QueenRearingMakingSplits - Colonial Beekeepers Association

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Making Nucs & Splits and
Queen Rearing
for the
Hobby Beekeeper
Why rear your own queens?
• Self Sustainability
– Make up for Winter Losses
– Increase in hive numbers
• Genetic Diversity – within apiary and
general area
• Club Cohesion –
• Increased Funding (aka – Making Money)
Why rear your own queens?
Cost. A typical queen costs about $20 plus shipping.
Time & Availability. In an emergency you order a queen and it takes several
days to make arrangements and get the queen. A queen may not be
available. Often you need a queen yesterday. If you have some in mating
nucs, on hand, then you already have a queen and availability is not a
problem.
AHB. Southern raised queens are more and more from Africanized Honey
Bee areas. In order to keep AHB out of our area we should stop importing
queens from those areas.
Acclimatized bees. It's unreasonable to expect bees bred in the deep South
to winter well here. Local feral stock is acclimatized to our local climate. Even
breeding from commercial stock, you can breed from the ones that winter
well here.
Why rear your own queens?
Mite and disease resistance. Tracheal mite resistance is an easy trait to
breed for. Just don't treat and you'll get resistant bees. Hygienic behavior,
which is helpful to avoid AFB (American Foulbrood) and other brood
diseases as well as Varroa mite problems, is also easy to breed for by
testing for hygienic behavior in our breeder queens. The genetics of our
queens is far too important to be left to people who don't have a stake in
their success. People selling queens and bees actually make more money
selling replacement queens and bees when the bees fail.
Quality. The quality of your queens can often surpass that of a queen
breeder. You have the time to spend to do things that a commercial breeder
cannot afford to do. For instance, research has shown that a queen that is
allowed to lay up until it's 21 days will be a better queen with better
developed ovarioles than one that is banked sooner. A longer wait will help
even more, but that first 21 days is much more critical. A commercial queen
producer typically looks for eggs at two weeks and if there are any it is
banked and eventually shipped. You can let yours develop better by
spending more time.
Books and References
• Queen Rearing and Bee Breeding (1997) by Harry LaidlawJr. and
Robert Page Jr., Wicwas Press, Cheshire, Connecticut.
• Successful Queen Rearing by Dr. Marla Spivak and Gary Reuter
• Contemporary Queen Rearing (1979) by Harry Laidlaw Jr., Dadant
and Sons, Hamilton, Illinois.
• Breeding Queens (1997) by Gilles Fert, O.P.I.D.A., Argentan,
France.
• Rearing Queen Honey Bees by Roger Morse
• Fifty Years Among the Bees - by C.C. Miller
• BushBees – Michael Bush http://www.bushfarms.com/bees.htm
Beekeeping Math
Caste
Hatch
Cap
Emerge
Queen
3½ days
8 days +-1
16 days +-1
Laying 28 days +-5
Worker
3½ days
9 days +-1
20 days +-1
Foraging 42 days +-7
Drone
3½ days
10 days +-1
24 days +-1 Flying to DCA 38 days +-5
What to look for or judging a colony
Queen Mother Hive
• Calm – Gentle bees
• Good Honey Production
• Resistance to pests and Diseases
• Good laying pattern
• Hygienic behavior
What you need
• Regular Equipment
• No Special Equipment Required
• You could use…
• Follower Boards
• Nuc Boxes
Queen rearing supplies
• Mann Lake Ltd.- Plastic cell cups, cages, grafting tools,
kits, nuc boxes.
• Dadant & Sons Inc. - Books, supplies
• A. I. Root Co.- Books, videos
• Brushy Mountain Bee Farm - Jenter system, supplies.
• Betterbee Inc. (800) 632-3379 - Supplies and kits
• Walter T. Kelley Co. (502) 242-2012,- Wood cages, wax
cups, grafting tools
What the bees Want!
• Lots of bees
– Large Population compared to the size of the hive/nuc box.
Put in extra workers from other frames.
• Young Bees – Make up starter with at least two frames of capped brood
with all the workers.
• New comb – Use of new comb for queen cells makes it easier for the
workers to construct cells.
• Fresh Eggs/Larva – Give the workers what they need gives the
beekeeper a better end resulting Queen.
Queen Rearing Calendar:
0 - Place queen cell frame in brood chamber of Queen mother hive.
3 - Setup cell starter, make them queenless and make sure there is a VERY high density of
bees. Make sure they have plenty of pollen and nectar. Feed the starter for better
acceptance.
3 ½ - Eggs hatch
4 - Transfer the frame to the starter hive. Feed the starter for better acceptance.
8 - Queen cells capped
13 - Setup mating nucs Make up mating nucs, or hives to be requeened so they will be
queenless and wanting a queen cell. Feed the mating nucs for better acceptance.
14 - Transfer queen cells to mating nucs. On day 14 the cells are at their toughest and in
hot weather they may emerge on day 15 so we need them in the mating nucs or the hives
to be requeened if you prefer, so the first queen out doesn't kill the rest.
15-17 Queens emerge (In hot weather, 15 is more likely. In cold weather, 17 is more likely.
Typically, 16 is most likely.)
17-21 Queens harden
21-24 Orientation flights
21-28 Mating flights
25-35 Queen starts laying
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
P
B
B
P
H
H
H
Queen Mother Hive
H
H
H
B
P
H
H
S
P
P
F
B
Q
B
B
H
Ten Frame Boxes
All Mediums Brood Chamber
H
H
H
P
B
B
B
B
H
H
P
P
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
P
P
B
B
P
P
B
H
H
Queen Mother Hive
B
Ten Frame Boxes
H
H
H
P
P
B
B
H
H
S
P
P
F
B
Q
B
B
H
Deep Brood Chamber
Queen Starter Set up
Honey
Capped Brood
Frame with Foundation
Capped Brood
Honey
Queen Starter Set up
Honey
Capped Brood
Queen Cell Starter Frame
Capped Brood
Honey
Queen Starter Set up ten Frame
Honey
Honey & Pollen
Capped Brood
Capped Brood
Capped Brood
Frame with Foundation
Capped Brood
Capped Brood
Honey & Pollen
Honey
Queen Starter Set up ten Frame
Honey
Honey & Pollen
Capped Brood
Capped Brood
Capped Brood
Queen Cell Starter Frame
Capped Brood
Capped Brood
Honey & Pollen
Honey
Queen Starter Set up ten Frame box with follower board
Honey & Pollen
Capped Brood
Frame with Foundation
Capped Brood
Honey & Pollen
Queen Starter Set up ten Frame box with follower board
Honey & Pollen
Capped Brood
Queen Cell Starter Frame
Capped Brood
Honey & Pollen
Queen Starter Set up ten Frame box with follower boards
Honey & Pollen
Capped Brood
Brood, capped brood and queen cells
Capped Brood
Honey & Pollen
Any Questions
???
See you Tomorrow!
Nucs and Splits
• Taking frames off of a strong hive
• Splitting a hive up into multiple Nucs
• Set up Nuc yard away from mother hive
apiary.
• Before you Start Remember….
• You will need….
• Queens
Take a Split off a Hive
• Take 5 frames off of a strong hive
• 2 frames of Honey with Pollen
• 3 frames of Brood
• Queen from Queen cell or Starter nuc.
Split a hive into nucs
• Take 3 - 4 nucs off of a hive
• 2 frames of Honey with Pollen
• 3 frames of Brood
• Queen from Queen cell or Starter nuc.
• Feed nucs depending on need and Season
• Build nucs for winter storage or selling
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
P
B
B
P
B
B
B
B
P
H
H
H
H
H
H
P
P
All Mediums Brood Chamber
B
H
H
H
P
B
B
B
B
H
H
P
P
Ten Frame Boxes
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
P
P
B
B
P
P
B
H
H
B
Ten Frame Boxes
Deep Brood Chamber
H
H
H
P
P
P
B
B
H
H
P
B
B
B
B
H
Nuc set up
Honey
Capped Brood
Brood, capped brood and queen cells
Capped Brood
Honey
Nuc/Split Set up ten Frame box with follower board
Honey & Pollen
Capped Brood
Brood, capped brood and queen cells
Capped Brood
Honey & Pollen
Nuc/Split Set up ten Frame box with follower boards
Honey & Pollen
Capped Brood
Brood, capped brood and queen cells
Capped Brood
Honey & Pollen
Any Questions
???
Growing a Nuc
Week One
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD -1
BROOD -2
BROOD 3
HONEY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
EMPTY - Building - 1
BROOD - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
EMPTY
Week Two
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - 2
EMPTY - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
Week Three
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - 2
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 1
EMPTY - Building - 3
BROOD - 2
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
Week Four
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - 2
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
EMPTY - Building - 4
BROOD - Building - 1
EMPTY - Building - 4
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
Week Five
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
EMPTY - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
EMPTY - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
Week Six
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
EMPTY - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
EMPTY - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
Week Seven
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 5
EMPTY - Building - 7
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
Week Eight
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 7
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
EMPTY - Building - 8
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 7
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
Week Nine
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 8
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 7
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 8
BROOD - Building - 7
EMPTY - Building - 9
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - Building - 1
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 2
BROOD - 3
HONEY
Week Ten
FINISH
START
1
2
3
4
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - 3
BROOD - Building
-2
BROOD - Building
-3
BROOD - Building
-6
BROOD - Building
-1
BROOD - Building
-5
BROOD - Building
-3
HONEY
EMPTY
10
BROOD - 3
BROOD - Building
-2
BROOD - Building
-3
BROOD - Building
-6
BROOD - Building
-1
BROOD - Building
-5
BROOD - Building
-3
EMPTY
9
BROOD - 2
BROOD - Building 5
BROOD - Building 9
BROOD - Building 7
BROOD - Building 8
BROOD - Building 6
BROOD - Building 3
EMPTY
8
EMPTY
EMPTY
7
BROOD - 1
EMPTY
BROOD - Building
-9
BROOD - Building
-3
6
EMPTY
BROOD - 2
BROOD - Building 5
BROOD - Building 7
EMPTY - Building 10
BROOD - Building 8
EMPTY - Building 10
BROOD - Building 6
BROOD - Building 3
5
EMPTY
10
4
HONEY
9
3
EMPTY
8
2
EMPTY
7
1
6
5
Week Eleven
7
8
9
10
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building 9
EMPTY - Building 11
BROOD - Building 3
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 8
BROOD - Building 10
BROOD - Building - 7
BROOD - Building 10
EMPTY - Building 11
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD / HONEY- 2
BROOD - 3
BROOD - Building 2
BROOD - Building 3
BROOD - Building 6
BROOD - Building 1
BROOD - Building 5
BROOD - Building 3
HONEY
6
5
9
10
1
2
3
EMPTY
BROOD - Building 9
BROOD - Building 3
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 5
BROOD - 2
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - 3
BROOD - Building 2
BROOD - Building 3
BROOD - Building 6
BROOD - Building 1
BROOD - Building 5
BROOD - Building 3
HONEY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
2
3
4
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building - 3
BROOD - Building - 6
BROOD - Building - 8
BROOD - Building 10
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - Building - 7
BROOD - Building 10
8
4
7
6
5
1
FINISH
START
Week Twelve
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD / HONEY- 2
BROOD - Building 5
BROOD - Building 7
BROOD - Building 10
BROOD - Building 11
BROOD - Building 8
BROOD - Building 10
BROOD - Building 6
BROOD - Building 3
HONEY
BROOD - 1
7
6
5
3
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
EMPTY
HONEY
BROOD - 1
BROOD - 3
BROOD - Building
-2
BROOD - Building
-3
BROOD - Building
-6
BROOD - Building
-1
BROOD - Building
-5
BROOD - Building
-3
HONEY
2
4
HONEY
EMPTY
EMPTY
3
EMPTY
EMPTY
2
EMPTY
EMPTY
BROOD - Building 9
EMPTY - Building 12
BROOD - Building 11
BROOD - Building 3
1
BROOD - 3
BROOD - Building
-2
BROOD - Building
-3
BROOD - Building
-6
BROOD - Building
-1
BROOD - Building
-5
BROOD - Building
-3
10
EMPTY
10
9
EMPTY
BROOD - Building 9
BROOD - Building 11
BROOD - Building 3
9
8
BROOD / HONEY- 2
BROOD - Building 5
BROOD - Building 7
BROOD - Building 10
BROOD - Building 11
BROOD - Building 8
BROOD - Building 10
BROOD - Building 6
BROOD - Building 3
8
7
1
6
5
4
FINISH
START
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