U10/12/14 (Regional Referee)

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AYSO Region 1447
Regional Referee
Training
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AYSO Region 1447
Regional Referee Training
• This clinic is an entry-level training for AYSO
volunteers wanting to referee soccer matches at
U-9 or higher
• Clinic is also known as “Basic Referee Training”
• Please legibly fill out:
 The Attendance Roster (left side info only)
 A Volunteer Application form
• Volunteer application must be completed by every
volunteer, each year
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Regional Referee Training
• Introductions
• Survey: Previous Soccer Experience
• Demonstration & Class Exercise
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Benefits and Expectations
as a Regional Referee
• At the end of this clinic, students from Region 1447
who pass the exam, will receive a full referee uniform
and equipment set
– Includes: Jersey, Shorts, Socks, Regional Badge,
Red/Yellow Cards, Wallet, AR Flags, Flip Coin, Whistle &
Lanyard, etc.
• By accepting the uniform and materials, you’re agreeing to
referee a minimum of 8 games over the next year
– Recommend 1 game a week
– Sign up with the online scheduler
– Games need to be:
• At the U-9 or higher level
• In Region 1447 regular season play
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Module 2
The Game of Soccer
AYSO Organization & Philosophy
History of the Game
Reason for the Laws
Spirit of the Game
What Players Want Most
The Referee’s Job
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AYSO Organization
• AYSO is a Volunteer-Driven Organization
 99.9% staff nationwide are not paid
• Local staff is all volunteer
 Founded in 1964 in the L.A. Area
 Today Nationwide: 50,000 teams, 600,000+
players
• Purpose: To develop and deliver quality
youth soccer in a fun, family environment
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AYSO Organizational
Structure
• National
• Section
• Area
• Region
N
S
S
R
A
A
A
R
S
R
R
A
R
Region 1447 in Area C, Area C is in Section 12
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The AYSO Philosophies
• Everyone Plays
• Balanced Teams
• Open Registration
• Positive Coaching
• Good Sportsmanship
• Player Development
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AYSO Philosophies (cont’d)
• Everyone Plays - Our program’s goal is
for kids to play soccer — so we mandate
that every player on every team play at
least half of every game.
– In Region 1447, no player plays 4 quarters
until everyone else plays 3 quarters.
• Balanced Teams - Each year we form
new teams as evenly balanced as possible
— because it is fair and more fun when
teams of equal ability play.
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AYSO Philosophies (cont’d)
• Open Registration - Our program is open
to all children between 4 and 19 years of
age who want to register and play soccer.
Interest and enthusiasm are the only
criteria for playing.
• Positive Coaching - Encouragement of
player effort provides for greater enjoyment
by the players and ultimately leads to
better-skilled and better-motivated players.
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AYSO Philosophies (cont’d)
• Good Sportsmanship - We strive to
create a positive environment based on
mutual respect rather than a win-at-allcosts attitude, and our program is
designed to instill good sportsmanship in
every facet of AYSO.
• Player Development – soccer skills
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A Brief History of the
Game
• Kicking Games Date to Egyptian Civilization
• In medieval times, rival towns and villages played
against each other
– A mob activity involving hundreds of players
– Kicking, punching, biting and gouging were allowed.
• Became Organized in England in 1800s
– “Football” was introduced as a war game
• Prepare British soldiers for battle
• 1863 Association Football and Rugby Football split
– Disputes, among other things, over ball handling
– Two camps: The Ruggers & The Football asSOCiationers (or soccer)
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Laws of the Game
• FIFA Laws of the Game (LOTG) of
Soccer
• Reason for the Laws
– Promote “Gentlemanly” play
– Provide a standard reference for players
and referees
– All 17 Laws are based on safety and
fairness
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Spirit of the Game
• Soccer as a World Sport
– Widely Considered the Most Popular Game
in the World
– Played in Nearly Every Nation
• Simple Game
– Bare Requirements:
• Ball
• Open Area
• Game should be Fun, Fair and Safe
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Safe – Fair - Fun
• Safe: They will only think of this if it is
absent
• Fair: Referee role is to ensure no one
gains an unfair advantage
– If you don’t provide justice, the players will
• Fun: The game is most fun when it’s fair
and safe
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The Referee’s Job
• Keep the game safe and in control
• Keep the game flowing
– Soccer is a continuous action sport
– Don’t stop play unless needed
• Don’t be afraid to stop play when needed
• Provide positive instruction
– You are a teacher of the game and the laws
– Enjoy your time on the field
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Modules 3 & 7
Pre-game Preparation &
Post Game Duties
Law 1 – The Field of Play
Law 4 – Player’s Equipment
Law 5 – The Referee
Law 6 – The Assistant Referee
AYSO National Rules & Regulations
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Pre-Game Duties
• At pre-game a referee should…
– Arrive early
• Ideally 30 minutes before kick-off
– Greet the coaches
• Get line-up card from each coach, and ball from home
team coach
– Inspect Field, Ball and Players
• Talk Briefly to Players
– Give Instructions to Assistant Referees (ARs) or
Club Linesmen
– Conduct Coin Toss
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Field Check
The referee must ensure the field is safe for play.
• During field inspection look for…
– Foreign objects on or near field.
• Broken glass, debris, etc...
– Sprinklers or holes in the field.
• These can be marked with cones obtained from coaches. If
cones are unavailable, consider using a jacket or sweater.
• Inspect goalposts, crossbars and nets
– They can be a common source of injury.
– Damaged goalposts or crossbars cannot be used until
they are fixed.
• Do not let children play on the goalposts or crossbars
– If portable goals, must be secured to prevent tipping
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Field Check (cont’d)
If you find something unsafe, either…
1) Find a way to make it safe (preferred), or
2) Cancel the match & take the field off-line.
– Have the home team take the equipment
– Call the Division Commissioner (DC) and Safety
Director. These people need to know that the field is
safe before the game can take place or continue.
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Player’s Equipment
• Basic Compulsory Player Equipment
– Jersey or shirt
– Shorts
– Stockings
– Shinguards
– Footwear
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Equipment/Safety Check
• Check all players at pre-game
– If a player arrives late, check him/her before they
enter the game
• Look for basic compulsory equipment on all
players and ensure it’s safe
– Socks must completely cover shinguards.
– Footwear needs to be suitable for play
• Does not need to be soccer shoes
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Equipment/Safety Check
(cont’d)
– Jerseys
• Should be tucked in
• Must be worn on top with numbers visible
– On cold days sweatshirt or warm-ups may be
worn underneath jersey
• Colors should contrast between teams (and
the referee, if possible)
– If team jerseys too similar, home team should
wear pinnies
– Goalkeeper’s jersey color should contrast with
player jerseys from both teams
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Equipment/Safety Check:
Prohibited Items
• Player may not wear anything which is dangerous
to another player (or to themselves).
• No watches or jewelry
– Jewelry includes: earrings, finger rings, nose
studs, bracelets, necklaces, barrettes, hair ties w/
hard pieces, bobby pins, rubber wrist bands, etc.
– Taping or covering jewelry is NOT permitted
• This includes earrings
– Items not considered jewelry: prescription eye
glasses medic alerts bracelets/necklaces, and
hearing aids
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Equipment/Safety Check:
Prohibited Items (cont’d)
• No splints or casts - even if padded!
– Knee or ankle braces are permitted if they don’t
have hard parts
• No hard-billed hats
– Stocking caps are permitted
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Equipment/Safety Check
A Visual Quiz
Find the problems in
the picture (9 in all)
Problems
1. Watch
2. Earrings
3. Cast
4. Hood over Numbers
5. Shinguards over Sock
6. Ring on Finger
7. Necklace
8. Barrette
9. Untucked Jersey
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Lineup Cards
• One card received
from coach of each
team at pre-game
Coach Completes:
• All information at top
• Player #’s & names
• Who’s not playing that
day and why
Referee Records:
• Any reminders
• Tally of goals scored
• “Qtrs.” not played
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Red Jerseys
104
U10B
Vipers
Amy Jones
1st H KO West
552
9/13/06
558
Tom Smith
2
Mark Smith
x
Mark
xx
Mark Smith
Smith
322
James
Allen
|
x
James
Allen
433 Eric
Garcia
x
James
Allen
||
xx
4
Eric Garcia
Garcia
64
John
Jones
|
||
x
Eric
xx
6
JohnThompson
Jones
||
76
Rick
John
Jones
|| ||
xx
7-------------------------RickRichards
Thompson Out Sick --------------87
Kirk
X
Rick
Thompson
Kirk Richards
Richards
9 88
Michael
Phillips
X
Kirk
XX
Michael Hunter
Phillips
1099
Thomas
|
X
Michael
Phillips
XX
10 Zack
Thomas
Hunter
1110
McDonald
Thomas
Hunter
||
XX
11 Eric
Zack
McDonald
12
Sena
|
X
11
Zack
McDonald
12 Eric
Eric Sena
Sena
12
||
XX
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Back Side of Lineup Card
After game, referee completes back of the card.
Information includes:
9/13/06
9 am
Conchas
• Transfer halftime & final
scores from front side of
both cards
• Rate behavior of coaches,
players & spectators
• Print Your Name & Phone
• Add commentary if needed
– Injuries and what player
– Problems with weather, field
or behavior of individuals
(who, what & when)
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552, Red/White
2-1
552
Good
558, Yellow/Black
6-2
552



Katie Stanford
555-1234
Game started 10 minutes late due to missing
nets and corner flags
• Sign Card (at bottom, not shown)
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Coin Toss
• Visiting team gets to call the toss.
• Winner of toss chooses end of field to attack
• Other team gets to kick-off first
– Record 1st half kick-off team and direction on lineup card
• In 2nd half, the teams switch ends of the field.
– Team that didn’t kick off at the beginning of the game
kicks off to begin the 2nd half.
• Example: If the blue team kicked off to the west in 1st
half, then the Red team kicks west in 2nd half.
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Post Game Duties
At the end of the game…
• Collect the ball
– Return to home team
• Supervise the post game ceremony
– Watch to see that players are behaving as good
sports.
• Conduct a post game conference with assistant
referees
• Complete lineup cards
– Put completed cards in pouch/field bag near one of
the goals
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Module 8
The Mechanical Aspects of
the Game – The Field & Ball
Law 1 - The Field of Play
Law 2 - The Ball
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Field of Play: Markings & Areas
Halfway Line Flag or
Cone (optional)
Corner Flag (required)
Goal Line
Touch Lines
Penalty Area
Goal
Goal Area
Halfway
Line
Penalty
Mark
Penalty Arc
Center
Circle
Corner Arc
Note: Lines are part of the areas they enclose
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Goal Line
Coaches Area
32
Field Dimensions: U-11 and above
(Regulation AYSO Field Size)
Halfway Line Flag
Field Size:
Length: 80-130 Yards,
Width: 50-100 Yards
• Field must be a rectangle
(longer than it is wide)
1 Yard from Touch Line
Penalty Area: 18 x 44 Yards
The “18 Yard Line”
Goal Area: 6 x 20 Yds.
6 Yards
“6 Yard Line”
Goal mouth
8 yards wide
by 8 feet high
12 Yards
10 Yard Radius
18 Yards
Flag height:
5 feet minimum
1 Yard Radius
Coaches Area
20 yds wide, 1 Yard from Touch Line
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The Ball
• Ensure ball is suitable for play
– Properly Inflated
• Can hurt players if over or under inflated
• Thumb pressure should dent ball ¼ to ½ inch.
– Spherical and
Balanced
– No tears or cuts
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Age Group
Ball Size
U-5, U-6, U-7, U-8
Size 3
U-9, U-10, U-11, U-12
Size 4
U-14, U-16, U-19
Size 5
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Module 4
Starting the Game
Law 3 – Number of Players
Law 8 – Start and Restart of Play (Kick-Offs)
Law 7 – Duration of the Match
AYSO National Rules & Regulations
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Number of Players
• Regulation AYSO matches (U-14+) have a
maximum of 11 players-a-side and a minimum of 7.
– U-12 and younger play short-sided games.
Age Group
Maximum on
Field (#-a-side)
Minimum for
Match
U-7, U-8
U-9, U-10
U-11, U-12
U-14, U-16, U-19
5
7
9
11
3
5
6
7
• If a team has fewer than the maximum number of
players, the coach from the full-sided team may lend
one or more players to the other team
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Starting the Game
Just prior to kick-off check that…
• You have the line-up cards, your whistle, your
watch, red & yellow cards and pen/pencil
• Ball is in the center circle
• Count the players
• AR’s/linemen are ready and in position
• Verify both goalkeepers are ready
• Signal (whistle) for kick to be taken
• Start watch
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The Kick Off
• Where: At mark in the Center Circle
• When:
– At start of game,
– Start of 2nd half, and
– After each goal scored
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Kick Off Procedure
• All players must be in their own half
– Players from both teams may stand on Half-way Line
• Opponents away from ball
– 8 yards for U-9 & U-10, 10 yards for U-11 and above
– Standing on Center Circle Line is OK
• Ball stationary
• Referee signal
– Typically by whistling
• Ball in play when kicked and moves forward
– If beginning of 1st or 2nd half, clock starts when ball is
put into play
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Improper Kick Offs
• Retake If Not Done Correctly:
– Ball kicked backwards
– Player encroaches prior to kick
• Examples: a player from either team crosses halfway
line, or a player from non-kicking team enters center
circle prior to kick-off
• Play stopped at referee’s discretion
• Indirect Free Kick to opposing team if played
twice by same player
– This is the “Double Touch” rule which applies to
all restarts except the dropped ball
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Time Keeping
• Referee is sole timekeeper
– AR may be used as a backup
timekeeper.
• Halves are timed
• Time officially starts at the opening kick-off when
ball is kicked and moves forward
• No timeouts
• When time runs out in the half, blow whistle
– 2x to end half, 3x to end game
– Play stops at that point in time
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Time Keeping (con’t)
• Substitution break called approximately midway
through the half
• In Region 1447, clock keeps running through the
substitution break.
– Our games run in a tight series throughout the day on
Saturday. Only in rare instances should time be added,
and if justified, only a few minutes at most.
– AYSO National policy: Stoppage time is added for
substitutions
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Game Duration by Division
• Game comprised of two equal halves
Division
U-7/8
U-9/10
U-11/12
U-14
U-16*
U-19
Half Length • Half-time periods are
at least 5 minutes and
20 minutes
not longer than 10
25 minutes
minutes
30 minutes • Length of halves may
35 minutes
be altered for
tournament or
40 minutes
competition play
45 minutes
* Currently AYSO Region 1447 does not have
U16 divisions in general play
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>> Break Time <<
10 Minutes Please
Instructors will collect your volunteer forms.
Please ensure that this form is completed with your Driver’s
License # and SSN provided, the disclosure questions
answered and the form signed.
ID check is required.
Also, please fill out the Referee Attendance Roster form
and the Referee Contact Information Card if you haven’t
done so yet.
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Module 5
Stopping Play
Law 3 – Number of Players (substitutions)
Law 5 – The Referee (stopping for injuries)
Law 8 – Start and Restart of Play
Law 9 – Ball In and Out of Play
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AYSO Substitutions
• In accordance with the AYSO National Rules
and Regulations there are 4 regular
substitution opportunities:
– Midway through the first half
– At half time
– Midway through the second half
– For an injured player
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AYSO Substitutions (con’t)
• Look for substitution opportunities when the
ball goes out of play
– Throw-ins, goal kicks, and prior to kick-offs are
ideal
• Late arriving players must play at least:
– Two quarters if they arrive in 1st Qtr.
– One quarter if they arrive in 2nd or 3rd Qtr.
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Stoppage of Play for Injuries
If a player gets injured…
• The referee may stop play immediately or at
anytime
• If bleeding or serious injury, the player must leave
the field.
– Referee should beckon the coach on to the field to attend
to injured player
– The team may opt to either substitute immediately or
play short (provided at or above minimum # of players)
• Substitute should wait to enter once the injured player
has exited the field of play
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Ball In and Out of Play
Two ways for the ball to be out of play:
1. When the referee stops play (i.e. whistles)
2. When the ball leaves the field of play
• All of the ball goes
completely beyond
the outer edge of the
touch line or goal line
The ball is in play at
all other times
OUT
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Ball In and Out of Play (con’t)
• The ball is still in play even when it :
– Rebounds off the goal post, cross bar or corner
flag back onto the field
– Touches the referee or the AR (provided the ball
has not left the field of play)
• The ball’s position determines whether it is
in or out of play, not the player’s position.
• Whistle Not normally needed when ball
goes out of play
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Method of Scoring
A goal is scored when the whole
of the ball passes over the goal
line, between the goalposts
and under the crossbar.
– Assumes that no infringement of the
Laws of the Game has been
committed previously by the team
scoring the goal.
• Referee signals by pointing
toward the center circle (the
restart is a kick-off)
Goal Scored/Not Scored
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When to Use the Whistle
When to Whistle:
• To start or restart play …
– At kick-offs
– After a substitution break to signal restart of game
• To stop play …
–
–
–
–
For a foul or infraction
Due to an interruption from an outside event or injury
For a substitution break
To end the half or the game
• To get player’s attention
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When the Whistle Isn’t
Needed
Whistle Not Necessary for:
• Normal ball-out-of-play situations (ball over
touch line or goal line)
• Restarting play prior to that restart
• Exception is restart after sub-break
• After a goal is scored
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Modules 6 & 9
Starting & Restarting Play –
Part 1: Throw-ins and Goal Kicks
Law 15 – The Throw-in
Law 16 – The Goal Kick
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Restarts
Eight restarts in soccer
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Kick Off (KO)
Throw In (TI)
Goal Kick (GK)
Corner Kick (CK)
Dropped Ball (DB)
Direct Free Kick (DFK)
Indirect Free Kick (IFK)
Penalty Kick (PK)
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Throw-Ins
A throw-in is taken to restart the game
after the ball goes out of play over the
touch line.
• Awarded to the opponents of the team who last
touched the ball.
– May be taken by any player on that team,
including the goalkeeper
• Referee signals by pointing in the
direction of attack for the team getting
the throw-in
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Throw-ins: Proper Location
• Taken from the approximate point where
the ball crossed the touch line
– No more than 1 yard either way along touch
line
– Throw-ins about to be taken more than a yard
from this point can be managed by referee prior
to the throw
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Legal Throw-In Requirements
For a legal throw-in the thrower must…
 Face the field of play
 Have part of each foot
touching the ground, either
on or behind the touch line
 Use both hands to deliver
the ball from behind and
over the head.
TOUCH LINE
Position of feet important,
but only at the moment of
release
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Throw-In Specifics
• If improper throw-in, the opposing team is
given a throw-in at same location.
• All opponents must be at least 2 yards from
the thrower until the ball is in play
• Ball is in play as soon as it is released and
any portion of it is on or over the outside
edge of the touch line.
– If the ball fails to enter the field of play, the throwin is retaken.
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Throw-In Specifics (con’t)
• Once the ball is in play the thrower may not
touch it a second time until it has touched
another player.
– If so, it results in a IFK for the opponents at the
spot of the second touch. DFK if it was touched
with the hands (free kicks to be covered later)
• A goal may not be scored directly from a
throw-in.
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Goal Kicks
When the ball leaves the field over the goal
line, last touched by an attacker, and
does not score a goal, the restart is a
goal kick
• Referee signals by
pointing toward the
goal area.
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Goal Kick Ball Placement
• The defending team may place the ball anywhere
in the goal area, including on its boundary lines
Note: This also applies to free kicks by defenders
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Goal Kick Specifics
• Opponents of the kicker must move outside the
penalty area.
• Ball must be stationary at the time of kick
• The ball is in play when it is kicked directly out of
the penalty area without being touched or played
by any other player
• A goal may be scored directly from a goal kick, but
only against the opponents, i.e. no own goals on
goal kicks
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Goal Kicks - Infringements
• If anyone plays the ball or the kicker kicks the ball
again before it leaves the penalty area, the kick has
not been properly taken and must be retaken.
– The ball was never put into play! It is like the kick did not
happen!
• After the ball leaves the penalty area the kicker may
still not touch the ball a second time until it has
touched another player.
– Results in an IFK for the opponents at the spot of the
second touch
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Modules 6 & 9
Starting & Restarting Play –
Part 2: Corner Kicks & The
Dropped Ball
Law 17 – The Corner Kick
Law 8 – Start and Restart of Play
(Dropped Ball)
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Corner Kicks
When the ball leaves the field over the
goal line without scoring a goal and was
last touched by a defender, the restart is
a corner kick
• Referee signals by
pointing toward the
corner where the
kick is to be taken
– Corner nearest to the
point where the ball
went out.
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Corner Kick Ball Placement
• Ball can be placed
anywhere in the corner arc
including on the boundary
lines
• The corner flag post may
not be moved or removed.
It may, however, be placed
upright.
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Corner Kick Specifics
• Opponents of the kicker must remain 10 yards
away from the corner arc until it is kicked into play
– 8 yards for U-9 & U-10
• The ball is in play when it is kicked and moves.
– Ball NOT required to leave the arc to be in play
• The kicker may not touch the ball a second time
until it has touched another player.
– Infringement results in an IFK for the opponents at the
spot of the second touch
• A goal may be scored directly from a corner kick,
but only against the opponents.
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Dropped Ball
When play is stopped by the referee for an
unusual but neutral reason, play is restarted by
the referee dropping the ball.
• Reasons for doing a dropped ball include:
–
–
–
–
–
An injury
A dog on the field
A stray ball from a nearby game
A mistaken whistle
Any other occasion when play is stopped for any reason
other than the ball leaving the field of play or an infraction
of the laws
• Not used when it’s not obvious or unknown who
last played the ball before it went out
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Dropped Ball Procedure
• The referee drops the ball where it was when play
was stopped
– Exception: If in the goal area, the referee drops
the ball at the nearest point on the goal area line
that is parallel to the goal line.
• The ball is dropped from the height of a player’s
waist and is in play when it hits the ground.
• If a player kicks the ball before it hits the ground, it
is dropped again because play has not been
restarted properly.
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Restart After an Injury
• After an Injury play is restarted with either:
– A dropped ball if the ball was on the field of play
at the time of the whistle, or
– The normal restart if the ball was out of play
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Stopping & Restarting Play:
Cause and Effect Summary
If Cause of Stoppage:
Restart with:
Injury or Outside
 Dropped Ball
Interference
Ball leaves the field of play
 Throw-in
over touch line
Ball leaves the field of play
Goal Kick, Corner Kick or

over goal line
Kick Off
Direct Free Kick, Indirect
Free Kick or Penalty Kick
Normal restart based on how
Substitution 
play stopped for substitution
Fouls or Misconduct 
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Referee Quiz
(The Mother of All Quizzes for the Officials of All Time)
1. Soccer fields must be ________
for players.
Safe
2. Once the officials inspect the field and correct dangers, a
referee will cancel a game and not let children play if the
field markings are not correct. (True/False)
3. Soccer balls can hurt if they have too much or too little air.
(True/False)
4. On a coin toss, everyone wins. The team that wins the toss
chooses the end of the field to attack and the other team
wins the first kick-off. (True/False)
5. At a kick-off, the kicker may play the ball twice before
anyone else touches it. (True/False)
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Referee Quiz (cont’d)
6. lf a player kicks the ball backward on a kick-off, the referee should:
a. Give the other team a free kick
b. Retake the kick-off
7. When dropping the ball, the referee should hold it at waist height.
Whose waist?
a. The players‘
b. The referee's
8. The ball is in play and rolls down the touch line. The ball is still in
play. (True/False)
9. A player steps off the field to kick the ball that is sitting on the touch
line. Play is stopped. (True/False)
10. A ball rolls slowly toward the goal and stops before completely
crossing the goal line.
a. Say, “Keep playing! It didn't go all the way into the goal.”
b. Say, ”No goal!” Restart with a goal kick.
c. Say nothing. The coaches and parents will tell the kids what to
do.
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Referee Quiz (cont’d)
Match items in column A with those in column B.
Column A
11. Attacker plays ball over goal line
(no score)
12. Red team last touches ball which
goes over touch line
13. Player who takes restart touches
the ball a second time before it has
been touched by another player
14. Defender plays ball over goal line
into goal (score)
15. Defender plays ball over goal line
(no score)
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a. Throw-in blue
b. Throw-in red
c. Kick-off
d. Goal kick
e. Corner kick
f. Free kick
75
Modules 6 & 9
Stopping & Restarting Play –
Free Kicks and Penalty Kicks
Law 8 – Start and Restart of Play
Law 13 – Free Kicks
Law 14 – Penalty Kicks
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Free Kicks
• There are two types of free kicks: Direct Free
Kicks (DFK) and Indirect Free Kicks (IFK).
• For any free kick (DFK or IFK) …
– The ball must be stationary when the kick is
taken,
– Play of the ball must be done with a kicking
motion of the foot
• Tapping the top of the ball with the foot or stepping on
the ball are not sufficient
– The kicker may not play the ball again a second
time until it has touched another player
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Direct Free Kicks
• A Direct Free Kick (DFK) results from a DFK
foul
– Examples: Pushing an opponent, Tripping an
opponent, Holding an opponent, Deliberately
Handling the Ball, etc.
– Applies to anywhere on field except
when the defending team commits
a DFK foul in their penalty area
• Penalty Kick instead
• Referee signals by pointing in the
direction of attack for the kicking team
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Direct Free Kicks (cont’d)
• If a DFK is kicked directly into the opponents’
goal, a goal is awarded
• If a DFK is kicked directly into the team’s own
goal, corner kick is awarded to the opposing
team
– No own goals on DFKs
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Indirect Free Kicks
• Results from a IFK foul or other infraction
– Examples: Playing in a Dangerous Manner,
Impeding an Opponent, Offside, etc.
• Referee signals by raising arm
straight up in the air
– Should momentarily point in the
direction of attack for the kicking team
– Arm should remain up after kick until
the ball is touched by another player
or goes out of play
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Indirect Free Kicks (cont’d)
• A goal can be scored only if the ball
subsequently touches another player before
it enters the goal.
– If an IFK is kicked directly into the
opponents’ goal, it is NOT a goal, and
instead a goal kick is awarded
– If an IFK is kicked directly into the team’s
own goal, a corner kick is awarded to the
opposing team
• No own goals on free kicks
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Position of Free Kicks
• Free Kicks (DFK or IFK) Outside the
Penalty Area
– The free kick is taken from the place where
the infringement occurred
– All opponents are at least 10 yards from
the ball until it is in play
– The ball is in play when it is kicked and
moves
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Position of Free Kicks
Special Circumstances
• Free Kick (DFK or IFK) Inside the Penalty
Area by the defending team:
– All opponents are at least 10 yards from the ball
– All opponents remain outside the penalty area
until the ball is in play
– The ball is in play when it is kicked directly
beyond the penalty area
– A free kick awarded in the goal area is taken
from any point inside that area
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Position of Free Kicks
Special Circumstances (cont’d)
• Indirect free kick to the attacking team near
opponent’s goal:
– All opponents are at least 10 yards from the ball
until it is in play
• Exception: They are on their own goal line between
the goalposts
– The ball is in play when it is kicked and moves
– If infringement occurred inside the goal area, the
IFK is taken at location on the goal area line
which runs parallel to the goal line (“the 6 yard
line”), at the point nearest to spot of the
infringement.
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Free Kick Specifics
• Allowed to go in any direction, including backwards
• Quick kicks are allowed.
– Recognize the difference between a "ceremonial" free
kick and a team wanting to take a quick kick.
• The kick should be retaken if an opponent is closer
to the ball than the required distance at the time the
kick is taken (at the referee’s discretion)
• The kick should also be retaken if the original free
kick is taken by the defending team from inside
their own penalty area and the ball is not kicked
directly into play
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Free Kick
Double Touch Violation
• After the ball is in play, if the kicker touches the ball
a 2nd time before it has touched another player an
IFK is awarded to the opposing team
– Taken from the place where the infringement occurred
– Exception: A 2nd touch by a field player with his hands
results in a DFK.
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Penalty Kicks
• A penalty kick (PK) is awarded to the opponents of
a team that commits any offense for which a DFK is
awarded, inside its own penalty area and while the
ball is in play.
– A goal may be scored directly from a PK.
– Additional time is allowed for a PK to be taken at the end
of each half or at the end of periods of extra time.
– If requested, the defending team may replace its
goalkeeper with one of the other field players (position
switch, not a substitution)
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Penalty Kick Mechanics
• Referee signals by pointing at the penalty mark
• The ball is placed on the penalty mark
– Let the kicker place the ball on the mark
• The player taking the PK is properly identified
• Defending goalkeeper remains on his goal line,
facing the kicker, between the goalposts until the
ball has been kicked
– Keeper is allowed to move laterally (back and forth) on the
goal line
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Penalty Kick Player Location
Other than the kicker and goalkeeper, players
are located:
• Inside the field of play
• Outside the penalty area
• Behind the
penalty mark
• 10 yards from the
A
ball (on the mark)
– On or beyond the
penalty arc
GK
AR
K
D
R
D
A
A
A
D
A
D
D
A
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Penalty Kick Procedure
• The referee signals (whistles) for a PK to be taken
– But only when the players are in proper position
• In play when kicked and moves Forward
– If ball is kicked backwards: IFK to opponents
• Goalkeeper cannot move forward until ball is kicked
• Kicker may not play/touch ball again until it has
touched another player
– For instance, kicker cannot play ball if it rebounds directly
off the goal post or crossbar.
– If so, IFK to opponents
• The referee decides when a PK has been
completed
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Penalty Kick Infringements
Typical infringements include the following events
prior to the kick:
• The goalkeeper moving off the goal line
• A non-kicking player entering the penalty area, or crossing
past the penalty arc, or moving in front of the penalty mark
outside the penalty area.
Ball Goes in
Ball Does Not
Who infringed
Goal
Go in Goal
An attacker
including the kicker
Retake PK
IFK for defense
A defender
including the goalkeeper
Goal (Kick-off)
Retake PK
Both attacker and defender
Retake PK
Retake PK
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Module 10
Fouls & Misconduct,
Basic
Law 12 – Fouls and Misconduct
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Fouls
• What is a foul?
An unfair or unsafe action …
committed by a player ...
against an opponent or the opposing team …
on the field of play…
while the ball is in play.
– Acts specified in Law 12
• Separated into two types:
– More serious fouls are Direct Free Kick Fouls
(formally known as penal fouls)
– Less serious fouls are Indirect Free Kick Fouls
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Direct Free Kick Fouls
• The Direct Free Kick (DFK) fouls are
punished by stopping play and awarding
the opposing team a direct free kick from
the place where the foul occurred.
– A Penalty Kick (PK) is award if the DFK foul
occurs in the penalty area by a defender
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The 10 Direct Free Kick Fouls
• The following 6 offenses, if committed in a manner the
referee considers to be careless, reckless, or involving
excessive force, are DFK fouls:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Kicks or attempts to kick an opponent
Trips or attempts to trip an opponent
Strikes or attempts to strike an opponent
Jumps at an opponent
Charges an opponent
Pushes an opponent
• If a player commits any of the following 4 offenses they are
also considered DFK fouls:
– Tackles an opponent to gain possession of the ball making
contact with the opponent before touching the ball
– Holds an opponent
– Spits at an opponent
– Handles the ball deliberately (except for the goalkeeper within his
own penalty area)
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Common DFK Fouls
• Most Common DFK Fouls in U-10 and
younger:
– Pushes an opponent,
– Trips an opponent,
– Holds an opponent,
– Charges an opponent and,
– Deliberately handles the ball
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Common DFK Fouls (cont’d)
• Pushes an opponent
– Young players commonly push opponents to
get to the ball or gain an advantage.
– Pushing is not allowed, even when players use
something beside their hands.
• Trips or attempts to trip an opponent
– A common foul at all ages.
– Any time tripping occurs there is an element of
carelessness or recklessness involved.
– Referees should be sure that players did not
trip over the ball, or their own feet.
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Common DFK Fouls (cont’d)
• Handles the ball deliberately
– A direct free kick foul (it never results in an IFK)
– Act judged if a player deliberately strikes,
deflects, or holds the ball with their hands or
arms.
– For the purpose of judging handling, the “hand”
extends from the fingertips to the corner of the
shoulder (arm-torso joint)
– Attempting to handle the ball is not a foul.
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Common DFK Fouls (cont’d)
• Handles the ball deliberately (cont’d)
– If the ball strikes the player’s hands or arms,
no offense has occurred because the player
has not deliberately handled the ball.
– Referees can promote a better understanding
of this foul by consistently using the correct
term “handles the ball deliberately”, not
“handball”
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Common DFK Fouls (cont’d)
• Holds an opponent
– Holding any part of an opponent may give a
player an unfair advantage.
– It is illegal to hold with the hands or any parts
of the body.
• Charges an opponent
– Fair charges are allowed and are defined as a
brief, staccato, shoulder-to-shoulder bumps.
– Reckless or hard charges are illegal.
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Indirect Free Kick Fouls
Committed by Any Player
An IFK is awarded to the opposing team if a player, in
the opinion of the referee, commits the following:
• Plays in a dangerous manner
– This includes…
• High kicks near an opponent
• Low headers near an opponent’s kick
• A player lying on the ground that is continuously trying
to kick the ball away from an opponent
– For U-9 & U-10 in Region 104 regular season play, slide
tackles are considered dangerous play
– This is the most common IFK foul (Non-Penal Foul) for
younger players
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IFK Fouls Committed by Any
Player (con’t)
• Impedes the progress of an opponent
• Prevents the goalkeeper from releasing
the ball from his hands
• Commits any other offense, not
previously mentioned in Law 12, for which
play is stopped to caution or send off a
player
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Indirect Free Kick Fouls
Committed by the Goalkeeper
An IFK is awarded to the opposing team if a goalkeeper,
inside his own penalty area, commits any of the following
4 offenses:
• Takes more than 6 seconds while controlling the ball
with his hands, before releasing it from his possession
• Touches the ball again with his hands after it has been
released from his possession and has not touched any
other player
• Touches the ball with his hands after it has been
deliberately kicked to him by a teammate
• For youth play, this does not include a defender’s misskicked ball that is handled by the goalkeeper
• Touches the ball with his hands after he has received it
directly from a throw-in taken by a teammate
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Misconduct
• Also divided into two types:
– Actions which are cautioned and the yellow card
shown
– Behaviors for which the player must be sent off and
shown the red card and not allowed to participate
further in the match.
• In U-9 and U-10, a player should not be
cautioned or sent off except under extreme
conditions.
– If possible, talk with the offending player early in the
match
– By anticipating problems and working with coaches,
referees can prevent players from getting into most
situations that will cause them to be sanctioned.
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Cautionable Misconduct
A player is cautioned and shown the yellow card
if he commits any of the following 7 offenses:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Is guilty of unsporting behavior (USB) *
Shows dissent by word or action (DT) *
Persistently infringes the Laws of the Game (PI)
Delays the restart of play (DR) *
Fails to respect the required distance when play is
restarted with a corner kick, free kick or throw-in (FRD)
6. Enters or re-enters the field of play without permission
(E) *
7. Leaves the field of play without permission (L)
* These four offenses also apply to substitutes or
substituted players
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Send-Off Misconduct
A player, substitute or substituted player is sent off
and shown the red card if he commits any of the
following 7 offenses:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Is guilty of serious foul play (SFP)
Is guilty of violent conduct (VC)
Spits at an opponent or any other person (S)
Denies the opposing team a goal or an obvious goal-scoring
opportunity by deliberately handling the ball (DGH) (this does
not apply to a goalkeeper within his own penalty area)
5. Denies an obvious goal-scoring opportunity to an opponent
moving towards the player’s goal by an offense punishable
by a free kick or a penalty kick. (DGF)
6. Uses offensive, insulting, or abusive language and/or
gestures (AL)
7. Receives a second caution in the same match. (2CT)
With the exception of ‘serious foul play’, all apply to substitutes or
substituted players
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Caution/Send Off Mechanics
• When play is stopped for a caution or send off and
another restart (such as a DFK) is not specified by
the Laws, the restart is an indirect free kick for the
opponents.
• If the referee waits until the ball is out of play to
caution or send off a player, play is restarted
according to the way the ball went out of play.
• When a player is cautioned or sent off, the card must
be shown. The referee holds the appropriate card at
arm’s length directly above his own head.
• All red card send-offs in Region 1447 must be
reported to the Chief Referee within 24 hours
– Applies to send off of any player or dismissal of
any coach
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Module 11
Offside, Basic
Law 11 – Offside
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Offside
(a short history)
In the early days of soccer some players were
lazy and rather than work with the rest of their
team, these players chose to hang around near
their opponents’ goal, wait until the ball came to
them, and then attempt to score a goal.
Many of their teammates thought that this was not
gentlemanly nor fair. The rules, consequently,
evolved to say that a player who is ahead of the
ball in the opponent’s half of the field, is “off his
side” (side meaning team) and is not allowed to
participate while in that position.
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Offside Position
• For a player to be in offside position 3 things
must be true…
1.The player is closer to the opponents’ goal line
than the ball
2.The player is in the opponent’s half of the field
3.The player is closer to the opponents’ goal line
than the second last opponent
• It is not an offense to be in an offside
position.
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The Offside Offense
• A player in an offside position is only
penalized if, at the moment the ball touches
or is played by one of his team, he is, in the
opinion of the referee, involved in active play
by:
1. Interfering with play, or
2. Interfering with an opponent, or
3. Gaining an advantage by being in that
position.
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Offside Offense – Interfering
with Play or an Opponent
• “Interfering with play” generally means playing or
touching the ball passed or touched by a
teammate.
– It also includes receiving a deflected pass from a
teammate
• “Interfering with an opponent” takes many forms.
Some of these include:
– Getting in the way of an opponent,
– Preventing an opponent from playing the ball,
– Talking to, yelling at, or distracting an opponent.
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Offside Offense – Gaining
an Advantage…
• “Gaining an advantage by being in that position”
includes:
– Playing the ball from a teammate’s shot on goal which
rebounds off the goalposts, crossbar or goalkeeper
– Being near enough to the play to capitalize immediately
on a defender’s mistake having gained the advantage
solely by being in the offside position.
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Exceptions to Offside
• A player in an offside position is not
penalized if he/she receives the ball directly
from a …
1. Goal kick
2. Throw-in, or
3. Corner kick
(Offside is momentarily suspended when the ball is being
returned to play after leaving the field of play)
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Restart After an Offside
Offense
• If an offside offense occurs, the referee
stops play and awards an indirect free kick
to the opposing team at the spot where the
offside player was at the time.
– The referee signals offside by the standard IFK
signal (arm straight up in the air)
– The special circumstances for taking free kicks
inside the goal area apply.
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 1
An attacker in an offside position (A), not interfering
with an opponent, touches the ball.
OFFSIDE - The assistant referee should raise the flag
when the player touches the ball.
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 2
An attacker in an offside position (A), not interfering
with an opponent, does not touch the ball.
NOT OFFSIDE - The player cannot be penalized because
he did not touch the ball.
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 3
An attacker in an offside position (A) runs towards the ball and
a teammate in onside position (B) runs also towards the ball
and plays it.
NOT OFFSIDE - Player (A) cannot be penalized
because he did not touch the ball.
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 4
An attacker in an offside position (A1) runs towards
the ball and plays it (A2).
OFFSIDE - The assistant referee should raise the flag
when the player touches the ball (A2).
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 5
An attacker in an offside position (1) runs towards
the ball and does not touch the ball.
GOAL KICK (NOT OFFSIDE) - The assistant referee
should signal “goal kick”.
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 6
An attacker in an offside position (A) is obstructing the
goalkeeper’s line of vision.
OFFSIDE - He should be penalized because he prevents
an opponent from playing or being able to play the ball.
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 7
Attacker (A) is in an offside position
NOT OFFSIDE – Attacker (A) is not obstructing the goalkeeper’s
line of vision or making a gesture or movement which
deceives or distracts him.
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 8
An attacker in an offside position (A) runs towards the ball
but he does not prevent the opponent from playing or being
able to play the ball.
NOT OFFSIDE, CORNER KICK - (A) is not making any
gesture or movement which deceives or distracts (B).
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Offside/Not Offside
Example 9
An attacker in an offside position (A) runs towards the ball
preventing the opponent (B) from playing or being able to
play the ball.
OFFSIDE - Player (A) is making a movement which could
deceive or distract player (B).
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Module 12
Referee & Assistant
Referee Mechanics
Law 5 – The Referee
Law 6 – The Assistant Referee
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Assistant Referees
• Two assistant referees (ARs) are appointed to help
the referee control the match.
• Depending upon the referee’s instructions, ARs are
to:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Indicate ball in and out of play
Indicate which side gets a corner kick, goal kick, or throw-in
Indicate offside infractions
Indicate desired substitution
Indicate when misconduct occurs out of the referee’s view
Assist to control the match
• In general, ARs/linesmen position should be even
with the second-to-last defender, or the ball, or the
halfway line, which ever is closest to the goal being
attacked
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Club Linesmen
• When ARs are available, club linesmen should be
recruited
– Effective referees make the club linesmen part of the
team
• Club linesmen can be trained to help with the
following:
– See if the nets are fastened securely
– Indicate when the ball has crossed the touch line
– Participate in half-time discussion
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Club Linesmen (cont’d)
• Trained club linesmen can take on further “AR”
duties at the discretion of the referee. Some of
these duties may include:
– Indicate restart ball-out-of-play over goal line
– Indicate improper throw-ins
– Indicate offside offense
• Many club linesmen need to be instructed to only run
from the halfway line to the goal line, not the entire
side.
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Referee Communication &
The Diagonal System of Control
AR
• At any given
moment, two
officials should be
in position to view
play from different
angles.
• Eye contact
between CR & AR
is important
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CR
AR
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Referee Signals
Goal Kick
Corner Kick
Goal Scored
Direct
Free Kick
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Indirect
Free Kick
Throw-in
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130
Referee Decisions and
Authority
• The referee of a match has full authority to enforce
the Laws of the Game
– May temporarily suspend or terminate match due to …
• Player infringement of the Laws
• Outside interference of any kind
– Law 5 lists specific powers and duties
• Referee decisions are final
– Referee may change a decision provided play has not
resumed
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Assistant Referee Signals:
Throw-in
Touch line
Goal
line
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Throw-In for
attackers
Throw-In for
defenders
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AR Signals: Corner Kick
Pointing toward corner
Signal used for both
near and far corners
Touch line
Goal
line
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AR Signals: Goal Kick
Goal line
Pointing
toward Goal
Area
Goal
Area
Touch line
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134
AR Signal: Offside
Flag is
held
steady
Touch line
Goal
line
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Also could mean
ball out of play
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135
AR Signals: Position
of Offside Player
Goal line
Touch line
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Offside on Offside in the
the near side center of the
field
of the field
AYSO Region 104 - Basic Referee Training
Offside on
far side of
the field
136
AR Signals: Substitution
Touch line
Goal
line
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Signal typically only used for
open substitution situations.
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AR Signal: Foul
Flick or wave the
flag and make eye
contact with center
referee
Touch line
Goal
line
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After whistle, point
direction at a 45
degree angle in the
direction of free kick.
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AR Signals: Goal/No Goal
No
Goal
Goal
Scored
Touch line
Goal
line
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Run a short distance toward
the halfway line and make eye
contact with center referee
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139
Module 13
Understanding the AYSO
Game
Law 5 – The Referee
AYSO Rules & Regulations
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Outside Factors
• Interference from:
– Spectators
– Coaches
– Substitutes
• Weather
– Wind and rain can significantly alter events on the field
– If severe enough, match may need to be abandoned
• Referees and Assistant Referees are not consider
outside factors -- they are part of the field
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AYSO Coaching Philosophy
What is Positive Coaching?
P
Positive
IInstructive
E
Encouraging
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Location of Coaches &
Spectators
Coaches’ Area
(Technical Area)
Spectators Area
Halfway Line
Touch Line
• Coaches’ Area
– 20 Yards wide (extending 10 yards on either side of the halfway line)
– 1 yard back from the touch line
• Coaches and substitutes should remain in their area for
duration of match
– Exceptions: Pre-game, Half time, Post-game or when requested by
the referee to enter the field of play
• Spectators should be along their side lines, 3 yards back
from the touch line, and between the “18 Yard lines”
– Definitely not behind the goal line near the field of play
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Problems With Spectators
• Work with the coach(es) first
– Spectator behavior is the responsibility of the coaches
• In practice, most can’t/won’t manage spectators.
They aren’t trained to.
• If problems persist with a particular spectator:
– One option: Take the coach with you and the two of you
deal with that person.
– Alternative: Stop game and see that the individual is
given the “Green Card” if necessary/appropriate
• You can give it to the coach or another spectator to
pass on
– Yellow or Red cards cannot be shown to a spectator
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Referee’s Responsibilities
from the AYSO Rules & Regulations
• Referees shall at all times impose the Rules &
Regulations of competition as defined by AYSO
and the FIFA Laws of the Game in general.
• Referees shall at all times put great emphasis on
the welfare of the players and officiate the game in
a manner inducing clean competition and good
sportsmanship.
• The Goalkeeper shall not be harassed or interfered
with while attempting to put the ball in play.
– It is the duty of referees to protect the
goalkeeper against dangerous play.
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Spirit of the Game – Fair Play
• Referee Credo: Fun, Fair & Safe
• “The Laws of the Game are intended to provide that games
should be played with as little interference as possible, and
in this view it is the duty of the referee to penalize only
deliberate breaches of the Law. Constant whistling for
trifling and doubtful breaches produces bad feelings and
loss of temper on the part of the players and spoils the
pleasure of the spectators.”
TOO FEW
CALLS
FUN, FAIR & SAFE
NOT
FUN
UNSAFE,
UNFAIR
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TOO MANY
CALLS
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The AYSO Team
The AYSO Team: Coaches, Referees,
Spectators & Players
RE
FE
RE
RS
TO
TA
EC
SP
S/
NT
RE
PA
ES
•
PLAYERS
COACHES
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For any team to function
well it has to have rules.
The AYSO Team basic
rules are :
1. Work together
2. Help each other
3. Protect each other
4. Do your best
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Excelling as a Referee
Areas of Referee Proficiency







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Appearance
Pre-Game Administration
Fitness
Attitude
Courage, Character & Consistency
Accuracy of Decisions
Control
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AYSO Referee Program
Age Focus Course & Modules
U-8 Official U-8 & younger U5-U8 Referee Course
Badge Level
(Modules 1-7)
Regional
U-9, U-10
Basic Referee Course
(Modules 1-13)
Intermediate U-11, U-12
Advanced
National
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Intermediate Ref Course
(Modules 14-19)
U-14
Advanced Ref Course
U-16, U-19
National Referee
Course
AYSO Region 104 - Basic Referee Training
(Modules 20-24)
149
Continuing Education
• Web sites
– ASYO 1447: www.ayso1447.org
– AYSO: www.soccer.org and www.aysohelp.org
– USSF: www.ussoccer.com
– FIFA: www.fifa.com
– Other: www.asktheref.com (Ask The Ref)
• Publications
– USSF: “Advice to Referees on the Laws of the Game”,
“Guide to Procedures for Referees, ARs & 4th Officials”
– FIFA: “Questions and Answers to the Laws of the Game”
– AYSO: “Guidance for Referees and Coaches”
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Referee Support
• Informal Mentoring
• Observations & Assessments
– Observations done mainly for
upgrade to Intermediate Referee
– Assessments done mainly for
upgrade to Advanced & National
• Referee Meetings
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AYSO Philosophies
(one more time)
• Everyone Plays
• Balanced Teams
• Open Registration
• Positive Coaching
• Good Sportsmanship
• Player Development
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Course Wrap-up
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On-line Referee Scheduler
(TBA)
• Used for U-9 and older divisions in Region 1447
– U-10 and above we go to neutral referees (not affiliated with home
team) that are primarily self-assigned
• Accessed from the Region 1447 web page
– www.ayso1447.org | Referees menu | Referee Scheduler
– Username / Password: online
• Schedules posted about a week prior to the season start
– Late August and February
• Used for Center Referee and Assistant Referee positions
• May be used to request mentoring or observations
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Reporting of Problems
• Contact management in region
– The Division Commissioner (e.g. U-10 Boys DC, U-9
Girls DC, etc.)
– The Regional Referee Administrator
• Randy Lanier in Region 1447:
[email protected],
– If problem involves a coach or a player, copy the
Regional Coach Administrator (Chief Coach)
• Report Facts of Event:
– Date, Time & Park Location
– Division (e.g. U-10 Girls)
– Individuals Involved: Players (name and number), Coaches,
Spectators (if known)
– Cautions (yellow cards) or Send Off/Dismissals (red cards)
– Description of Event
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If you would like a copy of these slides,
send an e-mail to:
[email protected]
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Test Time!
Reminders
You first will need to pass the test (75% or
higher) and turned your test in to an instructor
before you can get your uniforms
You will NOT be certified as a referee if you do
not turn your test in.
Questions?
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