UNIT 11: MEATS Chapters 3, 7-9 Objectives Understanding of where meats come from Knowledge of Grading meats Appreciation for live animal meat evaluation Knowledge of various cuts of meats Understanding of animal by-products and their places in the industry Sources of Red Meats Beef-from cattle > 1 yr. of age Veal-calves from 3 mos. or younger Pork-swine Mutton-mature sheep Lamb-young sheep Chevon-goats (goat meat) Figure 9.4 Location of the wholesale cuts on the live steer, pig, and lamb. Source: Colorado State University. World Supply ~3.5b lbs. Red meats accounts for over 85% of all production U.S., China, Russia main suppliers U.S. production of beef & pork >50b lbs. Products Use CO2 or stunning to render animal unconscious, cut jugular before removing hide/scales Drop separated from carcass Head Hide Hair Shanks Organs Products Dressing percentage Carcass wt divided by live wt * 100 Average dressing percentages Hogs – 72% Cattle – 60% Sheep – 50% Factors affecting dressing % Fill Fatness Muscling Wt of hide Wt of wool Products Beef/Pork carcasses are split down the backbone into halves Can be stored in a cooler 28-32F Can be stored several weeks, most are only a day or two Larger companies move meat faster Small packers may allow meat to age and tenderize Products Shipping meats Used to ship in carcass form Today, most packers process into wholesale/primal cuts or even to retail cuts (boxed meats) Figure 3.1 Annual commercial red meat production by type of meat. Source: Livestock Marketing Information Center. Figure 3.2 Center. Commercial cattle harvest in the United States, 2005 (1,000 head). The top 10 states are circled. Source: Livestock Marketing Information Figure 3.3 Commercial hog slaughter 2005 (1,000 head). Source: Livestock Marketing Information Center. Kosher & Muslim Meats Specific rules for the slaughter of religiously acceptable animals Kosher meats Comes from animals w/ split hooves, chew cud, slaughtered according to Jewish Law Also prohibitions against mixing meat/milk Can only be slaughtered by specifically trained persons Must not eat blood, or parts containing blood…specific arteries & veins must be removed $100 m in sales each yr in U.S. Kosher & Muslim Meats Any Muslim may slaughter an animal Can also be slaughtered by others while approved people present Composition Physical Lean, fat, bone, connective tissue Proportions change over time Chemical 65-75% water 15-20% protein 2-12% fat 1% minerals What happens to these ratios as the animal gets older? Figure 3.8 The fundamental structure of meat and muscle in the beef carcass. Nutritional Considerations Nutritive Value High nutrient density foods High in vits, mins, iron, protein, essential amino acids Research focused on development of more, new cuts of meat to increase consumption, health benefits, etc. Consumption Consumed for both satisfaction & nutritional content Actual consumption data difficult to collect due to variation in cuts, waste amounts, etc. Changes in prices of meat products results in shifts in demands back and forth from poultry and red meats Figure 3.10 Annual U.S. red meat and poultry consumption (boneless weight). Source: Livestock Marketing Information Center. Figure 3.11 Daily per-capita meat consumption as part of meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts group (Food Guide Pyramid). Source: National Live Stock and Meat Board. Demand Seems to be better barometer than per-capita consumption Price at which consumer will buy a specific quantity…all other factors being equal Drives not only meat purchases…but the livestock population numbers on the farm Figure 3.12 Annual retail meat and poultry prices (Nominal basis). Source: Livestock Marketing Information Center. Figure 3.15 Annual per-capita U.S. expenditures for meat and poultry. Source: Livestock Marketing Information Center. Marketing Terminal markets Large, livestock collection centers Sale Barns Located all across the U.S. Purchased on live weight basis, buyer estimates value of the carcass Grade and Yield Some animals purchased on carcass merit basis Cuts out the middle man to some extent, but also lower the live weight market price Marketing Interesting facts: ½ of all food taken home to be prepared ½ of white collar workers eat 1 meal/d at their desk ¼ of calories consumed in form of snack foods 10% of all food consumed in a vehicle Consumer confusion regarding what meat to purchase and how to prepare it ¾ of consumers have no evening meal plan at end of the day Marketing Shifts Mid in consumer preference changes producer goals 80’s demand for leaner meats Producers changed genetics, feeding, etc. Resulted in loss in sales due to loss of taste Only when producers matched leanness and marbling did consumption begin to rise Market Classes & Grades of Livestock 99$b of meat products are marketed annually Market Classes and Grades Segregates animals, carcasses, and products into uniform groups based on buyer and seller preferences Established by USDA, but not mandatory Most comply Meat inspection is mandatory Market Classes and Grades Slaughter Cattle Veal 1-3 mos. <150 lbs. Calf 3-10 mos. 150-300 lbs. Beef >12 mos. Carcass wt. >300 lbs. Also separated by sex classes Heifer, cow, steer, bull, bullock, stag Separates carcasses into more uniform wts. Market Classes and Grades Quality Grades Measures consumer palatability characteristics. Maturity Observed by bone/cartilage structures Marbling Intramuscular fat, or flecks of fat within the lean Evaluated at the exposed rib-eye muscle between 12th and 13th ribs 10 degrees are established from abundant to devoid Figure 8.1 USDA quality grades (Commercial, Cutter, and canner omitted). Courtesy of USDA. Figure 8.3 Relationship between marbling, maturity, and carcass quality grade. Source: USDA. Figure 8.4 Exposed ribeye muscles (between the 12th and 13th ribs) showing various degrees of marbling associated with several beef carcass quality grades. Courtesy of the American Meat Science Association copyrighted 1997. Figure 8.5 Location of the fat measurement over the ribeye (longissimus dorsi) muscle. Source: Colorado State University. Market Classes and Grades Yield Grades (aka cutability grades) Measures quality of boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts from major wholesale cuts of beef (round, loin, rib, chuck) Yield Grade % BCTRC 1 > 52.3 2 52.3 - 50.0 3 50.0 - 47.7 4 47.7 - 45.4 5 < 45.4 Figure 8.2 USDA yield grades for market cattle. Courtesy of USDA. Figure 8.7 The five yield grades of beef shown at the 12th and 13th ribs. Courtesy of American Meat Science Association copyrighted 1997. Figure 8.8 Quality grades and yield grades of beef, 2004. Note: Approximately 10% of total carcasses are not quality or yield graded, respectively. Quality and yield grade percentages do not equal 100% due to rounding error. Source: USDA. Market Classes and Grades Feeder Cattle Feeder grades used to predict wt gain & slaughter wt end point of cattle fed to a desirable fat-to-lean composition Two criteria Frame size Thickness Figure 8.9 The three frame sizes of the USDA feeder cattle grade system. Source: USDA. Figure 8.10 The four thickness standards of the USDA feeder cattle grade system. Source: USDA. Carcass Composition Display Preferred proportion of fat:lean has changed over the years How/Why? Yield Grades determined from 4 carcass characteristics: Amount of fat in .1” over the rib-eye muscle Kidney, pelvic, heart fat Area of the rib-eye muscle in sq. in. Hot carcass wt. Carcass Composition Display Quality and Yield grading is voluntary, however, about 90% is quality graded, and 84% is yield graded Carcass Composition Display Slaughter Swine Sex Classes Barrow, gilt, sow, boar, stag What is the difference? Traditional grades for Barrow/Gilt carcasses based on two characteristics Quality of the lean Expected combined yields of for lean cuts: Ham Loin Blade Shoulder Picnic Shoulder Carcass Composition Display Two quality grades for lean in pork carcasses: at the exposed surface of a cut muscle at the 10th and 11th ribs Acceptable Observed Gray/pink in color Fine muscle fibers Fine marbling Graded 1-4 depending on the amount of lean Unacceptable Too dark/pale Soft Watery Bellies are too thin for bacon Visual Perspective of Carcass Composition of the Live Animal Goal: large amounts of highly palatable lean w/ minimal amounts of fat & bone Sizes and shapes of cattle, swine, sheep are different, but muscle structure and fat deposition areas are almost identical Ex. Animal w/ square appearance over top of back, block and deep from the side has a large accumulation of fat Visual Perspective of Carcass Composition of the Live Animal Fat accumulation Brisket Dewlap Jowl Between hind legs Edge of loin Behind the shoulders Shoulder blade movement can be seen when lean cattle/swine walk Visual Perspective of Carcass Composition of the Live Animal Animals w/ oval shape to its back and thickness through the center of hind legs have high proportion of lean:fat Fat on retail cuts has been reduced over the last 20 years 1/4 to 1/8 in, or none on many cuts Reduction taken primarily by packer Some breeding and feeding practices altered This is not highly encouraged Why? By-Products of Meat Animals Can account for as much as 8-10% of the total value of a fed steer What are the by-products? Two categories based on human consumption Edible & Inedible Edible By-Products Also called variety meats Organs and body parts other than the carcass What are some examples? Liver, heart, tongue, tripe, sweetbread Tripe-lining of the stomach Sweetbread-thymus gland Avg. 1100# steer produces ~36# of variety meats Per capita consumption of variety meats is only ~9# Much is exported Lard and Tallow Shortenings, margarines, pastries, candies Inedible tallow goes into soap, lubricants, feed, fatty acids ~45% of inedible tallow, and ~20% of edible tallow are exported Inedible By-Products Tallow, hides, inedible organs Some skins are edible Many pharmaceuticals originate from these byproducts Cholesterol Corticosteroids Epinephrine Heparin Rennet Cortisone Inedible By-Products Hides Cattle & buffalo hides account for ~80% of hides in the world $1.3 b exported from U.S. each year Some goat and sheep skins ~$33m/yr. One cowhide-144 baseballs, 20 footballs, 18 volleyballs, 12 baseball gloves, 12 basketballs Leather use in the U.S.-40% upholstery, 50% shoes, 10% other Hide weighs>30lbs., skins<30lbs. Skins w/ wool left on called pelts Inedible By-Products Value of hides can be reduced, how? Hides worth ~$1/lb. Fed steers produce ~65-75lbs. Of hide After hides are treated (“blue” stage) they lose about 15 lbs. Preserves for shipping Value is increased to $80-90 60lb. Hide produces ~40 sq. ft. of leather Tanners add ~$500m annually to hides Hides are the most valuable by-product 7m tons of by-product ($8b) used to make pet food Ex. Inedible By-Products Pet food exports tripled since 1990 Dog food sales ~$9m, extra $1b spent in treats Rendered fats and oils are also used in the manufacture of biodiesel Currently used in some public transportation systems Figure 7.1 Edible and inedible by-products from a 1,100-lb steer. Source: USDA. Figure 7.2 In addition to the retail product of beef are numerous by-products. Adapted from Field (1996). Figure 7.3 Rib brands are a primary cause of lost value in hides. While many states require branding as verification of ownership, branding on the upper or lower hip is preferred to minimize hide damage. The Rendering Industry What are their sources for product? 70m lbs. of animal material daily Rendering of Red Meat Animal By-Products Animal fat and animal protein are the major products Most fats go into animal feeds The Rendering Industry Fatty acids Plastics Cosmetics Lubricants Paints Deodorants Cleaners Caulk Ink Etc. The Rendering Industry Proteins Processed into >50% protein sources Meat and Bone meal Blood meal Disposing of Dead Livestock Do not enter the food chain Must be careful to avoid cross contamination to humans or other livestock The Rendering Industry Protocol for disposal of dead stock Removal by licensed rendering company 2. Compost the carcass 3. Burn in an approved incinerator (licensed) 4. Bury >4’ deep 1.