It`s All Bull Seminars

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It’s All Bull Seminars
UW Extension Livestock Focus Team
March 23rd, 2004-----Elk Mound
March 25th, 2004-----Almond
March 26th, 2004-----Platteville
By: Keith Vander Velde, Marquette County Agriculture Agent
It’s All Bull Seminars
What’s In the Toolbox
Overview
– History of Selection Tools
– Performance Data
– Expected Progeny Differences
– Selection Indexes
– Gene Marker Assisted Selection
It’s All Bull
The Herd Impact of Three
Generations
90
80
70
60
Bull A
Bull B
Bull C
New Bull % of Herd
50
40
30
20
10
0
Ist Gen
2nd
Gen
3rd
Gen
It’s All Bull
Lets compare dollars invested
30 cows at $800= $24,000
1 bull at $1,800= $1,800
Each contribute 50% of the genetics
Beef Producers’ Motivation
Hobby
Property tax reduction
Profit
Genetic Merit of Breeds
Breed Average Across-Breed EPD
WW
Van Vleck and Cundiff, 2003
Angus
Beefmaster
Brangus
Charolais
Gelbvieh
Hereford
Limousin
Red Angus
Simmental
Breed Differences
Breed Average Across-Breed EPD
Angus
Charolais
Gelbvieh
Hereford
Limousin
Red Angus
Simmental
WW
Van Vleck and Cundiff, 2003
MILK
Genetic Merit of Breeds
Breeds differ for:
– Maintenance
– Reproduction
– Carcass
Genetic merit must match
production environment.
Some economically relevant traits
go unmeasured.
Evolution of Seedstock Production
Visual
selection
Performance Testing
Expected Progeny Differences
Ultra-Sound Measurements
DNA Marker Assistance
It’s All Bull
From 1950-1968 PerformanceTesting
Calves were weighed at:
Birth
Weaning
Yearling
Calves were compared within herd
A ratio of 100 was herd average
50% of herd above average
50% below average
It’s All Bull
Sire Summaries Began in 1968
– American Simmental Produced first
sire summary using herd performance
data and reference sires
– All breeds followed this example
– Allowed bulls and cows to be
compared to the entire population in
the breed
– Expected Progeny Difference were
born
Heritability Makes It All Possible
Portion of a trait’s variation
attributable to genetics
In general, heritability is:
– High for carcass traits and mature size
– Moderate for growth rate and milk
production
– Low for reproductive traits
Heritability
Highly heritable traits are the
easiest to change with selection
Traits that are low in heritability can
be changed with selection, but
change is slower
Heritability of a trait is reflected in
the range of EPD across a
population
Heritability of Production Traits
about 30 to 35%
Birth , Wean, Year. Wts.
Feed Intake
Feed Conversion
Mature Wt. ~ 50%
Weaning Weight
Genetic Trend
35
Hereford
Angus
Simmental
Charolais
EPD (Pounds)
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
80
85
90
95
Calf Year of Birth
00
Hereford
Angus
Simmental
Charolais
EPD (Pounds)
Maternal Milk
Genetic Trend
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
80
85
90
95
Calf Year of Birth
00
Heritability of Product Traits
about 40%
Fat
REA
Cutabilty
Marbling
Shear ?
Heritability of Reproduction
Traits
about
20%
Conception rate
Calving rate
Calving ease
Carcass Traits can be
changed Rapidly Using
Genetics!!!!!!!!!
Angus genetic trends for
slaughter and ultrasound data
indicate breeders have
changed carcass traits in a
very short time interval
It’s All Bull
 It is Important to Remember
–
–
Highly to moderately heritable traits are
usually best changed by direct selection
Traits with low heritability can be changed
faster by crossbreeding and taking advantage
of heterosis
It’s All Bull-Bulls are Different
You Decide Which One Matches the Job
Do You Have Particular Job in Mind for Your Bull??
It’s All Bull-Job Description Bull
Needs vary with uses:
– Yearling Heifers
– Sell calves at weaning
– Retain Replacements
– Sell as yearlings
– Sell as finished Cattle
– Sell grade and yield
– Sell on the Grid
– Sell beef direct to customer
It’s All Bull
EPD’s==A Look Inside
BW=+1.3
WW=+68
YR=+116
Milk=+27
Typical Genetic Evaluation
 Birth Weight
 Carcass Traits
 Weaning Weight
 Calving Ease
 Milk
 Total Maternal  Mix of others…
 Yearling Weight
Sire Summary of the Future?
Birth direct
Birth maternal
Weaning direct
Weaning maternal
Total maternal
Yearling direct
600 d direct
Calving direct
Calving maternal
Carcass wt
Rib fat
Rump fat
LMA
Marb score
Quality grade
% Retail yield
Lbs (kg) retail yield
Yield grade
Us LMA
US rib fat
Us % IMF
Fat percentage
Condition score
Gestation length
Days to calving
Calving interval
Stayability
Heifer pregnancy rate
Rebreeding rate
Calf weaned/cow exposed
Scrotal circumference
Pelvic area
Frame score
Muscle score
Udder score
Docility
Tick score
Parasite egg count
Mature weight
Maintenance energy
Feed efficiency
Drop weight
Type score
Uterine score
Tooth score
Precocity score
Feedlot feed consumption
Feedlot surv.
Pre-wean surv.
Serving capacity
Serving proportion
Semen volume
Hip height
Leg score
Length productive life
Doing ability
Grand-maternal weaning
Twinning rate
Days to 11mm BF
Days to 75% Choice
Days to carc wt.
Hair whorl score
Average daily gain
Wt. /day of age
Liver weight
Resting heart rate
Pulmonary arteriole pressure
Brisket disease rate
Bravery
Aggression
Sire Summary of the Future?
Birth direct
Birth maternal
Weaning direct
Weaning maternal
Total maternal
Yearling direct
600 d direct
Calving direct
Calving maternal
Carcass wt
Rib fat
Rump fat
LMA
Marb score
Quality grade
% Retail yield
Lbs (kg) retail yield
Yield grade
Us LMA
US rib fat
Us % IMF
Fat percentage
Condition score
Gestation length
Days to calving
Calving interval
Stayability
Heifer pregnancy rate
Rebreeding rate
Calf weaned/cow exposed
Scrotal circumference
Pelvic area
Frame score
Muscle score
Udder score
Docility
Tick score
Parasite egg count
Mature weight
Maintenance energy
Feed efficiency
Drop weight
Type score
Uterine score
Tooth score
Precocity score
Feedlot feed consumption
Feedlot surv.
Pre-wean surv.
Serving capacity
Serving proportion
Semen volume
Hip height
Leg score
Length productive life
Doing ability
Grand-maternal weaning
Twinning rate
Days to 11mm BF
Days to 75% Choice
Days to carc wt.
Hair whorl score
Average daily gain
Wt. /day of age
Liver weight
Resting heart rate
Pulmonary arteriole pressure
Brisket disease rate
Bravery
Aggression
It’s All Bull
New
Carcass
Index
Traits in
Angus
in 2004
It’s All Bull
Feedlot Value ($F)
– Uses Weaning and Yearling Weight EPD’s
along with trait interrelationships
– Uses typical feedlot gain value,days on feed,
feed consumption and cost differences
– Trait range -$43 to +$67
It’s All Bull
Grid Value ($G)
– Combines quality grade and yield grade
– Gives premiums for Prime,CAB and Choice
– Yield grade premiums for YG1and YG2 and
discounts YG4 and YG5
– Range -$20 to +$43
It’s All Bull
Beef Value ($B)
– Represents the expected average
dollar per head difference in progeny
post weaning performance and
carcass value
– Calculated from the Feedlot Value ($F)
and the Grid Value ($G)
– Designed to be a reflection of feedlot
and carcass merit
– Value Range -$36 to +$61
It’s All Bull
Tenderness:
 Warner Bratzler Shear Force(WBSF)
 Calpain-enzyme increases tenderness
 Calpastatin-enzyme inhibits calpain
 TenderGENE- a DNA marker test for
Calpain genes
 Gene Star Tenderness I-DNA test for less
Calpastatin
Typical Genetic Evaluation
 Today EPD’s are:
– Proven
– Accepted
– Well-used
 In the Future will:
– More EPD allow us to better characterize
the genetic potential of animals
– They be designed for more profitable
selection decisions
 What does the future hold
Combining EPD for financially
sound selection decisions
Selection index (Hazel, 1943)
Has been successfully
implemented in other livestock
species
Methods of
Multiple-Trait Selection
 Independent Culling Levels-Sire Search
– Most commonly used
– Set min/max levels for each trait (EPD)
Selection Index– Most effective for overcoming
antagonisms
– Weight traits (EPD) on economic
importance
Selection Index
Selection Index is fairly aggressive
Most producers will be able to
design a simple index using a
spreadsheet such as Microsoft
Excel
Many breed association and
university personnel are working
on an index
Bull test stations have used
indexes for years to determine
which bulls qualify for the sale.
It’ All Bull
 What is the value difference in the
following two bulls:
– Bull A
– Bull B
WW EPD = +16
WW EPD = +32
– Difference = 16 pounds in EPD
 Price is $1.05 per pound
– 16 * 1.05 = $16.80
 Assume we will keep replacements for
a 400 cow herd
Our desire is that
producers use EPDs to
build indexes that are
consistant with their
business goal(s)
Profit = Income – Expense
It’s All Bull
How Do Our Bull Measure Up
– Reviewed the Angus Sold in 2000-2002
at Platteville WBIA Bull Sales
• Fourteen(14 Bulls) had progeny data with
accuracies above .75 for birth and
weaning weight
• Used in Registered herds where AI sires
were available for comparison
• EPD’s from Sale Catalog compared to
Current EPD values(Spring 2004 Angus
Sire Summary
It’s All Bull-----Platteville
Catalog EPD values of 14 bulls
Sale catalog
BW WW YR Milk
3.2 40 74 20
Current Value 3.0 40 74 19
It’s All Bull-----Platteville
No Difference in the group average
As Individuals most changed two
lbs or less in growth traits
More change in Milk EPD up to 14
lbs
– Why—Bulls sires had no daughter
history when used and when proven
the values reflect it
– These bulls have no daughter data in
summary, they are their parent
averages
Top Use Bull in 2002
Animal Name
Bon View New Design 878
Bon View New Design 1407
Rito 6I6 of 4B20 6807
Vermilion Dateline 7078
Tw in Valley Precision E161
Sitz Alliance 6595
S A F 598 Bando 5175
B/R New Design 036
Rockn D Ambush 1531
B C C Bushw acker 41-93
S A F Focus of E R
White Oak Precise 6002
Leachman Right Time
G A R Precision 1680
N Bar Emulation EXT
GDAR SVF Traveler 234D
C A Future Direction 5321
Connealy Freightliner
Alberda Traveler 416
Animal Reg. No.
Birth EPD
13062750 +1.3
12783540 +.1
12530601 -.3
12810693 +5.9
12346200 +2.9
12310707 +3.0
12350821 +5.0
11418151 +2.2
12396365 +2.0
12048084 +3.1
12618076 +.6
13205097 +.9
11750711 +2.5
11520398 +1.7
10776479 +2.0
12309327 +5.2
12493607 +.3
13026916 +2.0
12176446 +4.4
Birth Acc.
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
Wean EPD
+39
+39
+35
+59
+38
+47
+60
+39
+40
+55
+48
+25
+43
+29
+42
+45
+35
+43
+36
Wean Acc.
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
Milk EPD
+35
+30
+24
+11
+26
+34
+31
+31
+16
+27
+24
+19
+20
+23
+21
+23
+13
+21
+22
Milk Acc.
.91
.91
.94
.83
.91
.99
.96
.99
.94
.95
.98
.66
.99
.99
.99
.97
.77
.80
.98
Year EPD
+80
+87
+80
+115
+87
+89
+115
+81
+68
+86
+89
+53
+81
+71
+81
+78
+66
+88
+77
Year Acc.
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.97
.99
.99
.99
.99
.97
.99
.99
Top Use Bull in 2001
Animal Name
B/R New Design 036
S A F Focus of E R
Rito 6I6 of 4B20 6807
Bon View New Design 878
GDAR SVF Traveler 234D
Connealy Dateline
N Bar Emulation EXT
Sitz Alliance 6595
Bon View New Design 1407
Leachman Right Time
Rockn D Ambush 1531
Alberda Traveler 416
Tw in Valley Precision E161
Vermilion Dateline 7078
TC Stockman 365
V D A R Lucys Boy
S A F Fame
G A R Precision 1680
B T Ultravox 297E
J L B Exacto 416
Animal Reg. No.
11418151
12618076
12530601
13062750
12309327
12015519
10776479
12310707
12783540
11750711
12396365
12176446
12346200
12810693
11994601
11567326
11935889
11520398
12396224
12223258
Birth EPD
+2.2
+.6
-.3
+1.3
+5.2
+1.2
+2.0
+3.0
+.1
+2.5
+2.0
+4.4
+2.9
+5.9
+4.4
+1.8
+.9
+1.7
+5.2
+3.6
Birth Acc.
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
Wean EPD
+39
+48
+35
+39
+45
+36
+42
+47
+39
+43
+40
+36
+38
+59
+41
+28
+47
+29
+56
+42
Wean Acc.
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
.99
Milk EPD
+31
+24
+24
+35
+23
+13
+21
+34
+30
+20
+16
+22
+26
+11
+28
+23
+6
+23
+26
+33
Milk Acc.
.99
.98
.94
.91
.97
.99
.99
.99
.91
.99
.94
.98
.91
.83
.99
.99
.99
.99
.89
.94
Daus
2499
795
195
121
458
1900
12398
875
133
3676
190
504
92
43
4034
3065
4022
2421
58
202
Year EPD
+81
+89
+80
+80
+78
+72
+81
+89
+87
+81
+68
+77
+87
+115
+77
+65
+78
+71
+101
+80
It’s All Bull
Summary
– Bulls play large role in herd genetics
– Many tools are now available to
decide
– Producers must decide what traits are
important to them, visual & $$$
– Indexes will play a role in the future as
we have more traits to evaluate and
use to sort bulls
It’s All Bull
Thanks for your attendance
Have a safe trip home
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