)
(2)
(3)=(1 & 2)
(4)
Part time workers (≤30 hours)
45.7%
41.0%
44.6%
13.4%
Formality (has social security)
87.4%
86.3%
87.1%
65.8%
Works in the public sector
77.2%
70.4%
75.7%
26.2%
Labor Characteristics
Source: Authors’ compilations based on National Household Surveys
Relative earnings: Average school teachers’
hourly earnings equal to 100 for each country.
Relative Hourly Earnings (Base: Average School Teacher Earnings in each Country=100)
Average Hourly Earninngs
By Country
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
Teachers earn on
Honduras
average more than
their peers
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panamá
Uruguay
Pre-School and Elementary
Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and
Technicians
(1)
91.16
(2)
129.65
(3)=(1 & 2)
100.00
(4)
131.30
90.31
93.98
90.91
101.27
99.51
96.38
96.34
91.57
96.91
136.65
121.07
118.69
88.97
101.69
101.91
119.04
114.24
104.19
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
150.42
127.45
106.53
95.17
79.77
78.37
189.44
109.51
121.81
In Nicaragua teachers earn on
average slightly more than half
of what their peers earn
Relative earnings
Relative Hourly Earnings (Base: Average School Teacher Earnings in each Country=100)
Average Hourly Earninngs
Personal Characteristics
Men
No
Yes
Age Groups
24 and under
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
54 and over
Education Level
None or primary incomplete
Primary complete or secondary incomplete
Secondary complete or tertiary incomplete
Tertiary complete
Presence of Children (<12 years) in the Household
No
Yes
Presence of Elders (>65 years) in the Household
No
Yes
Pre-School and Elementary
Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and
Technicians
(1)
91.16
(2)
129.65
(3)=(1 & 2)
100.00
(4)
131.30
90.33
97.03
123.90
140.67
96.47
116.71
112.96
146.13
58.87
79.90
96.63
106.53
124.76
83.32
117.54
126.92
150.64
159.61
63.35
88.05
103.10
118.51
135.01
62.97
113.03
138.47
173.21
208.18
41.98
69.80
89.73
117.77
32.73
99.22
125.58
144.31
41.90
72.88
96.96
130.27
57.16
66.85
131.93
184.05
94.98
86.94
135.72
119.92
105.53
93.35
138.24
120.42
91.25
90.64
130.09
127.04
100.16
99.03
132.23
125.20
Relative earnings
Relative Hourly Earnings (Base: Average School Teacher Earnings in each Country=100)
Average Hourly Earninngs
Personal Characteristics
Head of Household
No
Yes
Presence of Other Household Member with Labor Income
No
Yes
Labor Characteristics
Part time
No
Yes
Formality
No
Yes
Work in the Public Sector*
No
Yes
Pre-School and Elementary
Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and
Technicians
(1)
91.16
(2)
129.65
(3)=(1 & 2)
100.00
(4)
131.30
87.73
99.00
118.62
146.06
94.03
112.29
105.00
161.39
94.12
90.37
138.09
127.16
104.77
98.69
149.42
124.50
85.29
98.14
114.25
151.83
92.38
109.47
121.49
194.93
61.45
95.46
102.57
133.93
71.46
104.22
99.80
147.65
76.48
95.42
146.02
125.95
94.98
101.61
138.15
164.74
The Main Counterfactual Question
What would the distribution of earnings for
teachers be, in the case that their individual
characteristics follow the distribution of the
characteristics for their peers?
→ Matching on characteristics
The Matching Algorithm

Result:
A sample of matched teachers and their peers
with the same distribution of observable individual
characteristics (but not necessarily the same
distribution of earnings).
This Matching Approach is…
Ñopo (2008)
A non-parametric alternative to B-O decompositions that
has advantages in terms of:
»
»
»
»
Simplicity
Avoiding the estimation of earnings equations
Flexibility
It “contains” all possible propensity scores
Identification/Correct specification
Recognizing that the supports of empirical distributions of
characteristics do not completely overlap (the failure to
recognize this leads to an overestimation of the unexplained
component of the wage gap)
Information
Allowing us to compute directly the distribution of the
unexplained effects, not just the average
Advantages/Disadvantages
 It is not necessary to estimate earnings equations (no functional
form assumption)
 Better assessment. The traditional approach seems to deliver
biased results when the differences in supports are not taken into
account
 Once the matching has been done, it is straightforward to:
» Explore the distribution of the unexplained wage gap
» Explore not only wage gaps but also gaps for other labor market
outcomes (participation, unemployment, unemployment spells,
segregation)
 Curse of Dimensionality. The method does not allow us to use too
many explanatory variables.
 It does not take into account selection into the labor markets
The earnings gaps: school teachers vs. other
professionals and technicians
-10
10
30
50
70
90
110
All Teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
Gender
+Age
+Education
+Kid(s)
+Elder(s)
CI(90%)
+Hh. Head
+Oth. Earner+Time Worked +Formality +Pub. Sector*
CI(99%)
Preschool and Primary Teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
-10
10
30
50
70
90
110
The earnings gaps: pre-school and elementary
teachers vs. other professionals and technicians
Gender
+Age
+Education
+Kid(s)
+Elder(s)
CI(90%)
+Hh. Head
+Oth. Earner+Time Worked +Formality +Pub. Sector*
CI(99%)
The earnings gaps: secondary teachers vs. other
professionals and technicians
-10
10
30
50
70
90
110
Secondary Teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
Gender
+Age
+Education
+Kid(s)
+Elder(s)
CI(90%)
+Hh. Head
+Oth. Earner+Time Worked +Formality +Pub. Sector*
CI(99%)
What about the differences across countries?
The earnings gaps: school teachers vs. other
professionals and technicians
-100
-50
0
50
100 150 200
All Teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
Honduras
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Uruguay
The earnings gaps: pre-school and elementary
teachers vs. other professionals and technicians
-100
-50
0
50
100 150 200
Pre-SchoolAll
and
Primaryvis-à-vis
Teachers
vis-à-vis
Prof. and Tech.
Teachers
Other
Prof.Other
and Tech.
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
Honduras
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Uruguay
The earnings gaps: secondary teachers vs. other
professionals and technicians
-100
-50
0
50
100 150 200
Secondary Teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
Honduras
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Uruguay
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
+ Age
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
+ Age
+ Education
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
+ Age
+ Education
+ Kid(s) in the Household
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
+ Age
+ Education
+ Kid(s) in the Household
+ Elder(s) in the Household
Distribution of the unexplained differences
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
+ Age
+ Education
+ Kid(s) in the Household
+ Elder(s) in the Household
+ Household Head
Distribution of the unexplained differences
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
+ Age
+ Education
+ Kid(s) in the Household
+ Elder(s) in the Household
+ Household Head
+ Part-time Work
Distribution of the unexplained differences
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
Labor Earnings Percentile
Original Gap
+ Gender
+ Age
+ Education
+ Kid(s) in the Household
+ Elder(s) in the Household
+ Household Head
+ Part-time Work
+ Formality
Distribution of the unexplained differences (1)
Age
200
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
% of Average School Teachers' Earnings
200
Gender
Female
Male
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
24 & under
25 to 34
35 to 44
CI(90%)
45 to 54
CI(99%)
55 & over
Distribution of the unexplained differences (2)
None/Prim inc.
200
Kid(s) in the Household
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
% of Average School Teachers' Earnings
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
Education
Prim. comp/Sec inc. Sec. comp/Ter inc.
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Ter comp.
No kids at home
Kid(s) at kome
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Distribution of the unexplained differences (3)
200
Household Head
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
% of Average School Teachers' Earnings
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
Elder(s) in the Household
No elders at home
Elder(s) at home
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Is not household head
Is household head
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Distribution of the unexplained differences (4)
200
Part-time Work
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
% of Average School Teachers' Earnings
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
200
Other Wage Earner in the Household
One wage earner at home
Oth. wage earner
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Full time work
Part-time work
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Distribution of the unexplained differences (5)
200
Work in Public Sector
150
100
50
0
-50
-100
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
% of Average School Teachers' Earnings
200
Formality
Informal job
Formal job
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
Public Sector
Private Sector
CI(90%)
CI(99%)
The gap is still important when considering job-break
periods
Decompositions Using the "Full Set" of Observable Characteristics
School Teachers vis-à-vis Other
Professionals and Technicians
Pre-School and Elementary Teachers
vis-à-vis Other Professionals and
Technicians
Secondary Teachers vis-à-vis Other
Professionals and Technicians
17.4%
57.2%
28.8%
61.8%
-9.5%
46.2%
(0.04)
(0.04)
(0.15)
64.6%
75.6%
79.4%
79.6%
28.8%
66.2%
(0.03)
(0.03)
(0.09)
47.5%
57.6%
60.7%
61.3%
15.4%
48.9%
(0.03)
(0.03)
(0.08)
Prorated hourly earnings
∆
∆0
Monthly earnings
∆
∆0
Yearly earnings
∆
∆0
Standard errors in parentheses
Source: National household surveys
Tenure is a differentiating factor
0
.05
.1
.15
Kernel Density Function (6 countries with data on job tenure), 2 bandwith
0
20
40
60
Job tenure (in years)
Teachers
Other Prof. and Tech.
Particularly in the public sector
0
.05
.1
.15
Kernel Density Function (6 countries with data on job tenure), 2 bandwith
0
20
40
Job tenure (in years)
Public Sector Teachers
Private Sector Teachers
60
0
.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
And the way teachers’earnings evolve with tenure is
more “plain”
0
10
20
30
Job tenure (in years)
Teachers
Other Prof. and Tech.
40
Evolution of Teachers’ Salaries in Latin
America at the turn of the 20th century
This paper: 7 countries (14 household surveys)
Country
Name Of The Survey
Brazil
Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicilio (PNAD)
Chile
Encuesta de Caracterizacion Socioeconomica Nacional (CASEN)
Ecuador
El Salvador
Mexico
Nicaragua
Uruguay
Encuesta de Empleo, Desempleo y Subempleo (ENEMDU)
Encuesta de Hogares de Propositos Multiples (EHPM)
Encuesta Nacional de Ingresos y Gastos de los Hogares (ENIGH)
Encuesta Nacional de Hogares sobre medicion de Niveles de Vida (EMNV)
Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH)
Year
1995
2009
1998
2009
1995
2006
1995
2009
1996
2008
1998
2007
1998
2007
Descriptive statistics: the sociodemographic profile
Pre-School and Elementary Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and Technicians
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
12.5%
11.7%
41.8%
36.1%
19.5%
17.5%
55.4%
55.0%
15.2%
37.3%
30.6%
13.6%
3.3%
10.7%
32.5%
31.2%
19.0%
6.5%
9.1%
32.2%
35.2%
18.6%
4.9%
8.2%
26.0%
30.8%
24.2%
10.8%
13.8%
36.1%
31.7%
14.8%
3.7%
10.1%
31.0%
31.1%
20.3%
7.5%
13.5%
38.2%
29.4%
13.1%
5.8%
15.4%
33.7%
24.8%
17.6%
8.5%
Secondary complete or tertiary incomplete
Tertiary complete
4.4%
7.2%
73.5%
14.9%
0.2%
2.3%
89.6%
7.9%
2.5%
2.7%
55.8%
39.0%
0.0%
1.0%
80.4%
18.6%
3.9%
6.2%
69.2%
20.7%
0.2%
1.9%
87.4%
10.5%
6.8%
13.3%
56.6%
23.3%
4.1%
9.1%
71.3%
15.5%
Presence of Children (≤12 years) in the Household
48.8%
42.3%
38.0%
35.3%
46.2%
40.6%
45.1%
36.9%
Presence of Elder (≥65 years) in the Household
11.5%
12.7%
10.1%
13.9%
11.2%
13.0%
10.7%
12.4%
Personal Characteristics
Men (Gender)
Age Groups
24 and under
25 to 34
35 to 44
45 to 54
54 and over
Education Level
None or primary incomplete
Primary complete or secondary incomplete
Descriptive statistics: the sociodemographic profile
Pre-School and Elementary Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and Technicians
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Head of the Household
20.8%
30.1%
42.9%
43.0%
26.1%
33.2%
49.0%
45.7%
Presence of Other Household Member with Labor Income
80.7%
76.8%
79.1%
72.2%
80.3%
75.7%
70.4%
71.7%
49.0%
43.8%
29.2%
36.3%
44.3%
42.0%
12.1%
12.9%
Personal Characteristics
Labor Characteristics
Part time workers (≤30 hours)
Relative earnings: Average school teachers’
hourly earnings equal to 100 for each country.
Average Hourly Earninngs
Relative Hourly Earnings (Base: Average School Teacher Earnings circa 1997 in each Country=100)
Pre-School and Elementary Teachers
Secondary Teachers
All School Teachers
Other Professionals and Technicians
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
92.76
109.19
123.08
141.84
100.00
116.97
143.00
123.56
By Country
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
Mexico
Nicaragua
Uruguay
89.23
96.36
97.95
100.09
98.95
91.94
100.33
106.56
92.34
164.30
129.66
94.99
101.70
132.72
153.08
111.06
102.44
99.17
102.59
151.52
99.58
139.71
118.96
217.45
113.91
100.44
125.66
142.68
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
113.93
98.25
181.55
128.04
98.56
105.56
136.95
189.04
137.78
142.99
98.10
74.81
198.57
139.28
133.33
125.22
204.73
121.86
77.24
199.97
166.81
The earnings gaps: pre-school and elementary
teachers vs. other professionals and technicians
-100
-50
0
50
100 150 200
All teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Mexico
Nicaragua
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
Uruguay
The earnings gaps: pre-school teachers vs. other
professionals and technicians
-100
-50
0
50
100 150 200
Pre-school and primary teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Mexico
Nicaragua
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
Uruguay
The earnings gaps: secondary teachers vs. other
professionals and technicians
-100
-50
0
50
100 150 200
Secondary teachers vis-à-vis Other Prof. and Tech.
Brazil
Chile
Ecuador
El Salvador
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Mexico
Nicaragua
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
Uruguay
150
100
0
50
-50
-100
-100
-50
0
50
% of Average Teachers' Earnings
100
150
Distribution of the unexplained differences (1)
Female
Male
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
24 & under
25 to 34
35 to 44
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
45 to 54
55 & over
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Pre-School and Elementary
Teachers and Other Professionals and Technicians along percentiles
of the earnings distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
Distribution of the unexplained differences
Unexplained Earnings Gap between Secondary Teachers and Other
Professionals and Technicians along percentiles of the earnings
distribution
150
100
50
0
-50
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
49
52
55
58
61
64
67
70
73
76
79
82
85
88
91
94
97
100
Percentage of School Teachers' Earnigns
200
Labor Earnings Percentile
Circa 1997
Circa 2007
150
100
0
50
-50
-100
-100
-50
0
50
% of Average Teachers' Earnings
100
150
Distribution of the unexplained differences (2)
None/Prim inc.
Prim. comp/Sec inc.
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Sec. comp/Ter inc.
Ter comp.
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
No kids at kome
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Kids at home
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
100
0
50
-50
-100
-100
-50
0
50
% of Average Teachers' Earnings
100
150
Distribution of the unexplained differences (3)
No elders at home
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Elders at home
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
Is not household head
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Is household head
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
150
100
0
50
-50
-100
-100
-50
0
50
% of Average Teachers' Earnings
100
150
Distribution of the unexplained differences (4)
One wage earner at home
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Oth. wage earner
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
Full time work
CI(90%) Period 1
CI(99%) Period 1
Part-time work
CI(90%) Period 2
CI(99%) Period 2
Summarizing
»
»
»
»
Teachers earn between 30% and 70% less than
their peers (the situation used to be worse a
decade ago)
The underpayment persists even after accounting
for two important compensating differentials: job
schedules and vacation periods
The underpayment of more pronounced among
older workers, those highly educated and parttimers
Still, behind the underpayment it is likely the case
that there are important differences in abilities…
Colombian new teachers and reading skills
COLOMBIA. SABER PRO 2009.
10 Carreras con Puntajes
Promedio mas Bajo en
Componente de Comprensión
Lectora
COLOMBIA. SABER PRO 2009.
10 Carreras con Puntajes
Promedio mas Alto en
Componente de Comprensión
Lectora
1. Ing. Quimica
10.42
2. Biologia
10.37
3. Física
10.34
4. Medicina
10.33
5. Economía
10.31
6. Quimica
10.28
33. Fisioterapia
10.00
34. Contaduría
9.99
35. Enfermería
9.98
36. Maestros, Énfasis en C. Naturales
9.97
37. Maestros, Énfasis en C. Sociales
9.97
38. Maestros, Énfasis en
Humanidades y Lengua
9.96
39. Terapia Ocupacional
7. Ing. de Petroleos
10.27
8. Ing. Ambiental
10.27
9. Ing. Electrica
10.26
10. Ing. Alimentos
10.25
9.95
40. Maestros, Énfasis en
Matemáticas
9.93
41. Educación Física
9.92
42. Maestros, Énfasis en Pedagogía
Infantil
43. Normalista Superior
9.88
9.81
Fuente: Instituto Colombiano para la Evaluación de la Educación (ICFES)
Nota: Las barras de color rojo corresponden a las carreras relacionadas a la formación de maestros de escuela
* Los Normalistas Superiores se forman para cumplir actividades docentes a nivel de primaria y secundaria
MUCHAS GRACIAS
[email protected]
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