Thar

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INTERNATIONAL COAL CONFERENCE, KARACHI Oct 22, 2011
THAR COAL MINING
Dr. Markos Leontidis
Sindh Coal Fields
Characteristics of Sindh Coal Field
60
50
48
46
40
Resource(Bt)
34
Moisture %
28.9
30
Ash %
Suphur %
22
20
18.71
18
17
14.12
11.2
10
LCV net %
15
11.4
11
7.9
10.64
7.65
7.74
5.4
7.6
3.2
1.2
1.33
0.61
2.3
1.7
0
THAR
LAKHRA
SONDA
JHIMPIR
BADIN
Thar Geology
•
•
Geology of Thar is very simple with a general strata dip of ~2° (Horizontal)
Ran of Kutch fault is the only nearby bigger fault to the Area
Thar Lignite deposit the largest in the World
Thar Coal Potential
• Thar Coal Field has a huge Coal Potential
• Exploration activities have been carried out in 11 Blocks
• More than 600 Exploratory Drillholes from 1995
Thar Blocks Comparison ( Resource & LCV)
3.5
VIII
Resource (Billion tons)
3
IV
2.5
III
VII
2
1.5
IX
II
VI ?
V
I
1
0.5
0
9.8
10
10.2
Considering Quality Block II,IV & IX are
the best blocks
10.4
10.6
10.8
11
11.2
Heating Value net (ar, MJ/kg)
11.4
11.6
11.8
12
Thar Geology
Overburden :
– Thickness : 130 m to 150 m
– Composition : Sand, Siltstone & Clayey Siltstone
Coal :
– Number of main Coal Seams : 3
– Main Minable Coal Seam : Approx. 70% of Total coal thickness
– Cumulative Coal Seam thickness : 30m - 35m
Slope Stability :
– Safety Factor : 1.3
Hydrogeology :
– Number of Aquifers : 3
– Aquifers are separated by Aquitard of Claystone
– The recharge from De-watering is not unlimited and can be controlled
– Water quality : High TDS (5000 - 10000 ppm)
Thar Coal Quality
Lignite quality for Thar Coal is suitable for Power generation
(Constant Lignite Quality for Thar Block II)
50
Qnet(Mj/kg), Moisture(%),Ash(%),Sullphur(%)
•
45
40
35
30
Qnet
25
Ash(ar)
20
Moisture
15
Sulphur
10
5
2050
2049
2048
2047
2046
2045
2044
2043
2042
2041
2040
2039
2038
2037
2036
2035
2034
2033
2032
2031
2030
2029
2028
2027
2026
2025
2024
2023
2022
2021
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
0
Project years
1
0.8
Sulphur
0.6
Sulphur :S,tot % (as received)
Thar Sulphur Content !
Yearly Total Sulphur content: S. tot (%) ar
Case Study Block II
1.6
1.4
1.2
0.4
0.2
0
2050
2049
2048
2047
2046
2045
2044
2043
2042
2041
2040
2039
2038
2037
2036
2035
2034
2033
2032
2031
2030
2029
2028
2027
2026
2025
2024
2023
2022
2021
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
Project years
Mining Options for Thar Coal Field
1.
Open Pit Coal Mining
2.
Underground Coal Mining
•
Thar Strata (Overburden) is composed soft deposits. No hard material ,no explosives
necessary
•
Open Pit Coal Mining is the best option for Thar Lignite
•
Shovel & Truck as Main Mining Equipments have been proposed.
•
Bucket Wheel Excavators may be an option for future enhanced production
Typical Mine Planning for Thar
•
Key parameters
‐
Total number of Coal Seam
3
‐
Main Minable Coal Seam
Coal Seam 2-7
‐
Mining Technology
Shovel & Truck
‐
Number of benches
15
‐
Bench height
13 m
‐
Bench Width
20 m
‐
Mine Depth
195 m
Typical Mine Plan with Outside Dump Variant
A’
Mine advancement
A
Open pit advancement
Outside Dump
10
Mine Cross-Section
Thar & other Mines in World
‐
Thar can be compared to many operating Open Pit Mines of the World
‐
Stripping Ratio and Heating Value of Thar Block II is feasible for successful Mine
Operation (e.g. Hambach Mine- Germany, producing ~40 Mt/a lignite successfully )
Deposit
Mining Ratio (m³ : t)
Heating Value
(MJ/kg)
Thar
6.61 : 1
11.6 (5000 Btu/lb)
1:1
7.8 (3350 Btu/lb)
Rhenish Area
4.9 : 1
8.9 (3830 Btu/lb)
Hambach
6.3 : 1
10.5 (4510 Btu/lb)
Hungary
9:1
7.1 (3050 Btu/lb)
Kosovo
Thar Open Pit Mine vs. Europe Mines
Stripping Ratio and LCV of Europe and Thar Block II Lignite
3000
0
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000
11000
12000
13000
gracania (Bosnia)
2
Stripping Ratio m3/t
megalopolis (Greece)
kysloki (Turkey)
Belhatov (Poland)
Inden (Germany)
dubrava (Bosnia)
suvodol (Makedonia)
4
trojanovo 2 (Bulgaria)
Ahlada (Greece)
ptolomajs (Greece)
Lausitzer (Germany)
Oltenija (Rumania)
6
zapadni ceski (Czech)
bogutovo selo(Bosnia)
sikule (Bosnia)
Konin (Poland)
Thar block II (Pakistan)
Hambach (Germany)
8
Y = 0.0004x + 0.8978
R2 = 0.1755
visonta (Hungary)
10
Amyndeon (Greece)
Vevi (Greece)
12
LCV KJ/kg
Hambach-Inden-Garzweiler-Ptolemais (Large Scale Mines > 20 Mt/a ), Thar ?
Why Thar ?
Why Thar Coal should be mined
1. Large deposit can provide fuel for power generation 5000 MW at least
2. High and constant lignite quality; one of the best lignite in the world
3. Domestic fuel. Independence from imports
4. Creation of 4000 direct jobs and 15000 indirect jobs only for phase I
(1200 MW power generation at least for 50 years)
5. Competitive cost through other fuels like imported hard coal
6. Fossil fuels will continue their dominance accounting for 65% of all the electricity
generated in the world, with coal dominating at 44%
7. Pakistan could meet the above mentioned world target having Thar as the largest
lignite deposit
Case Study Block II for power generation
Pakistan Power Generation Fuel Mix with Thar
Aquifer Situation
Dune Sand Aquifer
50m
120 m
Sub-Recent
Aquifer
180m
Coal seam floor Aquifer
Selected Equipment Variants - Overburden
S/T Variant ( Variant 1)
Outside Dump
(+180 m AMSL)
Shovel
Mine (-115m AMSL)
IC- Spreader Variant (Variant 2)
Spreader
Inside Dump
Shovel
Mine (-115m AMSL)
AMSL- Above Mean Sea Level
WTS
Selected Equipment Variants- Lignite
Stockyard (+80
AMSL)
Shovel
Mine (-115m AMSL)
Crusher
LIGNITE MINING AND USE IN GREECE
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
GWh
Lignite Industry in Greece (PPC. SA)
60,000
50,000
40,000
30,000
20,000
10,000
0
lignite N.Greece
lignite S.Greece
oil
hydro
gas
Lignite Industry in Greece
•
•
The quality of Greek lignite varies highly both within and across mines
Heating value ranges from 4390 to 9610 MJ/ton
Lignite Industry in Greece
Lignite Production in Public Power Corporation mines 1958 – 2005 (Million tons)
80.00
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
22
20
20
20
20
20
20
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
05
04
03
02
01
00
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
Lignite Industry in Greece
Total masses excavated in Public Power Corporation Mines 1958 – 2005 (Million Cu. meter)
400,00
350,00
300,00
250,00
200,00
150,00
100,00
50,00
0,00
23
THANK YOU
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