BIDHAN CHANDRA , Krishi Vishwavidyalaya

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STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING WHEAT
PRODUCTION IN WEST BENGAL
BANARAS HINDU UNIVERSITY CAMPUS
(November 18-19, 2011)
PROF. GURUPADA SARKAR
Director of Research
BIDHAN CHANDRA KRISHI VISWA VIDYALAYA
NADIA, WEST BENGAL
Hill Zone 3%
UBKV
Terai Zone 14%
Old Alluvial Zone 20%
22057’ L,
880 20’E; 9.75 m msl
New Alluvial Zone 22%
BCKV
Red and Laterite Zone 27%
Coastal and saline Zone
14%
AGROCLIMATIC ZONES OF WEST BENGAL
Wheat scenario of West Bengal
 Wheat area : 3. 17 lakh ha (India 28.5 m ha)
Production : 8.42 lakh tonne (India 85.9 mt)
 Productivity : 2658 kg (India 2900 kg/ha)
 Wheat occupies food grain area of the state: 6.0 %
 Contribution to state’s food grain production: 5.06 %
Contribution to national wheat production: below 1.0%
Wheat Production Scenario
in West Bengal
Year
Wheat
Area
Prodn.
Yield
(Th. ha) (Th. t) (kg/ha)
2000-01
380.0
950.0
2500
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
434.0
405.0
425.7
400.1
366.7
961.5
875.0
985.7
841.7
773.5
2215
2159
2315
2103
2109
2006-07
2007-08
350.6
352.6
799.9
917.3
2282
2602
2008-09
307.0
764.5
2490
2009-10
315.9
837.0
2650
2010-11
316.8
842.0
2658
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Area (`000 ha)
Production. (`000 tonnes)
Yield (kg /ha)
West Bengal is not a major wheat producing state in
India
Its contribution to national wheat production is
negligible, and
to state’s food production is also not very significant
Which requires attention from the planners and
policy makers to increase the area and production of
wheat for food and nutritional security of the state
and the country as well.
The major constraints limiting the yield of wheat are:
Late sowing because of excessive soil moisture after rice
harvest
Shorter wheat growing season because of short span of
winter leading to incidence of high temperature during
flowering and grain maturity
Low mechanization
Imbalanced nutrient use
Poor land leveling
Rain and storm during maturity,
Severe pest s(white ants, rats and birds) and diseases
(especially foliar blight) infestation
Major irrigated areas of the state are occupied by
vegetables, potato, rice and high value crops
WHEAT YIELD UNDER CHANGING CLIMATIC CONTION
50.0
45.0
y = -0.4973x + 37.484
R² = 0.0952
40.0
35.0
30.0
25.0
Temp Avg
20.0
y = -0.4966x + 30.349
R² = 0.0659
15.0
y = 0.1123x + 21.238
R² = 0.2272
10.0
Yield Normal
Yield Late
Linear (Temp
Avg)
5.0
0.0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
The above graph depicts an increasing temperature and simultaneously
decreasing yield trends over the years from 1995 onwards.
Return from different crop during winter season
Crop
Cost of
cultivation
(Rs./ha)
Gross
return
(Rs./ha)
Net return B:C ratio
(Rs./ha)
Wheat
23000
30000
7000
0.30
Boro paddy
27000
45000
18000
0.67
Potato
74000
95800
82000
120000
293000
215000
46000
197200
133000
0.62
2.06
1.63
Brinjal
Tomato
In West Bengal, the major wheat growing districts
are: Murshidabad, Nadia, Malda, Uttar (North)
Dinajpur, Jalpaiguri, Coochbehar and Birbhum.
These districts contribute about 87%
production from 88% wheat area in the
State
The non-traditional wheat growing districts of
the state can be covered under wheat crop are:
Wheat area in Bankura, 24-Parganas (North),
Burdwan, Dakshin (South) Dinajpur and
Midnapur (West) districts of the state can be
increased under wheat crop.
Climatic potential and district average yields
and yield gaps in non-traditional districts of
West Bengal
District
Potential
yield (t/ha)
Farmers’
yield (t/ha)
Yield gap
(%)
Burdwan
5.0
2.6
48
Midnapur
(W)
Dinajpur
(S)
4.9
2.3
53
6.4
2.3
64
Bankura
24 pgs (N)
5.3
2.3
57
4.8
2.3
52
What can be done for introduction of wheat crop
in the non-traditional areas of the state?
1. Increasing awareness among the farmers regarding
cultivation of grain crops in general and wheat in particular
because of less requirement of irrigation water as compared
to boro rice
2. Availability of high yielding wheat varieties to be ensured for
timely, late and rainfed cultivation
3. Adoption of conservation agriculture can be helpful in
addressing the delayed sowing of wheat
4. Implements of conservation agriculture should be made
available
5. Salinity tolerant wheat cultivars should be introduced in the
saline zone
Policy matters
 Introduction of high yielding varieties with replacement of low
potential and pest and disease susceptible varieties.
 Increase of area under wheat with the reduction in
boro(summer) rice area in the state
 Encouragement for timely sowing for proper growth and
increase productivity
 Balanced use of plant nutrients along with the use of micronutrients as per soil test reports. Addition of organic matter to soil
through green manuring and crop residue recycling, balanced
fertilization, integrated nutrient management,
diversification/intensification of rice-wheat system by including
pulse crops are some of the possible remedial measures to improve
soil productivity and hence, total factor productivity.
Contd…..
Organizing large scale on farm trials and
demonstrations on newly released varieties and RCTs to
generate acquaintance and confidence amongst the
farmers.
Organizing farmers training programmes to educate
the farmers regarding newly released varieties and up to
date knowledge of POPs
Production of quality seeds in university and state
farms
Creation of infrastructural facilities for storage of
quality seeds
Developing market facilities for disposal of wheat at a
remunerative price.
SEED PRODUCTION PROGRAMME
 The centre used to multiply (8-10 q) seeds of some
important varieties of the region every year (e.g. PBW 343, HD
2733, K 0307) and hand over the seeds (as TL Seed) to the
Directorate of Farms of the University to supply it to the
wheat growers through KVKs.
 Currently Mega Seed project of the university has taken up
wheat seed production programme
 In West Bengal wheat seed produced 92.74 and 89.20 t in
2007-08 and 2008-09, respectively
Research findings/Technologies
developed
Performance of genotypes under Rainfed condition
Sl.
No.
Entries
HUW 609
Days to Test
maturity weight
(g)
116
42.5
Max.
Yield
(q/ha)
28.3
1.
2.
PBW 612
110
42.0
23.9
3.
K 0616
111
43.0
23.0
4.
C 306
120
38.0
24.3
5.
MACS 6145
112
43.5
22.6
6.
HD 2888
110
44.0
22.0
7.
HD 3070
117
34.0
21.3
PERFORMANCE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER IRRIGATED
TIMELY SOWN CONDITION
WHEAT
ENTRIES
K 9107
DBW 39
HD 2997
HD 2967
HUW 612
TIMELY SOWN WHEAT TIMELY
(19- 25 NOV.)
ENTRIES SOWN
(19- 25 NOV.)
(YIELD q/ha)
(YIELD q/ha)
35.3
K 0307
34.4
36.9
PBW 343 34.2
34.2
DBW 54
36.4
34.0
HD 2733 35.4
34.0
CBW 38
34.2
Range of yield : 34.0 to 36.5 q/ha
PERFORMANCE OF WHEAT GENOTYPES AT LATE AND VERY LATE
SOWING UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITION
WHEAT
ENTRIES
WH 1022
DBW 51
Raj 4101
HI 1563
NW 4035
HD 2985
LATE SOWN
(17-23 DEC)
(Yield q/ha)
31.1
28.8
28.9
28.4
27.6
26.2 (Av. 28.9)
WHEAT
ENTRIES
HD 2985
PBW 579
WH 1046
HI 1563
NW 4035
DBW 51
V. LATE SOWN
(1-7 JAN)
(yield q/ha)
22.9
22.1
20.2
21.7
21.1
19.5 (Av. 21.4) 26%
HW 2045, DBW 14, PBW 343, HUW 234, NW 2036
Management of rice residues in rice-wheat system (2006-2009)
Treatments
Grain yield of Grain yield
wheat (qha-1) of rice (qha-1)
WEY
(qha-1)
T1: DSR (removal)- Wheat
33.9
30.8
60.11
T2: DSR (straw incorporation)-W
32.2
54.41
T3: T2 + 25% N more )- Wheat
27.1
34.7
34.0
63.63
T4: DSR (Burning)- Wheat
32.3
35.1
62.16
T5: DSR (surface retention + 25%
N more) Wheat
33.1
37.1
64.66
T6: DSR (surface retention +
Sesbania)- Wheat
25.3
37.3
56.97
T7: DSR (surface retention)- Wheat
(No fertilizer)
12.6
22.1
31.39
T8: DSR (removal)- Wheat (No
fertilizer)
13.8
20.5
31.20
T9: Transplanted rice (removal)
31.9
3.53
37.7
63.95
3.24
5.53
C.D. at 5%
Grain yield of timely sown wheat genotypes (q ha-1) at
different irrigation schedules
Wheat
genotypes
HD 2997
DBW 46
RSP 561
HD 2733 (c)
PBW 343 (c)
K 0307 (c)
HD 2967 (I)
DBW 39 (I)
Mean
One
27.4
24.6
23.0
23.4
25.6
22.5
22.3
23.6
24.1
Number of irrigations
Rank Three Rank Five
31.2
33.6
1
1
26.4
30.4
3
7
29.2
31.8
6
4
29.6
34.6
5
3
30.4
35.4
2
2
24.4
29.0
7
8
28.4
32.8
8
5
27.8
32.4
4
6
28.4 18% 32.5
Rank
3
7
6
2
1
8
4
5
35%
I1 - at CRI (20-25 DAS) I2 - at CRI, Tillering (40-45 DAS) and Boot leaf stage (75-80DAS) I3 - at
CRI, Tillering, Jointing (60-65 DAS), Boot leaf and Milk stages
Grain yield of wheat genotypes
(q ha-1) under different dates of normal sowing
Wheat
varieties
HD 2733
PBW 343
K0307
DBW 39
Mean
Yield (q/ha)
Mean
D1
(11.11.10)
D2
D3
(18.11.10) (25.11.10)
34.5
35.5
32.8
32.4
33.8
34.5
39.7
34.6
34.4
35.8
34.5
36.8
33.4
33.0
34.4
34.5
37.3
33.6
33.3
The extent of reduction in grain yield was 13.33 and 27.33
kg/ha/day for a delay of 15 and 30 days from 18th November
sown crop
KRL 19, KRL 210, KRL 213 were found to be best salt
tolerant high yielding wheat cultivars at Sundarbans
 Closer spacing (17.5-20.0 cm) was found be better than
previously followed 22.5 cm spacing in respect of grain yield
 It was observed that 128 mm of water can be saved if wheat
crop is irrigated with 2cm at 22 DAS, 4cm at 66 DAS and 4cm at
80 DAS as compared to irrigation at all stages (22, 46, 66 and 80
DAS) at 5 cm depth of water without sacrificing yield
Correlation Coefficient between Leaf Blight Severity (Y) and
Different Weather Parameters
Weather
20062007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11
parameters
07
Temp. Max
0.69
0.70
0.995**
0.99**
0.97*
(X1)
Temp. Min
0.86
0.97*
0.98
0.94
0.98*
(X2)
RH Max (X3) -0.65
-0.68
-0.74
-0.92
-0.61
RH Min (X4)
-0.61
-0.51
-0.92
-0.53
-0.67
Rainfall (X5)
Sunshine
hours (X6)
0.41
-0.68
-
0.35
0.32
0.42
0.69
-0.42
0.23
0.54
* Significant at 5% level;
**Significant at 1% level
Y = -280.86 + 37.54X1 - 2.15X2 - 0.58X3 - 77.95X6 [R2 = 1.000; R2adj. 1.000]
28
Effect of AUDPC OF leafblight Disease on
160.00
Yield (2006-07 to 2010-11)
Yield
AUDPC
140.00
27
100.00
25
80.00
60.00
24
40.00
23
20.00
22
0.00
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
1010-11
Year
Relationship between yield and leaf blight disease severity
(2006-07 to 2010-11)
y = -0.0007x2 + 0.0991x + 23.746
R² = 0.7525
28
27.5
27
26.5
Yield
Yield
26
AUDPC
120.00
26
25.5
25
24.5
24
80.00
90.00
100.00
110.00
120.00
AUDPC
130.00
140.00
150.00
Relationship between maximum Temperature and
Leaf Blight Disease Severity (2006-07 to 2010-11)
40
30
25
Max. Temp. 27-320C and min temp. 18-220C
favourable for the disease development
20
15
y = 20.381x0.1054
R² = 0.6682
10
5
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
PDI %
Relationship between minimum Temperature and Leaf
Blight Disease Severity (2006-07 to 2010-11)
25
20
Temperature oC
Temperature oC
35
15
10
y = 6.6729x0.233
R² = 0.7566
5
0
0
10
20
30
40
50
PDI (%)
60
70
80
90
FRONT LINE DEMONSTRATION CONDUCTED
YEAR
FLD AREA
(ha)
NO. OF
VILLAGES
DISTRICT
NO. OF
DEMONSTRATIONS
2006-07
-
-
-
-
2007-08
16
16
NADIA
93
2008-09
-
-
-
-
2009-10
6
8
NADIA
50
2010-11
10 (32)
8 (32)
NADIA,
BANKURA
67 (210)
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
35.27%
36.23%
28.0
28.2
Yield (q/ha)
20.7
PBW 343
35.26
K 9107
%
UP 262
(Check)
36.23
%
FLDs (2007-08)
30
26.5
10.87%
Yield (q/ha)
25
20
17.6
23.9
14.2914.94%
17.7
15.4
(18.96%)
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
(7.16 %)
Yield (q/ha)
27.73
24.98
23.31
CBW 38
K 0307
15
10
FLDs (2009-10)
5
0
CBW 38
KRL
KRL
UP 262 UP 262
210
213
(Check) (Check,
(Saline) (saline)
Saline)
FLDs (2010-11)
UP 262
(Check)
Future thrust for XII Plan
 Development of short duration-cum-late heat tolerant
wheat varieties to increase the area and production of
wheat
 Development of high yielding wheat varieties under
rainfed/saline condition.
Quality improvement of wheat grain through breeding,
agronomic manipulations and biofortification
Screening of the wheat germplasms against biotic and
abiotic stresses
Future thrust for XII Plan- contd.
Develop integrated nutrient, weed and pest
management practices for maximization of wheat yield
under different agro-climatic situations of the state
Research is needed in improving the nutrient and water
use efficiency of irrigated wheat
Fine tuning of RCTs for sustainability and higher
productivity of rice-wheat and wheat-based cropping
systems under different agro-climatic regions of West
Bengal.
Development of leaf blight forewarning model for
formulation of proper IPM strategy.
Increase in area under wheat should be the main thrust
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