Early Colonization

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Motives for European
Exploration
1. Crusades  by-pass intermediaries
to get to Asia.
2. Renaissance  curiosity about other
lands and peoples.
3. Reformation  refugees &
missionaries.
4. Monarchs seeking new sources of
revenue.
5. Technological advances.
6. Fame and fortune.
Direct Causes = 3 G’s
• Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth
and land. (GLORY)
• Economic: Search for new trade routes with direct access
to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals
and their nations (GOLD)
• Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle
Eastern Muslims. (GOD)
The 3 motives reinforce each other
European explore
EFFECTS
•Europeans reach and settle Americas
•Expanded knowledge of world geography
•Growth of trade, mercantilism and
capitalism
•Indian conflicts over land and impact of
disease on Indian populations
•Introduction of the institution of slavery
•Columbian Exchange
European
Colonization
European Colonization
• Once the New World is discovered, the Big 4 four
European countries begin competing for control of North
America and the world….
– Spain
– England
The Three Main
– France
– Netherlands
• This power struggle ultimately leads to several wars.
Spain Claims America
• By 1500’s most of Caribbean islands explored and
start on mainland
• Line of Demarcation set by Pope Alexander VI giving
Spain control of everything west of it to Spain and
east of it went to Portugal
• Spain ends up with all the Americas except Brazil
• Treaty of Tordesillas gave Spain the right to claim
these new lands.
The Treaty of Tordesillas, 1434
& The Pope’s Line of Demarcation, 1493
Spain
• 1492 funded by King Ferdinand and Isabella of
Spain, Columbus sails west
• Ends up in the Bahamas on what today is
Watling Island
• Also found islands of Cuba and Hispaniola
• Most of exploration was in South and Central
America by his brother Bartolomew
Spain Claims America
The Columbian Exchange
Native Americans:
• taught Europeans farming methods
• Also introduced them to new crops such as corn, tobacco and
potatoes.
• Introduced them to the canoe.
Europeans:
• introduced Native Americans to wheat, oats, barley, and
domestic livestock.
• Also introduced technologies such as metalworking.
• Unfortunately they also introduced diseases that killed many
Natives.
Columbian Exchange or the transfer of goods
involved 3 continents, Americas, Europe and Africa
* Squash
* Turkey
* Cocoa
* Peanut
* Avocado
* Pumpkin
* Pineapple
* Tomato
* Peppers
* Tobacco
* Cassava
* Vanilla
* Olive
* Coffee Beans * Banana
* Onion
* Turnip
* Honeybee
* Grape
* Peach
* Sugar Cane
* Citrus Fruits * Pear
* Wheat
* Cattle
* Sheep
* Pig
* Flu
* Typhus
* Measles
* Diptheria
* Whooping Cough
* Sweet Potatoes
* Quinine
* POTATO
* MAIZE
* Syphillis
* Rice
* Barley
* Oats
* HORSE
* Smallpox
* Malaria
Mexican Conquest
• Names entire colony New Spain – covers most of
what is today Mexico and Central America
• The men who led the expeditions were called
conquistadors
• Pizarro, who explored Peru, was one of them
• Coronada, Narvaez, and de Soto were as well
• God, Gold, Glory
• French settle Quebec (1608) & Montreal
(1642) and what would become Canada
– Control St. Lawrence River & access to interior of
North America
– Develop a fur trade
– Coureur de Bois
The French in America
• Verrazano sent to map North American coastline
• Cartier explored and mapped the St. Lawrence River
• Champlain established a colony in what is now Nova
Scotia and founded Quebec which later became the
capital of New France.
• New France founded for fur trade. Those traders
were known as coureurs de bois and lived among the
Native Americans
• Spanish first to pursue colonization
• Start in Caribbean, then Central and South America—most
important was conquest of Aztecs by Cortez (1521) and Incas
by Pizzaro (1531)
• First permanent colonies in what will become United States
are founded by Spain
– St. Augustine (Florida) is founded (1565) to protect Spanish
treasure fleets
Spanish empire by
the 1600’s
consisted of the



part of North
America
Central America
Caribbean Islands

Much of South
America.
First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs
Cortes conquered Aztec Empire in 1519
and took control of modern day Mexico.
vs.
Hernando Cortés
Montezuma II
• Changes in England lead to interest in
colonization
– Religious changes – Protestant Reformation
– Economic changes – tenant farmers pushed off
land to make room for raising sheep to support
demand for wool
– Joint-stock companies founded to establish
colonies as new markets for surplus wool
F/I War 1750
Why do England and Spain want the Americas so
much?
• England was now a protestant country and Spain was
Catholic
• Spain tried to stop the spread of Protestantism to the
Netherlands and the Dutch rebelled.
• England came to the aid of the Dutch against Spain.
• Queen Elizabeth I allowed privateers to attack
Spanish ships.
• American colonies were needed as bases to attack
Spanish in the Caribbean.
Early American Colonies
• New England
• Mid-Atlantic
• Southern
TYPES OF ENGLISH COLONIES
CHARTER
- GRANT OF LAND TO A BUSINESS
PROPRIETARY - GRANT OF LAND TO INDIVIDUAL
ROYAL
-KING APPOINTS GOVERNOR – RETAINS
CONTROL
COLONIES ARE BASED ON TRADE / AGRICULTURE
NEW ENGLAND COLONIES
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiMCXWMvRJc&list=PLB0F8A93DE18BAE12&index=4
Pilgrims?
vs.
Puritans?
Plymouth
• Founded by Separatists who had broken from the
Church of England.
• They were known as pilgrims
• The pilgrims had originally gone to Holland but came
on to America.
• Settled in Plymouth in 1620.
• Led by William Bradford.
• Survived thanks to a native named Squanto who
taught them to survive off the land.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
• Founded by those Puritans who had remained in the
Church of England and tried to reform it.
• Left England because of persecution and depression
in wool industry
• Started by John Winthrop and other wealthy Puritans
who held stock in the Mass. Bay Co.
• As conditions in England got worse had a Great
Migration – by 1643 had population of 20,000.
Laws were made by a General Court made
up of ‘freemen” –stockholders in the
company
Later became a representative assembly
All colonists were required to attend church
Church was supported by taxes and
regulated people’s moral behavior
People whose religious beliefs differed from
the majority were called heretics and were
considered a threat to the community.
Rhode Island
• Started by Roger Williams who had been banished
from the Massachusetts colony
• Founded the town of Providence
• Anne Hutchinson founded the town of
Portsmouth when she was branded a heretic in
Massachusetts and banished from the colony.
• The towns of Newport and Warwick were also
started by people who were banished from
Massachusetts.
• The colony’s charter included a total separation of
church and state.
Connecticut
• Founded by Thomas Hooker who left
Massachusetts because he opposed the policy
of allowing only church members to vote.
• Constitution of the colony was called the
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut which was
the first written constitution in the colonies.
The Mayflower
The Mayflower Compact
November 11, 1620
William Bradford
Plymouth Colony
<iframe width="640" height="390"
src="//www.youtube.com/embed/PoXHXbgRJv
c" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
John Winthrop –
Massachusetts Bay Colony
“We shall be as a city on a hill..”
Growth of the Colonies: 1690
Puritan “Rebels”
Roger Williams
Anne Hutchinson
New England Colonies, 1650
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
A combination of the New England and Southern Colonies
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yw9pw8rIDlU&list=PLB0F8A93DE18BAE12
• Founded by William Penn in 1680.
• He was a Quaker and intended the area to be
a refuge for Quakers.
• Quakers had religious beliefs based on the
idea that religion was a personal experience
and churches and ministers weren’t necessary.
• They also were pacificists which meant they
opposed war or violence as a means to
settling conflicts.
• Everyone in the colony had religious and
political freedom.
• Had a peace treaty with the local natives.
• Founded Philadelphia ‘The City of Brotherly
Love” as its capital.
• Had a charter that allowed for a legislative
assembly. Anyone who had 50 acres and
were Christian had the right to vote.
• Penn bought the land south of Pennsylvania
and it later became the colony of Delaware.
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3KAOWye1AM&list=PLB0F8A93DE18BAE12
Southern Colonies
• Virginia was a land grant
• The land south of Virginia was given
to the king’s friends and political
allies.
• The land was known as Carolina and
later developed as two separate
regions – North Carolina and South
Carolina.
<iframe width="640" height="390"
src="//www.youtube.com/embed/vpA5O46Ioy
k" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
SOUTH CAROLINA
• Originally SC grew indigo and rice
• CASH CROP – COTTON & TOBACCO –
discovered by John Rolfe
• PLANTATIONS REQUIRE LARGE TRACTS OF
LAND
• SLAVERY BY THE MID 1600s
• SELF SUFFICIENT INDIVIDUALS
•Wet climate of South Carolina (and Georgia) made
rice and indigo important crops.
•North Carolina also produced tar, pitch, and turpentine
•South’s reliance on “staple crops” or ones in large demand
gave rise to the plantation system
•Indentured servants, or people who couldn’t afford to
pay their own way to the new world agreed to work for
plantation owners for a certain number of years (usually 7)
gave way to slavery in the South
• Because most of these plantations were along waterways
the South did not develop major centers of commerce
as did the North.
• A joint stock company which makes it a charter
• Established in 1607 by the Virginia Company,
• Mostly men were sent.
• First successful English settlement was Jamestown
•Instituted the headright system to attract people to
settle there – promised 50 acres of land to those
who would settle the colony.
Jamestown Settlement
Chesapeake Bay
Jamestown
Settlement, 1607
Jamestown Housing
Jamestown Chapel, 1611
Jamestown Fort, 1609
Jamestown Settlement
(Computer Generated)
Captain John Smith
Tobacco Plant
Main cash crop in Virginia ,
Maryland, and North Carolina
because of popularity in England
Early Colonial Tobacco
1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of
tobacco.
1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of
its colonists in an Indian attack,
Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of
tobacco.
1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds
of tobacco.
1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds
of tobacco.
Tobacco Prices: 1618-1710
Indentured
Servitude
Virginia
House of Burgesses
Established in 1619First elected representative
Assembly in the American
colonies
17c Population
in the Chesapeake
100000
80000
60000
White
40000
Black
20000
0
1607
1630
1650
1670
1690
Population of Chesapeake
Colonies: 1610-1750
Colonization of Maryland
Societies & Economies
Purpose
Families
Ethnicity
Economy
New
England
Religious
Nuclear
families
Mostly
English
Family
farms
Middle
Colonies
Mixed
Nuclear
families
Mixed
Family
European farms
Chesapeake Gain
wealth
Extended
families
Lower South Gain
wealth
Extended
families
English
(majority)
& African
English &
African
(majority)
Market
plantations
(tobacco)
Market
plantations
(rice, indigo)
SECTIONALISM
EACH SECTION OF ENGLISH COLONIES DEVELOP
THEIR OWN IDENTITY
NEW ENGLAND
PURITAN INFLUENCE
TOWN MEETING
VILLAGE GREEN
SEP OF CHURCH & STATE
SETTLERS LIVE IN GROUPS – FARM OUTSIDE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qiMCXWMvRJc&list=PLB0F8A93DE18BAE12&index=4
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