gamma irradiator

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Establishment of a Multipurpose Gamma
Irradiation Facility (MGIF) in Sri Lanka
by
Samantha Kulatunge
Head
Radiation Processing Section
Atomic Energy Authority
No. 60/460, Baseline Road
Orugodawatte, Wellampitiya
Content:

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What is radiation and related units?
What is Gamma irradiator?
What are the applications of Gamma radiation and why
do we use radiation?
Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility in Sri Lanka
Selection of land
Throughput (Capacity) of the facility
Potential revenue
Estimated Irradiation Market
Profit & Loss Analysis
What is radiation?
Electromagnetic radiation
Measurements:
QUANTITIES
UNITS
Length
Dose
Activity (Source strength)
Meters or Km
Grays or kGy
Curie or kCi
Dose: The quantity of energy that the irradiated product absorbs.
1GRAY (Gy) = 1J/kg
Activity:
Number of curies. Also improperly called source strength.
1 Curie (Ci) =
Activity of 1g of 226Ra
1g of 226Ra disintegrate 3.7x1010 atoms per second
 1 Ci =
3.7 x 1010 dis/s
GAMMA RADIATION
Emitted when radioisotope cobalt-60 decays
Beta Particle
Gamma Rays
(photons)
Made from cobalt-59
Half life : 5.24 years
Becomes nickel
How Co-60 produces gamma radiation
How it can be used in processing of
products?
g :- Surgical gloves
(gamma rays)
Co-60 radioactive
source
Kills
microorganisms
Sterilized
rubber glove
When a product expose to radiation;
Delivered energy = dose (in Grays = Joules per kilogram)
OVER PROCESSING
L
Maximum dose : threshold of undesirable effect
PROCESSING WINDOW
J
Minimum dose : threshold to achieve effect
UNDER PROCESSING
L
Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation
Facility (MGIF)
Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation Facility
Bunker
Conveyor unloading
Conveyor loading
Source rack in pool
Gamma Irradiator Principle
Bunker
Conveyor
Source rack in pool
Slug & Pencil of cobolt-60 (Buiding
blocks of a radiation source rack)

Cobolt 60 slug

Cobolt 60 source element (an



inner capsule containing slug of
cobolt-60)
Source pencil (contain 2 source
elements)
Source module (contains up to
48source pencils)
Source rack (contains modules in
different configurations, depending
on irradiator design)
GAMMA IRRADIATOR
Pose no environmental problem
Radiation stopped by walls
No radioactivity in the air
Ozone formed by irradiation of
oxygen in air
Air continuously ejected through
chimney
Ozone concentration < 1 ppm in
limit of site
Pool water is safe to drink
Radiation stopped by
water and ground
Sources returned to supplier after
20 years of usage. No longer
radioactive after 180 years
Control panel of the irradiator
Application of MGIF:
Immediate applications Sterilization of surgical gloves & medical products
Decontamination of spices, dried vegetables
Decontamination of medicinal herbs, Ayuvedic
products, health diet supplements
Sterilization of food and pharmaceutical packaging
Decontamination of dried pharmaceutical and cosmetic
ingredients
Mid term application
Quarantine
treatment of wooden objects and coir pith
Pasteurization of frozen or fresh seafood
Long term applications Sprouting inhibition of onions and garlic
Why Radiation Sterilization ?

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No recontamination
Non-toxic
No chemical residues
Reliable & safe
Treated product can be used immediately
Complete product penetration
Gamma irradiation produces no heat( therefore
preserves properties & characteristics)
Precise and reproducible treatment process
Proven use for 30 years
Environmental friendly
Radiation Sterilization of Medical
Products
 Human
Tissue Sterilization:
PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS
EXAMPLES
Medicinal herbs and food supplements
Antibiotics in dried form
Eye ointments and veterinary products
with antibiotics
COSMETIC PRODUCTS
EXAMPLES
Plants, Seaweeds
Talcum powder
Clay and sea mud
Mineral and organic dyes
Shampoo and shower gel
Brushes
Contd..
Food Irradiation
Application:







Delay in ripening
Disinfestation / Insect control
Microbial control
Quarantine treatment
Shelf life extension
Sprout inhibition
Sterilization
Why food Irradiation ?
 No
chemical residues
 Preservation can be done after packaging
 Environmental friendly process
 Proven for more than 30 years
Insect Control
Shelf-life extension
Sprout Inhibition
Food Item
Purpose
Max Dose
(kGy)
Spices
Microbial control
Disinfestation
10
1
Rice
Rice products
Disinfestation
Disinfestation
1
1
Potatoes
Sprouting inhibition
0.15
Garlic
Sprouting inhibition
0.15
Onions
Sprouting inhibition
0.15
Vegetables
Disinfestation
1
Meat
Microbial control
7
Other Applications
Sanitation of rawhide pet toys
Quarantine treatment of wooden pallets, souvenirs and
handicrafts
Sanitation of stuffed toys
Preservation of antiques, artefacts, mummies
Coloration of glass
Etc.
Multipurpose Gamma Irradiation
Facility in Sri Lanka
MGIF in Sri Lanka
 Required
land area
 Total area of the building
 Activity
 Initial activity
 Power requirement
 Water
:02 acres
:3250 M2
:3 million ci
:150 kCi
: 45 kw (200kw)
: comparable to a
large house
Capital cost
Cost Component
Project Management
Land
Consultancy
Civil Construction
Machinery
Taxes
Vehicles
Others
Total
Estimated cost
( Rs. Million)
7.03
15
25.6
320
151.7
65
7.5
18
609.83
Operating Costs (per year)
Item
Amount (1000Rs)
Salaries (Manager, Engineer, secretary, 2
Operators and 6 Helpers)
3,000
Maintenance and repairs
1,000
Utilities and communication
1,000
Miscellaneous supplies and services
1,000
Annual replacement and up-grading of Co60(12.5% of initial load)*
40,000
Total
46,000
*
Can vary depending on the demand for irradiation services
Total Cost for the facility:
purpose
Estimated Cost (1000SLRs)
Capital Cost
610,00
Operating cost (including annual
replacement and upgrading of Co60 which is 12.5 % of initial load)
46,000
Total Cost
656,000
Selection of a location
Criteria for selection of a location:

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Absence of opposition to the project
Relative proximity to main users
Good accessibility to main roads and port
Privileges that can be obtained
Price of land and management fee
Security of the location
Absence of vulnerability to natural hazards such
as floods and landslides
 Soil characteristics
Proposed site for
Irradiator
Area to be
acquired to
provide vehicular
access for non
BOI products
RETAINING WALL
Site Levelling
R E T A IN IN G
W ALL
VEHICULAR
ACCESS FOR BOI
PRODUCTS
ENTRANCE
FOR OFFICE
6.0m. min.
VEHICULAR
ACCESS FOR NON
BOI PRODUCTS
Throughput or Capacity of the
facility
Throughput of the facility

Potential throughput is proportional to the source
activity
 Actual throughput depend on



Proportion of the time that facility is used for
Downtime for maintenance
Lack of products at certain periods
Throughput of a Gamma Irradiator with 150 kCi
will be 100,000 kGy of products


With a density of 0.2 tons/m3
If facility operates for 7880 hrs per annum (or
utilization ratio is 90%)
The quantity of products that can be irradiated with
the initial capacity of 150,000 Ci
Product
Minimum
dose (kGy)
Throughput
per annum
Product
density
Onions - Sprouting
inhibition
0.1
500,000 tons
0.5 ton / m3
Cereal products- Insect
control
0.5
30,000 tons
0.6 ton / m3
Dried fruit- Insect control
0.5
60,000 tons
0.3 ton / m3
Spices-Microbial control
5
6,000 tons
0.3 ton / m3
Latex glovesSterilization
25
4,000 m3
0.2 ton / m3
Potential revenue
Potential revenue for different products
with an activity of 150,000 curies
Potential revenue
for different
products with an
activity of 150,000
Curies
Minimum Throughput
dose
per annum
(kGy)
Product
Tentative
density
unit price
(ton / m3) (1)
Potential
revenue
per annum
(2)
USD
Onions
Sprouting inhibition
0.1
500,000 tons
0.5
10 USD / ton
Cereal products
Insect control
0.5
30,000 tons
0.6
20 USD / ton
Dried fruit
Insect control
0.5
60,000 tons
0.3
20 USD / ton
Spices
Microbial control
5
6,000 tons
0.3
100 USD /
ton
600,000
Latex gloves
Sterilization
25
4,000 m3
0.2
60 USD / m3
240,000
5,000,000
1,200,000
1,200,000
Estimated Irradiation Market
Estimated Irradiation Market
Year
Volume (m3)
Total
Lalan
Prime
Need
(m3 x
kGy)
Glob
Surg
Spice
Source
(kCi)
Gloves
(%
total)
Free
capacity
Total
2010
11,927
7,000
3,333
260
1,333
316,691
443
95%
85%
2011
16,694
11,000
3,500
527
1,667
450,964
631
94%
79%
2012
22,902
16,500
3,675
727
2,000
621,305
870
93%
71%
2013
24,619
17,500
3,859
927
2,333
665,090
993
92%
69%
2014
26,345
18,500
4,052
1,127
2,667
709,213
1,033
91%
68%
+4 %
1,074
67%
2016
1,117
66%
2017
1,162
64%
2018
1,208
63%
2015
2019
61%
2020
60%
Why starting with small Co 60 activity?


It limits the cost of decay during the learning phase.
Time is needed

To test and commission the plant, perform the safety various tests that
need to be done and characterize the dose distribution pattern within a
range of products of different densities used as models

To implement a quality system that is not only on paper but tested in
reality. This is required by organizations that will have to certify the
quality system to ISO 9000, ISO 13485 and EN 552, certificates that
are necessary to sterilize medical products that are exported to Europe,
the US, Japan or Australia.

For the personnel to learn the job

For the customers to learn how to use the facility (packing, logistics,
paper flow, etc.). This amount of cobalt-60 can be transported in a
single F-168 type transportation container, thus minimizing the cost of
source transportation.
C0-60 purchase cost
Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
Installed kilo
curies
150
443
631
870
931
993
1033 1074 1117 1162
Occupied
design
capacity
5%
15%
21%
29%
31%
33%
34%
36%
311
241
314
166
174
159
165
172
Purchased
curies (kCi)
Cost of
decay
(‘000LKR)
Cost of
purchased
cobalt
(‘000LKR)
3928
7
8
9
10
37% 39%
179
186
13,966 20,683 29,635 32,993 36,589 39,574 42,804 46,29750,074
67,872
63,311 85,787 47,040 51,233 48,785 52,766 57,072 61,729 66,766
Export of spices:
Tons
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
Cinnamon
10,444
10,837
11,025
11,391
12,367
Pepper
2,161
8,026
7,859
5,003
8,248
Cloves
1,964
4,044
2,489
3,428
5,517
Nutmeg &
Mace
1,138.1
1,665
1,833
1,368
1,935
Cardamom
3
3
4
4
11
Total
15,710
24,574
23,210
21,194
28,078
Profit & Loss Analysis
Profit & Loss Analysis (b)
Project Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
76,498
104,827
142,877
153,032 162,616
169,121
175,885
182,921
190,238
197,847
(850)
(1,003)
(1,158)
(1,254)
(1,317)
(1,383)
(1,452)
(1,525)
(1,601)
(1,681)
Insurance
(1,000)
(1,030)
(1,061)
(1,093)
(1,126)
(1,159)
(1,194)
(1,230)
(1,267)
(1,305)
Other operating cost (830)
General
Administration cost (1,850)
(4,500)
(4,680)
(4,867)
(5,062)
(5,264)
(5,475)
(5,694)
(5,922)
(6,159)
(6,405)
(3,600)
(2,386)
(2,481)
(2,581)
(2,684)
(2,791)
(2,903)
(3,019)
(3,140)
(3,265)
Total Depreciation
Cobalt- 60
Depreciation
Plant and equipment
Depreciation
(51,601)
(56,456)
(62,616)
(64,200) (65,795)
(66,821)
(67,888)
(68,997)
(70,151) (71,352)
(11,452)
(16,308)
(22,468)
(24,051) (25,647)
(26,672)
(27,739)
(28,849)
(30,003) (31,203)
(40,149)
(40,149)
(40,149)
(40,149) (40,149)
(40,149)
(40,149)
(40,149)
(40,149) (40,149)
Calendar Year
TURNOVER
COST
Staff
(418)
TOTAL COST
Earnings Before
Interest and Tax
(3,098)
Interest
Earnings Before
Tax
-
Taxation @ 15%
Net profit (loss)
(61,551)
(3,098) 14,947
(3,098)
(3,098)
(65,556)
(72,184)
(74,189) (76,186)
39,271
70,694
78,843
(31,750)
(30,186)
(28,388)
(16,802)
9,085
42,306
(16,802)
(1,363)
7,723
(6,346)
35,960
(79,131)
(80,693)
(82,318) (84,008)
91,491
96,754
102,228
107,920
113,840
(26,320) (23,941)
(21,206)
(18,061)
(14,444)
(10,285)
(5,501)
52,523
70,285
78,693
87,784
97,636
108,338
(7,879)
44,645
86,430
(77,630)
62,489
(9,373)
53,115
(10,543)
59,742
(11,804)
66,889
(13,168)
74,616
(14,645) (16,251)
82,990
92,088
Profit & loss analysis (a)
Project Year
Calendar Year
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
TURNOVER
63,632
87,333
119,050
127,642
135,760
141,190
146,838
152,711
158,820
165,172
(850)
(1,003)
(1,158)
(1,254)
(1,317)
(1,383)
(1,452)
(1,525)
(1,601)
(1,681)
(1,000)
(1,030)
(1,061)
(1,093)
(1,126)
(1,159)
(1,194)
(1,230)
(1,267)
(1,305)
Other operating cost
(830) (4,500)
General Administration
cost
(1,850) (3,600)
(4,680)
(4,867)
(5,062)
(5,264)
(5,475)
(5,694)
(5,922)
(6,159)
(6,405)
(2,386)
(2,481)
(2,581)
(2,684)
(2,791)
(2,903)
(3,019)
(3,140)
(3,265)
Total Depreciation
(32,790)
(36,999)
(42,337)
(43,709)
(45,092)
(45,981)
(46,906)
(47,868)
(48,868)
(49,908)
Cobalt- 60 Depreciation
Plant and Equipment
Depreciation
(9,925)
(14,133)
(19,472)
(20,844)
(22,227)
(23,116)
(24,041)
(25,002)
(26,002)
(27,043)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
(22,865)
COST
Staff
(418)
Insurance
TOTAL COST
Earnings Before
Interest and Tax
Interest
Earnings Before Tax
Taxation @ 15%
(3,098) (42,740)
(3,098) 20,892
-
(19,060)
(3,098) 1,832
-
(275)
(46,098)
(51,905)
(53,699)
(55,483)
(56,790)
(58,149)
(59,563)
(61,034) (62,564)
41,235
67,145
73,943
80,276
84,400
88,689
93,148
97,786
102,608
(18,121)
(17,042)
(15,800)
(14,373)
(12,731)
(10,843)
(8,671)
(6,174)
(3,302)
23,114
50,103
58,142
65,904
71,670
77,846
84,477
91,612
99,306
(3,467)
(7,516)
(8,721)
(9,886)
(10,750)
(11,677)
(12,672)
(13,742) (14,896)
Thank you
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