Unit 9, Section Two Notes – The Cattle Kingdom Ranching in Texas began with the Spanish, who established ranches as parts of missions during between the 1500 and 1700’s. They built these ranches in the Rio Grande and San Antonio River Valleys, where ranching was supported by a good climate, water supply, and abundant grasses. Rancho – Ranch Remuda – Group of Remount Horses La Reata – Lariet Lazo – Lasso Rodeo – Roundup Vaquero – Cowboy Eventually, people began opening their own cattle ranches, like Martin de Leon, whose cattle ranch was in Victoria County. As more people acquired cattle, fights occurred between people over cattle. The Spanish government ordered that all owners brand their cattle so they could prove ownership. In the late 1800’s, one out of every three cowboys was Mexican or of Mexican descent in Texas. The cowboy was of life is rooted in the vaquero, from the herding and ranching of cattle to the tools and dress of a cowboy. Most Mexican-American vaqueros were in South Texas, as well as large Mexican-American ranch owners, like Macedonio Vela and Dionisio Guerra. The first cattle drives were staged by Tejano ranchers who herded cattle to Mexico. During the 1800’s, U.S. settlers came to Texas and many decided to ranch instead of farm. Some Texans drove cattle to out of state markets to make a larger profit. During the California Gold Rush, cattle were driven to the state to feed the growing population of miners. Though you had a chance of profit, cattle drives were dangerous and difficult. The longhorn appeared in Texas in the mid1800’s, as a new breed developed between the mix of English and Spanish cattle. They thrived well in Texas. They could endure both hot and cold weather and live on small amounts of water and grass. They were also resistant to Texas Fever, a disease that commonly killed cattle in Texas. Because of their horns, they were less likely to be attacked by mountain lions, wolves, or other predators. During the Civil War, the number of cattle in Texas grew rapidly, as there were few people left to tend to them or herd them to market. By the end of the Civil War, about five million cattle roamed the state freely, most unclaimed. When the demand of an item is higher than the supply, the price goes up! Example: When the new Playstation 3 came out, there was only a certain amount, and everyone wanted one! Because of this, Sony could charge more money for one and people would pay for it! When the supply of an item exceeds the demand, the price for that item goes down. Example: Now that there is a new version of Playstation, the older versions are worth less money. In the North, the demand for cattle was more than their supply, while it was the opposite in Texas. Because there were so many cattle in Texas, cattle sold for $3 to $6 each, while in New York, cattle sold for as much as $80 a head. This convinced Texas ranchers to drive their cattle north to make a higher profit. They just had to get their cattle to the stockyards and processing plants in Kansas, Missouri, or Illinois, where the railroads would take the cattle the rest of the way to market. To get these cattle to market, cowboys gathered the cattle in a round up, branded them, and drove them north. On the way, the cattle grazed on the open range, just as they had been doing in Texas. Problems arose, though, as the drives entered Missouri and Kansas, where there was little open range left. Most of the land was being farmed on, and as the cattle moved in, crops were trampled. Texas longhorns also carried Texas Fever, which killed northern cattle. After angering enough farmers and ranchers, Missouri and Kansas passes laws to stop cattle drives from Texas. Joseph McCoy stepped in with a solution. The state of Kansas passed a law stating that cattle drives could go through the state if they stayed west of farming land. McCoy then created a cattle market in Abilene, Kansas, with holding pens and loading chutes, right where the Kansas Pacific Railroad began. He even got the ranchers a special rate for shipping cattle to Chicago on this rail line. He was the first person to think of doing this! In 1867, Texas cowboys herded over 35,000 longhorns along the Chisholm Trail, which was named for the fur trader, Jesse Chisholm, who blazed it. The trail was not near farms, so it was a perfect way for Texas cowboys to move their cattle from South Texas to Abilene, Kansas. In 1871, between 600 and 700 thousand cattle arrived in Abilene. Eventually, farms and towns were created along the Chisholm Trail as the Indians moved further west. A new trail needed to be found. The Western Trail was created in 1874. This trail went from Kerrville, Texas, crossed the Red River, and ended at Dodge City in southwest Kansas. The Western Trail quickly became the most popular route for moving cattle from Texas, and was used until the closing of the open range. Not all cattle drives ended at railheads. Some ranchers saw an opportunity in driving their cattle to the northwest to military posts, mining camps, and American Indian Reservations. Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving blazed a new trail further west, going through Fort Sumner, New Mexico, known as the Goodnight-Loving Trail. It soon became one of the most traveled trails, but it stopped being used when more railroad lines came to Texas. The towns at the end of these trails, such as Abilene and Dodge City, soon became known as Cattle or Cow Towns. After arriving in the towns, cowboys got paid for their work. Cowboys could be rowdy and could make the towns violent. This forced some of the towns to bring in outside law enforcement to deal with the problem. Sometimes ranchers drove their own cattle to market, but most hired drovers and trail bosses to do it for them. A typical cattle drive had 8 to 12 cowboys caring for up to 3,000 cattle. The cowboys also had a least one extra horse for the trail, and these extra horses were known as the remuda. There was usually always a cook on the drive, as well, whose supplies were carried in the chuckwagon. On a good day, the drive could move 15 to 18 miles. Though they were exciting, cattle drives were dangerous. South Texas was very well suited for ranching. One of the biggest and most well-known ranches in South Texas was the King Ranch, started by Richard King and Gideon Lewis. King’s wife, Henrietta King, later developed the ranch and helped to make South Texas prosperous. She donated land and money to many organizations and helped to establish Texas A&M University in Kingsville, Texas. After the Plains Indians were removed from the Texas Panhandle and placed onto reservations in Oklahoma, the Panhandle was opened for ranching. The region’s flat land and grasses were perfect for ranching. Ranchers adapted to the dry climate by using windmills to reach the underground water supply. In the 1870’s, Charles Goodnight and John Adair established the JA Ranch in Palo Duro Canyon, one of the first in the Panhandle. The JA eventually covered more than 700,000 acres and supported 40,000 cattle. Soon, people from outside of Texas realized that they could make money from the prosperous Texas cattle industry. Corporations being run by Northern and British investors began opening ranches in the Panhandle. The XIT Ranch was one run by outside investors. This ranch later funded the construction of the state capitol building that we have today. Lizzie Johnson Williams started out as a school teacher in Austin and became known as the “Texas Cattle Queen.” She kept books for the early cattle drives, wrote articles about the cattle industry, invested in land and cattle, and became a Texas legend. She had her own cattle brand and owned cattle ranches throughout Texas. Other women in Texas, such as Margaret H. Borland and Dona Maria del Carmen Calvillo, also owned and operated ranches in Texas. Most Texas ranches were far from towns, so ranchers were generally resourceful and smart. They handled the tasks of a ranch and homestead. They also relied on the cowboys who worked for them and completed the daily work on the ranch. Many cowboys in Texas were of African American or Mexican American descent, though they sometimes faced discrimination. Cowboys usually wore cowboy hats or sombreros to protect them from the harsh sun. They also carried lariats, light ropes used for lassoing steers. Bose Ikard was born a slave. After the Civil War, he went out west and worked for Charles Oliver Loving on the JA Ranch. He was one of Charles Goodnight’s most trusted ranch hands. In this industry, one out of every three cowboys was African American. They suffered less discrimination than in other industries. Bose Ikard was laid to rest in Weatherford, Texas. Cowboys eventually became an important part of American popular culture. Novels, wild west shows, and movies glorified the cowboy life, making it seem easy and carefree. In reality, cowboys faced many dangers, such as blizzards, floods, fires, and stampedes. They often worked for 24 hours straight, sleeping in their saddles. Most only earned around $300 a year, and that equaled out to nearly nothing after buying the supplies they needed on the trail. Nat Love was granted his freedom at the age of 15, and then he went out west to Kansas. He was offered a job as a cowhand if he could stay on a bucking horse. He did and was hired for $30 a month. He worked the cattle drives for over 20 years. In 1876, Love entered a rodeo and rode a bucking mustang for 12 minutes and 30 seconds. He was a legend after that! Many farmers and ranchers wanted to fence their land, but it was expensive to do so until Joseph F. Glidden invented barbed wire. Many small scale ranchers disliked the idea of fencing the open range, but the idea still became popular. By the end of the 1880’s, there were barbed wire fences in every Texas county, which marked the end of the open range. Fencing led to conflict in Texas in the 1880’s. Small ranchers complained that they were being surrounded by the fences of large cattle companies. Also, large ranchers fenced off water sources, even if they didn’t own the land, and many small ranchers had cattle that died of thirst. Range wars broke out, with ranchers cutting other ranchers’ fences. Wealth cattle operators even hired guards to protect their fences, but gunfights still occurred. As larger ranchers began fencing their land, they would often block off roads and mail delivery was interrupted. In 1884, the Texas legislature made fence cutting illegal, but it also required that a gate be put in for every three miles of fence. People were also banned from fencing land that they did not own or lease. Texas Rangers were sent to enforce the new laws. By the 1880’s, the open range began to disappear and other changes caused problems for the cattle business. Many ranchers had so many cattle that they accidentally allowed the overgrazing of their land, which damaged the grasses and soil. Along with the invention of barbed wire, the building and expanding of railroads into Texas put an end to the need for long cattle drives. Regardless, Texas was left with a great legacy. Throughout the world, Texas is known for cowboys and cattle drives. Cattle ranching continues in Texas and is still a significant part of the state economy. UT Mascot – the Longhorn The Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo has been around for 75 years. Counties throughout the state have livestock shows. Ranches, like the King Ranch in Kingsville, invest in agricultural education. Many new breeds of cattle have been created in Texas, including the Longhorn and Santa Getrudis breeds. Dallas Cowboys are named for the heroes of the Texas frontier.