on the Rural Access Index

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Rural Access Index
A Headline Indicator



Rural Access Index (RAI) is to
show the proportion of the rural
population which has adequate
access to the transport system
RAI is usually defined in terms of
road transport
Measurement is based on household
survey data where it is available
Rural Access Index
A Headline Indicator
CLICK one of the following buttons to watch a slide show
1. Global rural access and its association
to maternal mortality
2. Progress on rural access and poverty
reduction at the provincial level in
Vietnam
3. Variations in rural access by region, by
the eligibility status of Bank loans of a
country, and by sub-national region
Approximately 1011 million, or 31 percent of
the world rural population, do not have
adequate access to transport
-180°
-160°
-140°
-120°
-100°
-80°
-60°
-40°
-20°
0°
20°
40°
60°
80°
100°
120°
140°
160°
180°
80°
80°
Arctic Circle
60°
60°
40°
40°
Atlantic Ocean
Tropic of Cancer
20°
20°
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Equator
0°
0°
RAI (%)
Indian Ocean
0 - 32
-20°
-20°
33 - 49
Tropic of Capricorn
50 - 70
71 - 86
-40°
-40°
87 - 100
Not available
-60°
-60°
Antarctic Circle
Rural Access Index
So urce: Rural A ccess Index glo bal tables, 2007
-80°
-80°
-180°
-160°
-140°
-120°
-100°
-80°
-60°
-40°
-20°
0°
20°
40°
60°
80°
100°
120°
140°
160°
180°
There are significant associations between
rural access and other important factors
such as maternal mortality
-180°
-160°
-140°
-120°
-100°
-80°
-60°
-40°
-20°
0°
20°
40°
60°
80°
100°
120°
140°
160°
180°
80°
80°
Arctic Circle
60°
60°
40°
40°
Atlantic Ocean
Tropic of Cancer
20°
20°
Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
Equator
0°
0°
RAI (%)
Indian Ocean
0 - 32
Maternal Mortality Ratio
(per 100,000 births), 2000
-20°
33 - 49
Tropic of Capricorn
50 - 70
-20°
2000
71 - 86
1000
-40°
87 - 100
Not available
-40°
500
-60°
-60°
Antarctic Circle
Maternal Mortality and Rural Access
So urce: Wo rld Develo pment Repo rt 2006 and Rural A ccess Index glo bal tables, 2007
-80°
-180°
-160°
-140°
-120°
-100°
-80°
-60°
-40°
-20°
0°
20°
40°
60°
80°
100°
-80°
120°
140°
160°
180°
Countries with high maternal mortality rates
tend to have low RAIs… -- 10 Highest MMR
#
Country
Region
MMR
RAI
1
Sierra Leone
AFR
2000
65
2
Malawi
AFR
1800
38
3
Angola
AFR
1700
42
4
Niger
AFR
1600
37
5
Tanzania
AFR
1500
38
6
Rwanda
AFR
1400
52
7
Mali
AFR
1200
14
8
Chad
AFR
1100
5
8
Guinea-Bissau
AFR
1100
52
8
Somalia
AFR
1100
40
And countries with low maternal mortality rates
tend to have high RAIs -- 10 Lowest MMR
#
Country
Region
MMR
RAI
1
Iceland
ECA
0
81
1
Malta
MENA
0
100
3
Sweden
ECA
2
86
4
Austria
ECA
4
95
4
Spain
ECA
4
95
6
Kuwait
MENA
5
82
6
Denmark
ECA
5
99
6
Ireland
ECA
5
93
6
Italy
ECA
5
98
6
Portugal
ECA
5
88
Rural access improved significantly in Vietnam
from an average of 76% to 84 % at the
provincial level, 2002 - 2004
46
55
82
58
45
75
81
50
71
75
71
68
77
42
68
82
71
66
86
80
80
93
96
88
66
84
92
93
61
89
89
93
100 100
94
80
83
97
79
95
95
90
96
93
88
100
100
91
91
91
87
87
68
87
67
92
84
92
67
2002
73
2004
100
74
75
88
85
91
75
75
82
93
80
87
78
78
65
72
80
RAI (%)
0 - 60
86
96
61 - 70
58
58
66
58
100
98
93
81 - 90
71
81
83
86
68
82
84
91 - 100
51
Not available
45
89
58
50
28
Sources: VHLSS, 2002, 2004
87
69
68
54
30
91
91
100
71 - 80
95
56
91 - 100
0 - 60
61 - 70
83
85
77
25
80
81 - 90
Not available
96
100
98
71 - 80
89
RAI (%)
100
100
Incidence of poverty also dropped
significantly from an average of 41% to
24% at the provincial level, 1999 - 2004
67
75
70
57
80
39
46
35
16
39
27
38
35
22
45
38
63
29
29
6
5
35
32
46
56
12
12
32
20
25
16
23
17
66
34
38
22
33
42
26
33
37
59
50
74
39
42
43
36
59
54
69
77
62
57
73
60
69
60
60
6
4
10
15
54
27
37
29
16
48
7
7
14
17
36
43
30
46
45
50
37
37
47
31
51
42
33
47
1999
30
2002
16
41
45
15
2004
4
36
36
51
42
28
38
46
41
21
53
31
11
41 - 60
39
40
40
33
61 - 100
Not available
10
27
34
40
32
45
10
41 - 60
23
Not available
8
17
22
34
23
9
38
2
6
41 - 60
Sources: VHLSS, 1998, 2002, 2003; Population Census, 1999
14
14
16
19
24
21
32
6
10
22
26
16
10
0
11
11
15
61 - 100
Not available
32
14
21 - 40
22
16
25
61 - 100
36
34
31
15
16
2
16
11
Poverty Rate (%)
0 - 20
9
21 - 40
43
43
45
18
0 - 20
8
5
29
35
10
Poverty Rate (%)
13
21 - 40
20
55
33
0 - 20
15
64
43
17
27
45
53
Poverty Rate (%)
3
31
Provinces that improved in rural access
tend to have also reduced poverty significantly
46
55
82
75
81
50
71
75
71
68
77
86
80
80
42
68
82
71
66
58
45
93
96
88
93
66
84
92
93
61
89
89
100 100
88
94
80
83
95
95
90
96
93
91
91
97
79
100
100
91
87
87
68
Rural
access ->
87
67
No data
available
92
84
92
67
73
100
88
74
85
75
91
75
75
82
93
80
87
78
78
65
72
80
RAI (%)
0 - 60
86
96
61 - 70
98
86
84
91 - 100
67
75
70
58
28
38
35
22
46
35
16
38
29
29
6
5
32
46
12
12
32
20
25
56
16
23
17
66
34
35
38
22
33
42
63
26
33
37
59
50
27
74
39
42
43
45
39
36
59
54
69
39
77
62
57
73
60
69
60
60
57
69
50
54
30
80
87
89
68
Not available
100
71
81
83
68
82
51
45
100
93
81 - 90
56
58
66
58
Not available
100
71 - 80
95
25
80
58
91 - 100
91
91
100
61 - 70
83
85
77
81 - 90
0 - 60
96
100
98
71 - 80
89
RAI (%)
6
4
10
15
54
16
48
7
7
27
37
29
14
17
36
43
30
46
45
50
37
37
47
31
51
42
33
47
Poverty->
30
16
1999
15
4
41
45
51
38
53
2002
3
36
36
45
28
21
53
17
11
41 - 60
39
40
Not available
10
27
40
33
61 - 100
34
40
32
45
Poverty Rate (%)
31
8
17
23
22
34
23
38
16
Poverty Rate (%)
9
2
6
41 - 60
14
19
24
21
32
6
10
14
16
22
26
16
10
0
11
11
15
61 - 100
Not available
32
14
21 - 40
22
16
25
61 - 100
Not available
2
16
31
15
41 - 60
11
0 - 20
9
10
43
43
45
18
21 - 40
36
34
35
10
0 - 20
8
5
29
20
55
13
21 - 40
15
46
41
33
0 - 20
27
42
64
43
Poverty Rate (%)
2004
31
There are large variations in rural access, not
only by country but also by region…
Aggregate Average by Region (no. of countries)
100
90
90
82
86
80
69
70
57
%
60
59
South Asia (7)
Middle East & North Africa (20)
59
Latin America & Caribbean (34)
Europe & Central Asia (45)
50
40
Sub-Saharan Africa (44)
North America (2)
East Asia & the Pacific (26)
34
30
Global Total (178)
20
10
0
RAI
And also by the eligibility status of
Bank loans of a country…
Aggregate Average by Bank Loan Eligibility
(no. of countries)
100
90
90
85
IDA-only countries (63)
80
70
60
%
69
65
54
Blend countries (15)
50
40
IDA-eligible (IDA-only + Blend)
countries (78)
IBRD (non-IDA) countries (58)
40
Countries not eligible for Bank
loans (42)
Global Total (178)
30
20
10
0
RAI
But variations are often more pronounced by
sub-national region…
Ghana 2003 CWIQ II (HH)
Region
N
Nothern, Upper East, and Upper West
7736
Rest
22840
Total
30576
Mean
32%
70%
61%
Ethiopia 2004 WMSQ (HH)
Region
N
Tigray
1938
Afar
669
Amahara
4724
Oromiya
6390
Somale
999
Benishangul Gumu
985
S.N.N.P.R.G
7432
Harari
286
Addis Ababa
270
Dire Dawa
280
Total
23973
Mean
38%
47%
25%
29%
38%
36%
43%
73%
39%
50%
32%
Guatemala 2000 LSMS (HH)
Region
N
Metropolitana
Norte
Nororiente
Suroriente
Central
Suroccidente
Noroccidente
Peten
Total
118
347
208
460
804
614
762
316
3629
Mean
72%
37%
40%
57%
72%
61%
47%
59%
55%
0
-10
-20
77
58
66
68
65
20
86
98
25
83
96
56
82
85
95
51
91 - 100
30
54
45
Not available
93
100 100
83
89
79
80
96
93
97
68
67
100
81 - 90
68
83
81
89
68
94
95
92
90
84
67
100
74
75
RAI (%)
82
78
0 - 60
80
61 - 70
71 - 80
100
91
98
84
71
*** Hung Yen
96
61
Lao Cai
50
** Danang city
58
93
Yen Bai
80
Long An
77
** Thai Binh
80
82
Ninh Thuan
58
71
*** HaiPhong City
71
Ca Mau
46
Bac Lieu
80
Kon Tum
66
Nam Dinh
75
Nghe An
58
Dong Nai
30
Phu Yen
40
Binh Duong
84
Ha Tay
88
89
Lang Son
50
93
Lam Dong
88
Tay Ninh
66
An Giang
96
Hanoi City
10
80
Ben Tre
75
Binh Phuoc
55
Lai Chau
82
Ba Ria Vung Tau
42
Hai Duong
45
Bac Ninh
60
Tt Hue
Ha Nam
Quang Ninh
Gia Lai
Dak Lak
Ho Chi Minh City
Quang Tri
Khanh Hoa
Bac Can
Thai Nguyen
* Ninh Binh
Quang Nam
* Binh Dinh
Kien Giang
* Vinh Phuc
Bac Giang
** Thanh Hoa
** Phu Tho
Soc Trang
** Quang Ngai
** Binh Thuan
** Hoa Binh
** Tra vinh
** Son La
*** Ha Tinh
** Cao Bang
** Can Tho
* Tuyen Quang
*** Quang Binh
*** Vinh Long
*** Ha Giang
*** Tien Giang
*** Dong Thap
Percentage points
Moreover, changes in rural access
may also vary significantly
across sub-national regions
Changes in Rural Access in Vietnam, 2002-2004
81
75
68
100
86
71
91
95
100
91
91
87
87
87
92
92
73
85
88
75
91
87
93
72
89
78
100
100
91
86
87
93
69
100
28
50
58
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