Africa Agenda - Country Analysis Part 2

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THE AFRICA AGENDA
Country Analysis Part 2
Elsenburg
A.G. Partridge
06 November 2013
Overview
Areas of Analysis:
Country Focus
Economy
SADC
• Angola
• Mozambique
• Zambia
Governance
Population
Infrastructure
East Africa
• Kenya
• Tanzania
Investment
Trade
Agriculture
Technology & Innovation
Consumption
Water
West Africa
• Nigeria
• Ghana
North Africa
• Egypt
• Tunisia
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Economy
European Union
19 395 (2010)
Economy
Korea, Republic
16 219 (2010)
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita (constant 2000 US$)
South Africa
3 753 (2010)
3500
1960
3000
1970
2500
China
2 427 (2010)
2000
1980
1500
1990
1000
500
2000
India
804 (2010)
2010
0
Mozambique
Angola
Zambia
Kenya
Tanzania
Nigeria
Ghana
Egypt
Tunisia
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Economy
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Growth
Country
GDP 2001
(constant
2000 US$
billion)
GDP 2011
(constant
2000 US$
billion)
% Change
2001-2011
5 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2001-2006
5 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2006-2011
10 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2001-2011
4.29
12.36
188.33 %
13.43 %
8.96 %
11.17 %
103.37
163.14
57.83 %
4.18 %
5.16 %
4.67 %
Ghana
5.18
10.05
94.00 %
5.52 %
8.20 %
6.85 %
Kenya
13.19
19.90
50.91 %
4.14 %
4.26 %
4.20 %
4.82
9.75
102.12 %
7.71 %
6.87 %
7.29 %
Nigeria
47.41
91.96
93.97 %
6.76 %
6.94 %
6.85 %
Tanzania
10.80
21.25
96.85 %
7.20 %
6.82 %
7.01 %
Tunisia
22.53
32.58
44.59 %
4.55 %
2.96 %
3.76 %
Zambia
3.41
5.98
75.28 %
5.08 %
6.47 %
5.77 %
Angola
Egypt
Mozambique
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Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
5
Economy
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Growth
Country
GDP 2001
(constant
2000 US$
billion)
GDP 2011
(constant
2000 US$
billion)
% Change
2001-2011
5 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2001-2006
5 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2006-2011
10 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2001-2011
4.29
12.36
188.33 %
13.43 %
8.96 %
11.17 %
103.37
163.14
57.83 %
4.18 %
5.16 %
4.67 %
Ghana
5.18
10.05
94.00 %
5.52 %
8.20 %
6.85 %
Kenya
13.19
19.90
50.91 %
4.14 %
4.26 %
4.20 %
4.82
9.75
102.12 %
7.71 %
6.87 %
7.29 %
Nigeria
47.41
91.96
93.97 %
6.76 %
6.94 %
6.85 %
Tanzania
10.80
21.25
96.85 %
7.20 %
6.82 %
7.01 %
Tunisia
22.53
32.58
44.59 %
4.55 %
2.96 %
3.76 %
Zambia
3.41
5.98
75.28 %
5.08 %
6.47 %
5.77 %
Angola
Egypt
Mozambique
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Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
6
Economy
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Growth
Country
GDP 2001
(constant
2000 US$
billion)
GDP 2011
(constant
2000 US$
billion)
% Change
2001-2011
5 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2001-2006
5 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2006-2011
10 year
Average
Annual
Growth Rate
2001-2011
4.29
12.36
188.33 %
13.43 %
8.96 %
11.17 %
103.37
163.14
57.83 %
4.18 %
5.16 %
4.67 %
Ghana
5.18
10.05
94.00 %
5.52 %
8.20 %
6.85 %
Kenya
13.19
19.90
50.91 %
4.14 %
4.26 %
4.20 %
4.82
9.75
102.12 %
7.71 %
6.87 %
7.29 %
Nigeria
47.41
91.96
93.97 %
6.76 %
6.94 %
6.85 %
Tanzania
10.80
21.25
96.85 %
7.20 %
6.82 %
7.01 %
Tunisia
22.53
32.58
44.59 %
4.55 %
2.96 %
3.76 %
Zambia
3.41
5.98
75.28 %
5.08 %
6.47 %
5.77 %
Angola
Egypt
Mozambique
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Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Economy
Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Per Capita Forecasts
50
45
USA 2010
Constant 2005 PPP$ Thousands
40
35
30
EU (27) 2010
25
South Korea 2010
20
15
10
South Africa 2010
Latin America 2010
5
BRICS (5) 2010
0
Angola
Egypt
Ghana
2010
Kenya
2020
Mozambique
2030
2040
Nigeria
2050
Tanzania
Tunisia
Zambia
2060
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Source: International Futures Project, Pardee Centre for International Futures
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Economy
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)
35
Mozambique
30
Angola
25
Zambia
Kenya
20
Tanzania
15
Nigeria
10
Ghana
5
Egypt, Arab Rep.
0
2001
2011
Tunisia
-5
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Economy
Inflation, consumer prices (annual %)
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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10
Economy
Poverty Statistics
Inequality
(Gini Index)
Prevalence of
Undernourishment
(% of population)
Life
Expectancy
at Birth
(years)
70 % (2000)
59 (2000)
58 % (2011)
39 (2011)
2 % (2008)
15 % (2008)
31 (2008)
5 % (2011)
73 (2011)
Ghana
29 % (2006)
52 % (2006)
43 (2006)
5 % (2011)
64 (2011)
Kenya
43 % (2005)
67 % (2005)
48 (2005)
30 % (2011)
57 (2011)
Mozambique
60 % (2005)
82 % (2005)
46 (2008)
39 % (2011)
50 (2011)
Nigeria
68 % (2010)
84 % (2010)
49 (2010)
9 % (2011)
52 (2010)
Tanzania
68 % (2007)
88 % (2007)
38 (2007)
39 % (2011)
58 (2011)
Tunisia
1 % (2008)
4 % (2008)
36 (2010)
5 % (2011)
75 (2011)
Zambia
74 % (2010)
87 % (2010)
57 (2010)
47 % (2011)
49 (2011)
Country
Angola
Egypt
Poverty
Headcount:
$1.25 / day, PPP
(% of population)
Poverty
Headcount:
$2.00 / day, PPP
(% of population)
54 % (2000)
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Economy
Poverty Statistics
Inequality
(Gini Index)
Prevalence of
Undernourishment
(% of population)
Life
Expectancy
at Birth
(years)
70 % (2000)
59 (2000)
58 % (2011)
39 (2011)
2 % (2008)
15 % (2008)
31 (2008)
5 % (2011)
73 (2011)
Ghana
29 % (2006)
52 % (2006)
43 (2006)
5 % (2011)
64 (2011)
Kenya
43 % (2005)
67 % (2005)
48 (2005)
30 % (2011)
57 (2011)
Mozambique
60 % (2005)
82 % (2005)
46 (2008)
39 % (2011)
50 (2011)
Nigeria
68 % (2010)
84 % (2010)
49 (2010)
9 % (2011)
52 (2010)
Tanzania
68 % (2007)
88 % (2007)
38 (2007)
39 % (2011)
58 (2011)
Tunisia
1 % (2008)
4 % (2008)
36 (2010)
5 % (2011)
75 (2011)
Zambia
74 % (2010)
87 % (2010)
57 (2010)
47 % (2011)
49 (2011)
Country
Angola
Egypt
Poverty
Headcount:
$1.25 / day, PPP
(% of population)
Poverty
Headcount:
$2.00 / day, PPP
(% of population)
54 % (2000)
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Economy
Poverty Statistics
Inequality
(Gini Index)
Prevalence of
Undernourishment
(% of population)
Life
Expectancy
at Birth
(years)
70 % (2000)
59 (2000)
58 % (2011)
39 (2011)
2 % (2008)
15 % (2008)
31 (2008)
5 % (2011)
73 (2011)
Ghana
29 % (2006)
52 % (2006)
43 (2006)
5 % (2011)
64 (2011)
Kenya
43 % (2005)
67 % (2005)
48 (2005)
30 % (2011)
57 (2011)
Mozambique
60 % (2005)
82 % (2005)
46 (2008)
39 % (2011)
50 (2011)
Nigeria
68 % (2010)
84 % (2010)
49 (2010)
9 % (2011)
52 (2010)
Tanzania
68 % (2007)
88 % (2007)
38 (2007)
39 % (2011)
58 (2011)
1 % (2008)
4 % (2008)
36 (2010)
5 % (2011)
75 (2011)
74 % (2010)
87 % (2010)
57 (2010)
47 % (2011)
49 (2011)
Country
Angola
Egypt
Tunisia
Zambia
Poverty
Headcount:
$1.25 / day, PPP
(% of population)
Poverty
Headcount:
$2.00 / day, PPP
(% of population)
54 % (2000)
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Economy
Poverty Statistics
Country
Angola
Egypt
Poverty
Headcount:
$1.25 / day, PPP
(% of population)
Poverty
Headcount:
$2.00 / day, PPP
(% of population)
54 % (2000)
70 % (2000)
2 % (2008)
Inequality
(Gini Index)
Prevalence of
Undernourishment
(% of population)
Life
Expectancy
at Birth
(years)
59 (2000)
58 % (2011)
39 (2011)
15 % (2008) 31 (2008)
5 % (2011) 73 (2011)
Ghana
29 % (2006)
52 % (2006)
43 (2006)
5 % (2011)
64 (2011)
Kenya
43 % (2005)
67 % (2005)
48 (2005)
30 % (2011)
57 (2011)
Mozambique
60 % (2005)
82 % (2005)
46 (2008)
39 % (2011)
50 (2011)
Nigeria
68 % (2010)
84 % (2010)
49 (2010)
9 % (2011)
52 (2010)
Tanzania
68 % (2007)
88 % (2007)
38 (2007)
39 % (2011)
58 (2011)
Tunisia
Zambia
1 % (2008)
74 % (2010)
4 % (2008) 36 (2010)
87 % (2010)
57 (2010)
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
5 % (2011) 75 (2011)
47 % (2011)
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49 (2011)
14
Governance
Governance
Worldwide Governance Indicators (Worldbank)
Highs
Consistent above par scores for Ghana
Improved “Political Stability and Absence of Violence” Between 1996 and 2011:
•
Angola: Rock bottom in 1998 to a relatively average level in 2011
•
Zambia: Significantly below average in 1996, significantly above average in 2011
Significant improvements in “Voice and Accountability” for Kenya
Lows
Nigeria performs poorly across the board
• Bottom percentile for “Political Stability and Absence of Violence”, “Regulatory Quality” and “Control of
Corruption” categories
Angola still performing poorly on other measures of governance
• Bottom percentile for “Control of Corruption” category
Kenya performing poorly in most areas
• Bottom percentile for “Political Stability and Absence of Violence” category
Tunisia and Egypt show 2011 dip for all categories other than “Voice and Accountability”
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Governance
Ease of Doing Business Rankings (rankings of 174 countries)
Tunisia
50
Ghana
64
Kenya
121
Zambia
94
Nigeria
131
Egypt
109
Tanzania
134
Mozambique
146
Angola
172
1
174
Source: IFC / Worldbank, Doing Business
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Governance
Biggest Barriers to Business
1
Source: World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011
2
3
4
5
Mozambique
Access to
Financing
Corruption
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Angola
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Inadequately
educated
workforce
Inadequate supply
Corruption
of infrastructure
Access to
Financing
Zambia
Access to
Financing
Corruption
Inadequate supply
Tax Rates
of infrastructure
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Kenya
Corruption
Access to
Financing
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Tanzania
Corruption
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Tax Rates
of infrastructure
Nigeria
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Corruption
of infrastructure
Policy Instability
Government
Instability / Coups
Ghana
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Inflation
of infrastructure
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Corruption
Egypt
Tunisia
Inflation
Inadequate supply
of infrastructure
Inadequate supply
Crime and Theft
of infrastructure
Tax Regulations
Inadequately
Access to
Corruption
Inflation
educated
Tax Regulations
Financing
workforce
Inefficient
Inadequately
Access to
Restrictive labor
Foreign Currency
government
educated
Financing
regulations
Regulations
bureaucracy
workforce
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Governance
Biggest Barriers to Business
1
Source: World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011
2
3
4
5
Mozambique
Access to
Financing
Corruption
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Angola
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Inadequately
educated
workforce
Inadequate supply
Corruption
of infrastructure
Access to
Financing
Zambia
Access to
Financing
Corruption
Inadequate supply
Tax Rates
of infrastructure
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Kenya
Corruption
Access to
Financing
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Tanzania
Corruption
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Tax Rates
of infrastructure
Nigeria
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Corruption
of infrastructure
Policy Instability
Government
Instability / Coups
Ghana
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Inflation
of infrastructure
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Corruption
Egypt
Tunisia
Inflation
Inadequate supply
of infrastructure
Inadequate supply
Crime and Theft
of infrastructure
Tax Regulations
Inadequately
Access to
Corruption
Inflation
educated
Tax Regulations
Financing
workforce
Inefficient
Inadequately
Access to
Restrictive labor
Foreign Currency
government
educated
regulations
Regulations
Financing
bureaucracy
workforce
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Governance
Biggest Barriers to Business
1
Source: World Economic Forum, Global Competitiveness Report 2010-2011
2
3
4
5
Mozambique
Access to
Financing
Corruption
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Angola
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Inadequately
educated
workforce
Inadequate supply
Corruption
of infrastructure
Access to
Financing
Zambia
Access to
Financing
Corruption
Inadequate supply
Tax Rates
of infrastructure
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Kenya
Corruption
Access to
Financing
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Tanzania
Corruption
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Tax Rates
of infrastructure
Nigeria
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Corruption
of infrastructure
Policy Instability
Government
Instability / Coups
Ghana
Access to
Financing
Inadequate supply
Inflation
of infrastructure
Inefficient
government
bureaucracy
Corruption
Egypt
Tunisia
Inflation
Inadequate supply
of infrastructure
Inadequate supply
Crime and Theft
of infrastructure
Tax Regulations
Inadequately
Access to
Inflation
educated
Tax Regulations
Corruption
Financing
workforce
Inefficient
Inadequately
Access to
Restrictive labor
Foreign Currency
government
educated
Financing
regulations
Regulations
bureaucracy
workforce
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Population
Population
412 million people
6% of world population
Total Populations (million people)
180
162
160
140
120
100
83
80
60
51
46
42
40
24
20
25
11
20
0
South Africa
Tunisia
Angola
Mozambique
Ghana
Kenya
Tanzania
Egypt
Nigeria
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Population
Urban Population (% of total population)
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Angola
Egypt
Ghana
Kenya
Mozambique
Nigeria
Tanzania
Tunisia
Zambia
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
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Population
Age Distributions (% of population)
60 + years,
5%
Mozambique
0-4 years,
17%
60 + years,
4%
Angola
0-4 years,
18%
15-29
years, 27%
60 + years,
4%
5-14 years,
28%
0-4 years,
16%
0-4 years,
18%
30-59
years, 21%
15-29
years, 27%
60 + years,
5%
Nigeria
30-59
years, 24%
60 + years,
5%
Zambia
30-59
years, 22%
30-59
years, 24%
Kenya
Source: World Bank, Health Nutrition and Population Statistics
5-14 years,
29%
0-4 years,
17%
15-29
years, 28%
60 + years,
8%
Egypt
5-14 years,
28%
0-4 years,
11%
5-14 years,
20%
30-59
years, 24%
30-59
years, 32%
15-29
years, 30%
60 + years,
5%
Tanzania
5-14 years,
26%
0-4 years,
18%
30-59
years, 23%
15-29
years, 27%
60 + years,
6%
Ghana
5-14 years,
26%
0-4 years,
14%
Tunisia
60 + years,
10%
30-59
years, 27%
Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators
15-29
years, 28%
15-29
years, 29%
5-14 years,
27%
15-29
years, 28%
5-14 years,
0-4 years,
8%
5-14 years,
15%
30-59
years, 38%
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15-29
24
years, 29%
Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Roads Paved (% of total road network)
100%
92%
76%
67%
22%
21%
15%
14%
13%
10%
0%
Egypt
Tunisia
Tanzania
Zambia
Mozambique
Nigeria
Kenya
Ghana
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Angola
26
Infrastructure
Telephone
Landlines
Communications Infrastructure (users per 100 people)
100
0
0.5 1.5
1.1 1.1
0.9 0.7
0.4 0.4
0.5 0.4
0.8 0.6
0.5 0.3
Angola
Ghana
Kenya
Nigeria
Mozambique
Zambia
Tanzania
10.1 11.5
8.1 10.6
Tunisia
Egypt
Internet
Subscriptions
Cellular Phone
Subscriptions
116.9
101.1
100
84.8
67.5
60.6
58.6
48.4
55.5
32.8
0
0.2
0.7
0.4
0.0
Angola
Ghana
Kenya
Nigeria
0.3
Mozambique
1.0
Zambia
2.0
1.3
0.3
Tanzania
Tunisia
Egypt
100
14.8
0
14.1
0.1
0.2
Angola
Ghana
0.3
39.1
28.4
28.0
0.1
0.1 4.3
0.2
11.5
0.1
12.0
2.8
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Kenya
Nigeria
Mozambique
Zambia
Tanzania
Tunisia
38.7
0.6
Egypt
27
Infrastructure
Electricity Infrastructure
Access
(% of population)
Power Outages in
a Typical Month
Angola
26 % (2009)
5 (2010)
Egypt
100% (2009)
0 (2008)
Ghana
61 % (2009)
10 (2007)
Kenya
16 % (2009)
7 (2007)
Mozambique
12 % (2009)
3 (2007)
Nigeria
51 % (2009)
26 (2007)
Tanzania
14 % (2009)
12 (2006)
Tunisia
100% (2009)
[no data]
Zambia
19% (2009)
3 (2007)
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Infrastructure
Electricity Infrastructure
Access
(% of population)
Power Outages in
a Typical Month
Angola
26 % (2009)
5 (2010)
Egypt
100% (2009)
0 (2008)
Ghana
61 % (2009)
10 (2007)
Kenya
16 % (2009)
7 (2007)
Mozambique
12 % (2009)
3 (2007)
Nigeria
51 % (2009)
26 (2007)
Tanzania
14 % (2009)
12 (2006)
Tunisia
100% (2009)
[no data]
Zambia
19% (2009)
3 (2007)
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Infrastructure
Electricity Infrastructure
Access
(% of population)
Quality of Electricity Supply (/7)
Power Outages in
a Typical Month
0
Angola
26 % (2009)
5 (2010)
Egypt
100% (2009)
0 (2008)
Ghana
61 % (2009)
10 (2007)
Kenya
16 % (2009)
7 (2007)
Mozambique
12 % (2009)
3 (2007)
Nigeria
51 % (2009)
26 (2007)
Tanzania
14 % (2009)
12 (2006)
Tunisia
100% (2009)
[no data]
Zambia
19% (2009)
3 (2007)
1
2
3
4
5
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7
30
Investment
Investment
Key Points
Focus on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
FDI Data Patchy Limiting Cross-Country Comparisons
Data used: UNCTAD, Investment Map
Past Decade Has Seen Significant Rise in FDI flows into Africa
South Africa Biggest Contributor to FDI to Tanzania, 3rd Biggest Contributor to
Mozambique
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Trade
Trade
Key Points
Trade discussed in detail in market attractiveness section
Non-Tariff Barriers
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Agriculture
Agriculture
Agricultural Production
Agriculture Share
in GDP (%)
1990
50
40
30
20
2010
10
0
% Change in
Agriculture
Value Added,
1990-2010
Angola
Egypt
Kenya
Angola
Egypt
Kenya
Mozambique
Tanzania
Tunisia
Zambia
200%
150%
100%
50%
0%
Mozambique
Tanzania
Tunisia
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Zambia
36
Agriculture
Food Security: Agricultural Production less Agricultural Demand
Angola
Egypt
Ghana
Kenya
Mozambique
Nigeria
Tanzania
Tunisia
Zambia
60
50
40
Million Tons
30
20
10
0
-10
-20
-30
2010
2020
2030
2040
2050
2060
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Source: International Futures Project, Pardee Centre for International Futures
37
Agriculture
Land Resources (Ha millions)
Country Area
Agricultural Land
% of Land Used for
Agriculture
Angola
124.7
57.7
46.3 %
Egypt
100.1
3.7
3.7 %
Ghana
23.9
15.9
66.7 %
Kenya
58.0
27.5
47.3 %
Mozambique
79.9
49.4
61.8 %
Nigeria
92.4
36.0
82.5 %
Tanzania
94.7
37.3
39.4 %
Tunisia
16.4
10.1
61.6 %
Zambia
23.4
75.3
31.1 %
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Technology & Innovation
Technology & Innovation
Public Expenditure on Agricultural R&D, 2008 (million 2005 PPP $)
450
404
400
350
300
250
200
172
150
95
100
77
59
50
8
18
0
Zambia
Mozambique
Tunisia*
Tanzania
Ghana
Kenya
Nigeria
* 2001 data used for Tunisia (latest available data)
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Technology & Innovation
Public Expenditure on Agricultural R&D per capita, 2008 (2005 PPP $)
7
6.03
6
5
4.42
4.05
4
3
2.16
2
1.44
1
0.64
0.86
0
Zambia
Mozambique
Tunisia*
Tanzania
Ghana
Kenya
Nigeria
* 2001 data used for Tunisia (latest available data)
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Consumption
Consumption
Egyptian Main Fruit Consumption in the Face of Rapid Economic Growth
1961
2009
Apples
0%
Apples
6%
Lemons, Limes
4%
Lemons, Limes
9%
Bananas
7%
Grapes
11%
Dates
43%
Oranges,
Mandarines
25%
Bananas
12%
Fruits, Other
14%
Grapes
14%
Oranges,
Mandarines
21%
Fruits, Other
20%
Dates
14%
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Consumption
Egyptian Main Fruit Consumption in the Face of Rapid Economic Growth
Annual Consumption of Dates, 1961-2009
Total Consumption (thousand tonnes)
1200
2009
21
Apples
0%
Apples
6%
Lemons, Limes
4%
Bananas
7%
1000
18
15
Lemons, Limes
9%
800
12
Grapes
600
11%
Dates
43%
400
9
Bananas
12%
6
Fruits, Other
14% 200
3
Grapes
14%
0
1960
Oranges,
Mandarines
21%
1970
1980
1990
per capita Consumption (t per person)
1961
1400
0
2000
Source: FAO, Food Balances
Total
Consumption
Oranges,
Mandarines
25%
per capita
Consumption
Fruits, Other
20%
Dates
14%
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Consumption
Roots, Other
3%
Cassava
0%
Yams
0%
Kenya
Egypt
Starchy Root Consumption, 2009: Country Comparison
Potatoes
13%
Roots, Other
1%
Yams
0%
Sweet
Potatoes
10%
Sweet
Potatoes
44%
Sweet
Potatoes
13%
Potatoes
2%
Roots,
Other
0%
Potatoes
87%
Yams
0%
Ghana
Mozambique
Cassava
42%
Roots, Other
12%
Sweet
Potatoes
1%
Potatoes
0%
Cassava
52%
Yams
35%
Cassava
85%
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Consumption
Citrus, Other
0%
Ghana
Apples
6%
Pineapples
0%
Grapefruit
0%
Lemons, Limes
9%
Dates
25%
Bananas
12%
Grapes
14%
Nigeria
Grapes Oranges,
0% Mandarines
0%
Bananas
0%
Apples
0%
Pineapples
9%
Fruits, Other
26%
Pineapples
1%
Apples
0%
Grapes
Citrus, Other
0%
0%
Dates
0%
Grapefruit
0%
Fruits, Other
4%
Plantains
81%
Oranges,
Mandarines
20%
Fruits, Other
14%
Lemons, Limes
Grapefruit
0%
0%
Dates
0%
Lemons, Limes
1%
Bananas
1%
Oranges,
Mandarines
12%
Citrus,
Other
34%
Angola
Egypt
Fruit Consumption, 2009: Country Comparison
Oranges, Lemons, Limes Plantains
0%
0%
Mandarines
0%
Apples
1%
Pineapples
7%
Dates
0%
Grapes
0%
Grapefruit
0%
Fruits, Other
8%
Citrus, Other
17%
Bananas
67%
Plantains
31%
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Consumption
What is an Apple?
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Water
Water
Annual Water Withdrawal (billion m³)
Renewable Water
Resources
Total Water
Withdrawals
% Water Resources
Being Withdrawn
148
0.7
0.5 %
Egypt
57
68.3
119.2 %
Ghana
53
1.0
1.9 %
Kenya
31
2.7
8.9 %
Mozambique
217
0.9
0.4 %
Nigeria
286
13.1
4.6 %
96
5.2
5.4 %
Tunisia
5
2.9
62.0 %
Zambia
105
1.6
1.5 %
Angola
Tanzania
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Water
Annual Water Withdrawal (billion m³)
Renewable Water
Resources
Total Water
Withdrawals
% Water Resources
Being Withdrawn
Angola
148
0.7
0.5 %
Egypt
57
68.3
119.2 %
Ghana
53
1.0
1.9 %
Kenya
31
2.7
8.9 %
Mozambique
217
0.9
0.4 %
Nigeria
286
13.1
4.6 %
Tanzania
96
5.2
5.4 %
Tunisia
5
2.9
62.0 %
Zambia
105
1.6
1.5 %
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Water
Annual Water Withdrawal (billion m³)
Renewable Water
Resources
Total Water
Withdrawals
% Water Resources
Being Withdrawn
148
0.7
0.5 %
Egypt
57
68.3
119.2 %
Ghana
53
1.0
1.9 %
Kenya
31
2.7
8.9 %
Mozambique
217
0.9
0.4 %
Nigeria
286
13.1
4.6 %
96
5.2
5.4 %
5
2.9
62.0 %
105
1.6
1.5 %
Angola
Tanzania
Tunisia
Zambia
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Water
Annual Water Withdrawal (billion m³)
Renewable Water
Resources
Total Water
Withdrawals
% Water Resources
Being Withdrawn
148
0.7
0.5 %
Egypt
57
68.3
119.2 %
Ghana
53
1.0
1.9 %
Kenya
31
2.7
8.9 %
Mozambique
217
0.9
0.4 %
Nigeria
286
13.1
4.6 %
96
5.2
5.4 %
Tunisia
5
2.9
62.0 %
Zambia
105
1.6
1.5 %
Angola
Tanzania
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Water
Irrigation Water Use (thousand Ha)
Irrigation Potential
Area Equipped for
Irrigation
Area Equipped as
% of Potential
3 700
86
2.3 %
Egypt
44 200
3 422
7.7 %
Ghana
1 900
31
1.6 %
Kenya
539
103
19.2 %
Mozambique
3 072
118
3.8 %
Nigeria
2 331
293
12.6 %
Tanzania
2 132
184
8.6 %
Tunisia
560
397
62.0 %
Zambia
523
156
29.8 %
Angola
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Concluding Remarks…
Concluding Remarks…
African future is very promising
Significant barriers which need to be considered
Can be utilised to gain competitive advantage
No one country is better in every aspect, each has its pros and cons
Early bird catches the worm
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Thank you
Work Available for Download…
http://www.elsenburg.com/economics/africaagenda.html
Email:
[email protected]
[email protected]
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