Breed of Livestock Beef Cattle

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Breeds of Livestock
Beef Cattle
English Breeds
• Angus
• Hereford
• Short Horn
French Breeds
• Charolais
• Limousin
• Maine-Anjou
Continental Breeds
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Beefmaster
Brangus
Bradford
Santa Gerturdis
Angus
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Origin: Aberdeen and Angus, Scotland
Imported to US: 1873
Color: Black w/ smooth hair
Polled: Yes
Desirable Qualities:
– Small frame that produces a desirable carcass of
high quality, well-marbled meat.
• Marble= fat within the meat tissue that provides taste,
juiciness, and tenderness
– Known as an alert and vigorous breed.
Angus
Hereford
• Origin: England
• Color: Red body, White face and belly
– Face has curly hair
• Polled: No
• Desirable Qualities:
– Docile and easy handling
– Superior foraging ability, vigor and hardiness
– Produces more calves under adverse
conditions than other breeds
Hereford
Polled Hereford
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Polled Herefords represent the development of an idea - an idea spawned
in the minds of a small number of Midwestern Hereford breeders in the late
1890s who realized that it was both possible and practical to develop
"modern Herefords minus horns." These breeders were motivated by the
promising prospect of developing Herefords with outstanding beefproducing characteristics, but with the added desirable trait of being
naturally hornless. They planted the seed from which grew a new giant in
the American and world beef cattle industry
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Polled Herefords were developed from the horned Hereford breed which
was founded in the mid-18th century by the farmers of Hereford County,
England.
They have red bodies with white faces except for the polled trait.
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They are known for their foraging ability, vigor, hardiness, and quiet
dispositions.
Polled Hereford
Shorthorn
Shorthorn
• Origin: Durham and York England (Northeast
Coast
• Color: Red, Roan
• Polled: Yes
• Desirable Qualities:
– Desirable carcass
– Good Milk Producers
Charolais
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Origin: France
Imported to US: 1936 to King Ranch in Texas
Color: White to light straw with pink skin
Polled: Yes
Desirable Qualities:
– Hard, heavy muscling, particularly in the round and
loin
– High feed efficiency
– Large frame animal
Charolais
Limousin
• Origin: West Central France about 7000
years ago.
• Imported to US:1968
• Color: light yellow hair with lighter circles
around the eyes and muzzle
• Polled: no
• Desirable Qualities: Short broad head with
small neck. Carcass leanness and large
loin
Limousin
Maine Anjou
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Origin: France in 1840
Imported to US: 1970
Color: Dark red and white and roan
Polled: no
Desirable Qualities: Work animal,
Excellent beef producers, Docile, easy to
handle, Fast growth weight, well marbled
Maine Anjou
Beefmaster
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Origin: Texas in 1931
Imported to US: 1931
Color: Reds and dun
Polled: Horned
Desirable Qualities: Cross between
Hereford, Shorthorn, Brahman. Good
disposition, fertility, gain, conformation,
hardiness, and milk production
Beefmaster
Brahman
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Origin: India and British Colonies
Imported to US: Conflicting Reports (1849)
Color: Light gray or red to almost black
Polled: Horned
Desirable Qualities: Hardiness, climate, early
maturity, High heat tolerance, resistant to
disease and insects, good mothers, forage on
poor range, gain rapidly, quality carcass,
Unpredictable disposition.
Brahman
Brahman
Brangus
3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Angus
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Origin: Jeanerette, Louisiana 1912
Imported to US: 1912
Color: Black
Polled: Yes
Desirable Qualities: Adaptable, Good
mothers, feed efficiency, desirable carcass
Brangus
Brangus
Santa Gertrudis
3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Shorthorn
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Origin: Texas 1920
Imported to US: 1920
Color: Cherry Red
Polled: Horned
Desirable Qualities: Efficient in feedlots,
desirable carcass, Resistant to disease
and insects
Santa Gertrudis
Santa Gertrudis
Simmental
• Origin: western Switzerland
• Imported to US: Reported as early as 1887, no
influence until 1960’s
• Color: red and white animals
• Polled: Horned
• Desirable Qualities:
– rapid growth development;
– outstanding production of milk, butter, and cheese;
– and for their use as draft animals.
Simmental
Simmental
Chianina
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Origin: Ancient Italy (Rome)
Imported to US: 1971-1972
Color: White to gray
Polled: short horns
Desirable Qualities:
– Well defined muscling
– Long legs
– Terminal breed
Chianina
Texas Longhorn
• Origin: Imported to North America 500
Years ago
• Imported to US: 1500’s
• Color: varies
• Polled: horned
• Desirable Qualities:
– Adapted to US
– Foraging Ability
– Large, Lean Carcass
Texas Longhorn
Gelbvieh (Gelp-fee)
• Gelbvieh originated in Bavaria, in southern Germany.
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It is believed to have been developed in the late 18th and early 19th century
from self-colored Bernese and Swiss Brown cattle used on the local red or
red spotted cattle. Like most European breeds the Gelbvieh was originally
selected for meat, milk and work.
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The breed was introduced into the United States by Carnation Genetics
through the importations of semen from Germany, starting in July of 1971.
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The breed is red in color, with strong skin pigmentation, and horned. Polled
cattle have developed in the United States from the use of naturally
hornless foundation females. Proponents of the breed claim the breed has
superior fertility, calving ease, mothering ability, and growth rate of the
calves.
Gelbvieh
• http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/
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