Flock 1

advertisement
Poultry Welfare
Scenario
Flock 1: Fertile-egg flock
•Eggs contain viable
embryos which are
provided to research
facilities
•Flock consists of
200 hens; 15-20 roosters
•Hy-Line Brown variety
Flock 1: Fertile-egg flock
• Flock is raised on floor
with wood shavings
– changed 2x/year
• Access to wooden
perches and 16 metal
nest boxes; both are
readily used by hens
Flock 2: Exhibition Flock
• 15 different breeds
represented (some
common, some exotic)
• Housed in pens with
litter
– changed every 3 mo.
• 4 hens + 2 roosters per
pen; pens organized
by breed
Personnel
Flock 1
• Manager has a bachelors
degree in Poultry Science
and a masters degree in
Animal Science
Flock 2
• Manager has a bachelors
degree in Animal Science
and 10 years of exhibition
experience
• This farm has 3 full-time
employees and 3 part-time
students that take care of the
birds
• This farm has 1 full-time
and 2 part-time student
employees
Flock 1: Food & Water
• Fed 1x/day; complete multigrain pellet
feed provided ad libitum
– 3 feeders in facility
• Water is supplied via water line system
– Water line contains 10 nipples
Flock 2: Food & Water
• Fed 1x/day
– A commercial layer breeder
diet pellet feed provided ad
libitum; attention paid to
providing vitamins and
calcium
– 1 feeder/pen
• 1 bell drinker/pen
– cleaned 2x/week
Chick handling and rearing
Flock 1
• Most eggs go to fertile-egg
research projects
Flock 2
• Eggs are sold to buyers to
be raised as exhibition birds
• The flock is replaced every
3 years from the internal
flock
• Enough are kept to replace
flock 1x/year
Neonatal Interventions
Flock 1
• Beaks are trimmed with an
electric debeaker with guide
plate within 5 days of
hatching
– No analgesic agents are used
• Toes are not trimmed at this
facility
• Combs are not dubbed
Flock 2
• Beaks are not trimmed
• No toe trimming
• No comb dubbing
Housing
Flock 1
• Facility is well-ventilated
using large fans
• Facility measures 30’ x 38’
(9 x 11.6m) and is cleaned
in the spring and fall of each
year
Flock 2
• Pens are well ventilated
• Litter is cleaned from pens
every 3 months
• Pens measure 4’ x 10’ (1.2 x
3 m) each
Flock 1 - Time Budget
(Ave. for 10 Bird sample)
12%
18%
4%
18%
4%
4%
3%
37%
Other
Resting
Dustbathing
Eating
Drinking
Social Interaction
Nestbox
Foraging
Flock 2 - Time Budget
(Ave. for 10 Bird sample)
10%
13%
10%
10%
10%
4%
33%
5%
5%
Other
Mating Behavior
Other Social Int.
Foraging
Eating
Drinking
Sleep
Dustbathing
Resting in Litter
Flock 1:
Human animal interaction
• Birds encounter caretakers during routine
feeding, inspection and cleaning
– Average flight zone upon slow, upright
approach is approximately 6 ft (1.8m)
• When necessary to handle them, birds are
carried by both legs; one bird/hand
• Duration of tonic immobility is
approximately 2 min for males and females
Flock 2:
Human animal interaction
• Birds are inspected daily and encounter caretakers
during all routine procedures
• With slow, upright approach, birds have an
approximately 3 ft (0.9 m) flight zone
• Birds are carried upright, one at a time
• Tonic immobility tests result in a duration of
approximately 30 sec. for males and females
Flock 1: Health
• Sick birds are euthanized and
incinerated to prevent disease
transmission (3-4/month)
• Birds are kept for 36 months
before being humanely
processed for meat byproducts
Leg Injuries
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
• Flock is not vaccinated
• There is 0% incidence of breast
blisters
Males
Females
Flock 2: Health
• 0-2 birds become sick and are euthanized each month
• Flock is slaughtered and replaced each year
– Surplus birds are sold to appropriate facilities or
euthanized
• No vaccinations are given
Leg Injuries
• There is a 3% incidence of breast
4
3.5
blisters in meat breed varieties
3
Percentage
of Birds
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Males
Females
Flock 1: Behavioral Responses
• Fighting is rare among familiar birds in pens
together, but occurs when a new bird is placed in
the pen
• No cannibalism
• A 1% frequency of feather-pecking is observed
– Animals are not removed from the group in the rare
events of feather pecking
Flock 2: Behavioral Responses
• There is approximately one rooster-rooster fight
each day (duration 60 sec)
• Cannibalism is rarely, if ever, observed
• 10% of birds show signs of feather pecking
– Animals are removed in the event of feather pecking
Egg Collection
Flock 1
• Egg collection occurs
2-3x/day
• Eggs are collected by hand
• Floor egg incidence:
approximately 9%
Flock 2
• Egg collection is done by
hand 2x/day
Molting
Flock 1
• Molting is induced yearly
– Accomplished by altering
dietary levels of calcium and
zinc, as well as a reduction in
photoperiod
• If these methods are
insufficient, feed is restricted
• Water is not restricted
Flock 2
• This flock is replaced yearly
before they have the chance
to molt
Download
Related flashcards

Anti-tank missiles

39 cards

Air-to-air missiles

48 cards

Create Flashcards